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Cornell University 

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the Cornell University Library. 

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the United States on the use of the text. 





Including a History of Cornell University 







D. MASON & Company, publishers 



With each passing year the task of preparing a history of any local- 
ity becomes more and more difficult. Those from whom historical 
facts can only be obtained, pass away; manuscripts and memoranda are 
lost or destroyed, and their disappearance involves unusual labor in ob- 
taining necessary data from other sources. It is the aim of the author 
of this volunie to arrange and present in comprehensive form such in- 
formation as could be secured through diligent effort, to the end that 
an authentic History of Tompkins County might be presented to the 
public. A residence of fifty-three years in Ithaca furnishes the writer 
with much in the line of personal knowledge, and his acquaintance in 
the past with men prominent in public affairs here, leads him to hope 
that this work may reach a fair degree of accuracy, and add something 
to former publications. 

In preparation of this history the author desires to acknowledge the 
great assistance rendered him by others — too many in number to name 
here ; and he feels that whatever measure of success has been reached, 
credit therefor belongs to many compilers and writers who have asso- 
ciated with him in the work, rather than to himself alone. 

J. H. Selkreg. 
Ithaca, 1894. 




The Local Tribe and their Absorption by the Cayugas — Route of Sullivan's Army 
on both Sides of Cayuga Lake — Indian Villages Destroyed — Their Location — 
Flight of Indians to Niagara — Their Destination after Sullivan's Victory 
— Cession of their Lands to the State. -_. 1 


Original Civil Divisions — Erection of Counties — Dates of the Creation of Coun- 
ties in Western New York — Formation of Tompkins County — Original Towns 
and when Formed — Present Towns and Dates of Organization — Geographical 
Location of the County — Its Area and Population — Soil and Original 
— Its Water Courses, Scenery and Water Falls thereon — Climate — Ab- 
sence of Excessive Snow Fall — Absence of Fogs on Waters Flowing North 
ward. - • 3 


The First White Men in what is now Tompkins County — The Last of the Local 
Indians — The March of Civilization — Arrival of the First Permanent Settlers 
— Trials and Perils of their Journey — The Route Taken — Locality of First 
Settlement — The Pioneers of Ithaca — Dates of Settlement in the Various 
Towns -- 10 


The Work of the Pioneers — What was Accomplished prior to County Organiza- 
tion — Beginning of the New County Government — The Financial Panic of 
1837-8 — Its Effects in this County — Recuperation — The War Period — Prompt 
Action in Ithaca — Filling the Various Quotas of the County 14 


The I'anics of 1857 and 1873 — The University and its History and Influence on the 
Growth of Ithaca — Official List of Officers before and since Organization of 
County — Senators — Members of Assembly — County Clerks — Superintendents 
ol Schools.. - - 23 



Tompkins County Political Notes — Reminiscences of Important Campaigns — 
Vote of the County on prominent Officials from 1817 to the Present Time — 
Political Officials of the County, Past and Present 'Mt 


The First Roads — How the Pioneers First Reached their Settlements — The Early 
Stages — Early Stage Drivers^The Cayuga Steamboat Company — Its Various 
Boats — Busy Scenes on the Lake — The Celebrated "Smoke Boat" — Modern 
Steamers and Yachts — The Sodus Canal — Other Canal Projects — The First 
Railroad — Some of its Peculiarities — Other Railroads _ 32 


The First Newspaper in the County — Its Very Early Publication — Its History 
down to its Present Successor, the Ithaca Journal — Opening of the Telegraph 
Line to Ithaca — The Ithaca Chronicle — The Democrat and its Predecessors 
— The Weekly Ithacan — Newspapers of Trumansburgh — Other Publications 42 


History of Tompkins Agricultural Society — Its First Officers— Insignificance of 
Early Premiums Offered — Sales and Purchases of Property — History of the 
County Poor House — Statistics of its Presest Condition — Masonic Societies in 
the County — Other Societies and Institutions. — _ _ _ _ .. 48 


Comparison of State Law with the Common Law — Evolution of the Courts — The 
Court of Appeals — The Court of Chancery — The County Court — The Surro- 
gate'sCourt — Justice's Court — District Attorneys — Sheriffs— Court House — 
Judicial Officers — Personal Notes— Important Trials, 53 


Early Methods of Medical Study — Medical Societies Authorized by Statute — 
Tompkins County Medical Society — Dr. E. J. Morgan, sr. — The "Registra- 
tion Law " — List of Registered Physicians 77 












I. — Introduction _ __ 359 

II. — The National Government and Higher Education. — The Land Grant Act, 

Establishing Colleges of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts 360 

III. — Preliminary History; 1. The People's College. — 2. The New York State 

Agricultural College - 384 

IV.— The Charter of the University. - _. 398 

V. — The Management of the Land Grant. — Mr. Cornell's Services 413 

VI. — Constitution of the University : 1. Plan of Organization. — 2. The Military 
Department. — 3. Manual Labor. — 4. Coeducation. — 5. The Non-Resident 
Lecture System. — 6. The University Senate. — 7. Alumni Representation in 

in the Board of Trustees __ 433 

VII. — The Relation of the University to the State: 1. Scholarships. — 2. The 

Church. - ..- 463 

VIII. — The Opening of the University _ - 474 

IX. — The University as Established 504 


X.— Student Life _.. 512 

XI.— Languages-: 1. The Classical and Oriental Languages.— 2. The Germanic 

and Romance Languages. - - 540 

XI [. — Department of Philosophy 557 

XIII. — Department of History and Political Science - 564 

XIV. — Mathematics and Physics. _ 578 

XV. —Natural Science. _ _ 583 

XVI. — Department of Agriculture. 021 

XVII. — Department of Architecture. -. 637 

XVIII. — Department of Civil Engineering 639 

XIX. — Department of Mechanic Arts 642 

XX. — Professional Schools 650 

XXI.— The Quarter-Centennial _ . _' .667 


Ezra Cornell. 672 

Andrew D. White 677 

Henry W. Sage 681 

John McGraw ....686 

Goldwin Smith 687 

William D. Wilson 688 

Charles C. Shackford 690 

Urief Personal Sketches 691 






PART I 257-371 

PART II ....271 

PART III. 271-275 





The Local Tribe and their Absorption by the Cayugas — Route of Sullivan's Army 
on both Sides of Cayuga Lake — Indian Villages Destroyed — Their Location — Flight 
of Indians to Niagara — Their Destitution after Sullivan's Victory — Cession of their 
Lands to the State. 

The present territory of Tompkins county was, at the date of Sulli- 
van's expedition in 1779, inhabited by a local tribe of Indians known 
as the " Todarighroones. " In 1753 Sir William Johnson mentions 
that the Cayugas holding the country around the lake were " about to 
strengthen their castle by taking in the Todarighrooners. " In the 
same year they are mentioned as attending a conference at Mount 
Johnson, and are described as one of the "nine confederate nations." 
The town is indicated at the head of Cayuga Lake on the Guy Johnson 
map of 1771 in the same position where it was found by Colonel Dear- 
born in 1779, under the name of " Todarighrono, " the name of the 
people. The Indian village known as " Coreorgonel," called " De-ho- 
riss-kanadia " by George Grant, was located on the west side of Cayuga 
Inlet, about three miles from the head of Cayuga Lake, and about two 
miles southwest of Ithaca city, on high ground south of the present 
school house on the farm of Joseph Allen, and just beyond Buttermilk 
Falls on the Inlet-Ne^yfield road. Several skeletoris have been ex- 


humed here at various times within a few years past, and the usual va- 
riety of relics found, such as hatchets, wampum, beads, etc. The town 
at the time of its destruction by a detachment of Sullivan's army, un- 
der command of Col. Henry Dearborn, on the 24th of September, 1779, 
contained twenty-five houses, besides ten or twelve scattered between 
the main village and the lake. The detachment of the army came up 
the west side of the lake, reaching Goodwin's (or Taughannock) Point, 
on the 32d of September, 1779, then marched to the Indian village on 
the Inlet on the 23d, and burned the houses, corn and vegetables on 
the 24th. This detachment united with that from the east side of the 
lake on the 25th and marched thence to meet the main army at New- 
town (Elmira). The notes of Gen. John S. Clark, of Auburn^ found in 
the "Journals of the Military Expedition of Major-General John Sulli- 
van, against the Six Nations of Indians in 1779," published under au- 
thority of chapter 361, laws of 1885, passed by the Legislature, seem 
to furnish by far the most authentic as well as the most detailed infor- 
mation in reference to the Indian history of this locality. 

The detachment of Sullivan's army which destroyed the towns on the 
east side of Cayuga Lake, joining the detachment from the west side 
at Ithaca, marched down the east side of Seneca Lake, crossed the out- 
let where it leaves the lake, and very near the present Lehigh Valley 
Railroad track ; thence the route lay north of the outlet through the 
swamp, to what is now known as Mud Lock, three miles north of the 
present railroad depot at Cajuiga. Here the Seneca River was again 
crossed and a trail followed to Union Springs, where East Cayuga, 
Cayuga Castle, and Upper Cayuga Indian villages were situated ; thence 
to Chonodote, or Peachtown, the site of the present village of Aurora, 
and thence to Ithaca, which was reached on the 25th of September, 
1779, the day after the village on the Inlet had been burned by the 
soldiers under Dearborn, as above stated. 

On map 103 C, of the Simeon De Witt collection in the archives of 
the New York Historical Society, being the manuscript maps and sur- 
veys of Robert Erskine, who was geographer to the American army, 
the distance is fixed at thirty-eight miles from Cayuga to Ithaca. On 
this rnap a fall of 120 feet perpendicular is indicated on the Fall Creek 

In Clark's History of Onondaga County it is stated that on the Jesuit's 
map, Cayuga Lake is called " Tichero-lac. " Charlevoix calls it " Ge- 
jugouen," while Thurber's map designates it as " Gwangweh, " The 


Indian designation of Ithaca was " Ne-o-dak-he-at" ; its signification, 
"At the End of the Lake." 

The Cayugas retreated to Niagara before the march of Sullivan's 
army after the battle of Newtown, and few ever returned to their old 
hunting grou^nds ; neglected and badly treated by their English allies, 
and insufficiently provided with food, sickness and death made fearful 
ravages among them during the cold winter following Sullivan's cam- 
paign. In 1789 a treaty was concluded with the Six Nations whereby 
the Indians acknowledged allegiance to the general government and 
ceded to the State of New York the lands lying east of Seneca Lake. 
This cession and treaty opened up the country to the immigration of 
white settlers from the Eastern States, and new characters appear up- 
on the scene. 

Father Carbeil was a missionary among the Cayugas and probably 
his labors reached into the territory now included in Tompkins county. 
In a letter dated June 24, 1672, he speaks in glowing terms of the beauty 
of the country, of the great quantity of fish in Lake Tiohero (Cayuga), 
and immense clouds of game on its waters and in the forest bordering 
its shores. He found the Cayugas more tractable and less haughty 
than the Onondagas or Oneidas. He mentions also a battle between 
the Andastes and the Cayugas while the latter were on their way to the 
Susquehanna River from the head of Cayuga Lake, the Cayugas losing 
twenty-four warriors slain or taken prisoners. 


Original Civil Divisions — Erection of Counties — Dates of the Creation of Counties 
in Western New York — Formation of Tompkiu."; County — Original Towns and when 
Formed — Present Towns and Dates of Organization — Geographical Location of the 
County — Its Area and Population — Soil and Original Forest — Its Water Courses, Scen- 
ery and Water Falls thereon — Climate— Absence of Excessive Snow Fall — Absence 
of Fogs on Waters Flowing Northward. 

In compiling the history of any locality, reference must of necessity 
be had to every source of information possible. These sources are to 
be examined and their accuracy determined ; this involves the perusal 
of old records, of scattered memoranda, and the separation of fact from 


fiction and errors, which, by reiteration at times grow into accepted 
truth, subsequently found to be without foundation. It is subject of 
regret that the pioneefs of Tompkins county did not appreciate the im- 
portance of events in which they were actors and preserve in tangible 
form a detailed record of occurrences which were of little apparent in- 
terest to them, but which in the lapse of a century have become very 
material, possess absorbing interest, and yet require great labor and re- 
search on the part of the eager historian to obtain the facts regarding 
them. While this condition is to be deplored, it does not lessen the 
sense of duty on the part of those who may essay to preserve and per- 
petuate incidents connected with the original settlement of this part of 
the State, which has been transformed from a dense forest into broad 
acres of cultivated fields; from a region where the woodman's clearing 
was the only evidence of occupation, to a beautiful country where are 
now to be found villages and cities teeming with population and filled 
with every evidence of refinement and wealth ; where the hum of busy 
industry and successful trade is heard, and where educational institu- 
tions of the most advanced type have been created, which are the glory 
of the inhabitants and the wonder of the world. 

In a preceding chapter the history of Indian occupation of this local- 
ity, so far as known and can be ascertained, is given. The settlement 
of the white race followed closely upon the close of the Sullivan cam- 
paign in 1779, which resulted in the practical extinction of the Cayu- 
gas, who were driven westward, their families scattered, their villages 
destroyed, and the field left open for peaceful possession by the white 
pioneers at least a dozen years before the beginning of the present 

In order to trace properly the history of the State of New York and 
the counties composing it at the present time, reference to original civil 
divisions is made. Under the Dutch the only divisions were the cities 
and towns. In 1GG5, a district, or sheriffalty, called Yorkshire, was 
erected. It comprised Long Island, Staten Island, and part of the 
present county of Westchester For judicial purposes it was divided 
into three " Ridings." The East Riding comprised the present county 
of Suffolk ; the West Riding, Staten Island, the present Kings County, 
Newtown and part of Westchester ; the North Riding, all of the present 
county of Queens excepting Newtown. 

Counties were erected for the first time by the act of 1683, and were 
twelve in number, as follows: Albany, Cornwall, Dukes, Dutchess, 


Kings, New York, Orange, Queens, Richmond, Suffolk, Ulster, and 
Westchester. The county of Cornwall consisted of what was known as 
the District of Pemaquid (now in Maine), and Dukes county consisted of 
the several islands on the coast of Massachusetts. These counties 
were included in the patent to the Duke of York. They were detached 
on the reorganization of the government in 1091. Cumberland county 
in 176G, Gloucester in 1770, and Charlotte in 1772, were formed out of 
Albany county. The first two and part of the last are now in the State 
of Vermont. 

Tryon county was erected in 1772, also from Albany, and comprised 
the country west of a north and south line extending from St Regis to 
the west bounds of the township of Schenectady, thence running irreg- 
ularly southwest to the head of the Mohawk branch of the Delaware, 
and along the same to the southeast bounds of the present county of 
Broome; thence in a northwesterly direction to Fort Bull, on Wood 
creek, near the present city of Rome — all west of the last mentioned 
line being then Indian territory. Thus the province consisted at the 
Revolution of fourteen counties. 

On April 2, 1784, the name of Tryon county was changed to Mont- 
gomery. On the 1 (5th of February, 1791, Herkimer county was erected 
from Montgomery; on March 5, 1794, Onondaga county was created, 
its territory having been a part of Herkimer. Cayuga county was taken 
from Onondaga on the 8th of March, 1799. Seneca county was erected 
from Cayuga March 29, 1794; and Tompkins county was erected from 
Cayuga and Seneca on the 17th of April, 1817. 

As originally organized Tompkins county embraced the towns of 
Hector, Ulysses, and Dryden (from Seneca county), and portions of 
Locke and Genoa (from Cayuga county). The towns afterwards 
erected from Locke and Genoa were called Division (now Groton) 
and Lansing. The original dimensions of Tompkins county were 
enlarged March 22, 1822, by adding thereto the towns of Caroline, 
Danby, and Cayuta (now Newfield) from Tioga county. In 1853 a strip 
from the west side of Newfield was annexed to Chemung county; and 
on April 17, 1854, Hector was made a part of the then newly-erected 
county of Schuyler. Tompkins therefore now consists of nine towns, 

Caroline, organized February 22, 1811, and taken from Tioga and 
annexed to Tompkins March 22, 1822. 


Danby, organized on the same date as Caroline and also transferred 
to Tompkins from Tioga at the same time. 

Dryden, taken from the original town of Ulysses (then in Seneca 
county), February 22, 1803. 

Enfield, taken from Ulysses March 11, 1821. 

Groton (as Division), taken from Locke April 7, 1817. 

Ithaca, taken from Ulysses March 16, 1821. 

Lansing, taken from Genoa April 7, 1817. 

Newfield, taken from Spencer February 22, 1811. 

Ulysses, organized March 6, 1794, the date of organization of Onon- 
daga county. 1 * 

In 1794 the Board of Supervisors of Onondaga county fixed the val- 
uation of the town of Ulysses, then comprising in addition to its present 
boundaries, the present towns of Drjalen, Enfield, and Ithaca, at ^^'lOO 
and the total taxes at_^12 10 0. In 1797 the board gave the census of 
Ulysses at 52 and the valuation at |4,777. In 1798 the inhabitants had 
increased to 00 and the valuation to $5,000. 

A glance at the map of the State of New York shows Tompkins coun- 
ty situated in the western part,, nearly central between Lake Ontario 
and Pennsylvania, practically square in form, and bounded on the 
north by Cayuga and Seneca counties, east by .Cortland and Tioga 
counties, south by Tioga and Chemung, and west by Schuyler. The 
territory embraced in its borders is divided into nine towns, with an 
aggregate area of 292,724 acres, and a population of 32,923 according 
to the United States census of 1890, which is the latest national enu- 
meration. The State enumeration of 1 892 gives the population at 35, 055, 
an increase of 2,132 

The town of Ulysses borders on Cayuga Lake on the east, and is the 
northwest division ; Enfield lies centrally west, south of Ulysses ; New- 
field in the southwest ; Danby centrally south ; Caroline southeast ; Dry- 
den centrally east; Groton northeast; Lansing between Groton, Dry- 
den and Cayuga Lake on the north, with Ithaca, the county seat, in the 

> Although for convenient reference the towns are given in alpliabotical order, in 
the subsequent pages of this work they will be treated in the order of the dates of 
their formation. 

= A township on the MiHtary Tract was a particular parcel of land laid out, con- 
taining certain one hundred lots. Thus in the Military Tract which covered part of 
Tompkins county, Ulysses was numbered 22, and Dryden 33. — Clark's Onondaga, 
p. 360. 

WA'J^JCR C()UliS]5S. 7 

center. Cayuga Lake, about forty miles long, and from one to three 
and a half miles wide, extends into Ithaca from the north, separating 
Ulysses and Lansing. 

The soil in the northern half of the county is generally a gravelly or 
clay loam, created by drift deposits, while the larger portion of the 
southern half is a slaty loam, created by disintegration of the softer 
rock, which, dipping slightly to the south, appears on the surface of the 
hillsides where they fall away to the north. 

Excepting small parts of the county, the original forests consisted of 
a magnificent growth of white pine of the highest quality. The more 
elevated parts of some of the southern towns produced hemlock, beech, 
maple, oak and other varieties of valuable woods. 

The south half of the county is high and rolling, with elevations of 
from 400 to 700 feet, forming the watershed from which streams flow 
into the Susquehanna River and Chesapeake Bay on the south, and the 
Seneca-Oswego River into Lake Ontario on the north. This watershed 
reaches on the southwest into Schuyler and Chemung counties, and on 
the east and northeast into Cortland and Onondaga counties. In their 
passage from the upland the streams have worn deep gullies or gorges 
in the soil, and tliere is no other portion of the State containing water- 
falls in either number, height or beauty, at all approaching the locality 
embraced within the county of Tompkins adjoining the head of Cayuga 

Salmon Creek reaches the lake in the town of Lansing, rising in Cay- 
uga county and flowing generally in a southerly direction. It is noted 
for some picturesque falls and beautiful gorges. 

Fall Creek has its source, for one of its branches, in Dryden Lake, a 
small body of water situated close to the Cortland county line just 
south of the center of the town of Dryden. The other and larger branch 
rises in Cayuga county in the town of Summer Hill, flows southerly 
across the town of Groton and unites with the south branch in Dryden, 
and thence through the city limits of Ithaca and into Cayuga Lake. 
This stream, the largest in the county, has upon it within the city of 
Ithaca five falls ranging in height from 40 to 140 feet, and overhanging 
banks equal to these distances above the water, which tumbles and foams 
as it flows downward through the gorge below. 

Cascadilla Creek rises in Dryden and flows nearly west through the 
northern part of Ithaca, joining a branch of Fall Creek and the Inlet at 
the steamboat landing. This is the smallest of the streams reaching 


Cayuga Lake through the city. In its descent from the table lands 
above there are may picturesque gorges and beautiful cascades. 

Six Mile Creek rises in Dryden, flows southwest through Slaterville 
and Brookton, thence northwest through Ithaca, uniting with the Inlet 
at the foot of State street. The only considerable waterfall upon it is 
known as Wells Falls, situated inside the city limits, but the valley of 
the stream above abounds with deep gorges and wild, impressive scen- 

Buttermilk Creek rises in Danby, flows nearly north, and reaches the 
Inlet just outside of and south of the city line. There is a magnificent 
cascade upon this stream in full view of passing railroad trains, which 
is an object of attraction to every traveler upon both the D., L. and W. 
and the Lehigh Valley Railroads. It is from this stream that the wa- 
ter supply of Ithaca is taken, and as the creek is fed wholly by springs 
at its sources, the supply is remarkably pure and free from contamina- 

Less than a mile south of Buttermilk Creek a streamlet known as 
Lick Brook affords a beautiful waterfall over 135 feet in height, while 
along the length of the stream are several remarkable scenic gorges. 

Ithaca Inlet rises in Spencer, Tioga county, flows thi-ough Danby, 
Newfield and Ithaca, into Cayuga Lake. It follows a deep valley, 
flanked by hills on either side hundreds of feet in height. 

Five Mile, or Enfield Creek, rises in the town from which it is named, 
flows south and southeast, joining the Inlet on the border town lines of 
Newfield and Ithaca. Enfield Falls upon this stream, near nine miles 
southwest of Ithaca, is a point of great resort, and has been made the 
subject of many sketches by artists, attracted by the natural beauties of 
the scenery. 

The head waters of Taughannock Creek are in Hector, just over the 
county line, and the stream reaches Cayuga Lake nine miles north of 
Ithaca. The swiftly flowing waters have worn a very deep gorge for 
the distance of a mile back from the lake, where the recession was ar- 
rested by a surface strata of hard rock, over which the water is precip- 
itated in an unbroken sheet 215 feet, the highest waterfall in this State. 
Precipitous banks tower 150 feet above the stream, and below the fall 
show a sheer unbroken wall of 365 feet. Taughannock Falls have an 
extended reputation and are visited by thousands of admiring sight- 
seers yearly. 


Trumansburgh Creek has its extreme sources in both Seneca and 
Schuj'-ler counties. Its general course is east through Trumansburgh 
village and then bending to the north it empties into the lake in the 
county of Seneca. 

The face of the country in this county and its slope in all directions 
towards the lake, with the great number of streams feeding it, produces 
the rare combination of gorge and waterfall found no where else in this 

On the southeast Owego Creek forms the border line between the 
town of Caroline and Tioga county. In Newfield, at the southwest, a 
valley slopes to the south and Cayuta Creek follows it, reaching the Che- 
mung River near Wavcrly, after traversing Van Etten and other por- 
tions of Chemimg and Tioga counties. 

Rising in Dryden, the Owasco Inlet flows north through the central 
valley of Groton, and thence through Locke and Moravia to Owasco 

In climate Tompkins county partakes of the general characteristics of 
Central and Western New York, with more favorable temperature and 
less range than elsewhere in the region named. Goodwin's History of 
Cortland County states that the mean temperature of Homer is 44 deg. , 
17 min. , while at Ithaca it is 47 deg., 88 min., or 3 degrees and 71 min- 
utes in favor of Ithaca. The same authority states the annual range of 
the thermometer at Homer is 104 deg., while that of Ithaca was 91, or 
13 deg. in favor of Ithaca. This immediate locality also escapes the 
excessivesnowfalls which cover Cortland, Madison, Oneida, Onondaga, 
Herkimer and Otsego counties. These snow falls in that part of the 
State lying east of Tompkins county are doubtless owing largely to 
evaporation from the surface of Lake Ontario, the waters of which are 
very deep and seldom freeze. The prevailing northwest air currents 
in winter carry this evaporation over the localities before named, where 
it is deposited as snow by condensation. 

The territory embraced in Tompkins county, excepting in the south- 
eastern and southwestern sections, is almost wholly free from the dense 
fogs which, especially in autumn, appear almost daily in the valley of the 
vSusquehanna and its tributaries. The author is unaware that any sat- 
isfactory solution of the cause of the frequency of fogs on all waters 
flowing to the south, and their absence, as a rule, on waters flowing to 
the north, throughout the whole central part of this State, has ever been 
attempted. A remarkable verification of this difference appears hi the 


town of Caroline, where a swamp is the source of streams running both 
north and south. Those ultimately reaching Chesapeake Bay will of- 
ten be covered with a dense fog, and not a mile distant the stream head- 
ing for Lake Ontario will at the same hour bask in bright sunshine. 
For weeks, and often for months, on the land sloping to the north trav- 
ersed by streams discharging into Lake Ontario, not a vestige of fog is 
seen, and the author has known a whole year to pass in this locality 
without a single foggy morning being experienced. 


The First White Men in what is now Tompkins County — The Last of the Local In- 
dians — The March of Civilization — Arrival of the First Permanent Settlers — Trials 
and Perils of their Journey — The Route Taken — Locality of First Settlement — The 
Pioneers of Ithaca — Dates of Settlement in the Various Towns. 

Prohably the first white persons who visited this locality were mis- 
sionaries, and an account is given of one who passed through here from 
the Susquehanna River as early as 1(157, but whether others came or 
not is not recorded. Following this single missionary, or others if there 
were more, the Sullivan expedition and members of his army may prop- 
erly be said to have been the first white men who set foot on the soil of 
the present county of Tompkins. There exists no evidence that any of 
the army remained, for as a body the troops marched to Catherine Town 
after the Indian villages were destroyed, and joined the main force, 
the entire command at once returning on the route through the Che- 
mung, Susquehanna and Wyoming valleys. 

The Indians, retreating before Sullivan's army, did not return from 
the western part of the State ; or, if scattered families came back, it was 
to find the cabins they formerly occupied burned, their crops destroyed, 
their fruit trees cut down, and only desolation before them as they 
wandered from the site of one Indian village to another. Under such 
circumstances it is not to be wondered at that the spirits of the warriors 
were measurably broken and the desire to again make this region their 
home, to again build up their villages and cultivate anew their devas- 
tated fields, passed away forever. The few Indians who remained here 


after that memorable campaign against them, removed to the north- 
ern part of the State in 1790. ^ 

From 1779 to 1788 there was no change. The few Indians who es- 
caped Sullivan's army and remained here, or who returned and brought 
families, cultivated their clearings in a half-hearted way, supplying ■ 
their needs by hunting and fishing, for the forests were filled with game 
and the waters of Cayuga Lake and the streams flowing into it swarm- 
ing with fish. 

The first white persons intending to become permanent settlers were 
the eleven men who left Kingston, on the Hudson River in April, 1788. 
With two Delaware Indians as guides, they started out to explore the 
wilderness west of the Susquehanna River. All knowledge they pos- 
sessed of the locality towards which they directed their steps was de- 
rived from Indians who had hunted in the dense forests which covered 
the entii'e western part of the State, and those adventurers started up- 
on a journey supposed to be full of peril and replete with dangers inci- 
dent to travel in an unknown and unsettled region. Something over a 
month passed before the party returned to Kingston, having examined 
only the country embracing Cayuga and Seneca Lakes and a few miles 
in each direction around these waters. They made no selection of 
lands and came to no decision to ever return to the localities they had 
visited. In April, 1789, however, three of those who had traversed the 
country the previous year determined to return, and they finally set- 
tled upon a lot of 400 acres, extending east from Tioga street in the 

1 The pages of history tell us of the barbarities practiced by the red men upon the 
pioneers of New England. It is not, pei-haps, strange that a knowledge of those 
barbarities which have scarcly ceased in the western world at the present day, should 
have led later generations of white people not only to regard their authors as merci- 
less savages without one redeeming trait, but also to believe that the bloody deeds of 
of the red men were committed without any material provocation. A more careful 
study of the Indian peoples will, however, indicate that such was not the case. 
While it is undeniable that the march of civilization cannot be stayed, and that the 
weaker must give place to the stronger in the world's progress, it is atso true that the 
natives of the western world never failed to meet the first white comers to any par- 
ticular locality with open arms and peace in their hearts. That the contest with all 
its horrors was inevitable, is undoubted ; but in it each side took its share of the re- 
spon,sibility, and the untutored savages, their brains influenced by the rum of the 
white man, turned upon the latter the very guns for which they were deluded into 
giving up their birthrights. It was a struggle for supremacy and each side used 
whatever advantage it possessed to achieve victory, and met its foes according to its 
nature and circumstances. 


present city of Ithaca. Within the valley upon this tract clearings 
were found from which the hazel and thorn bushes had been removed 
by the Indians, and which had been cultivated by them. Within these 
clearings and upon this tract of 400 acres, Jacob Yaple, Isaac Dumond, 
and Peter Hinepaw settled. By them the clearings were at once put 
under cultivation; corn was planted and, leaving a younger brother of 
one of the party to care for the crops, these adventurous men returned 
east to fetch their families to the new homes amid the almost unbroken 
forest, which they reached in September following. They brought 
with them a few articles of necessary household furniture, some farm- 
ing utensils, and hogs, sheep, cattle and horses. No better history of 
these men and their settlement here can be given than is to be found 
in a lecture delivered by Horace King, one of the most brilliant young- 
men ever resident in Ithaca, on the 5th of April, 1847, reprints of which 
are now somewhat rare. He said : 

The Yaple family was composed of Jacob Yaple, his wife and three children, and 
John Yaple, a younger brother, aged about twenty years. The Dumond family con- 
sisted of Isaac Dumond, his wife and three children, and John Dumond and his wife, 
who had then been lately married. The Hinepaw family was comprised of Peter 
Hinepaw, his wife and five children, the oldest of whom was about twelve years of 
age. In all there were twenty individuals. 

The length of time occupied in their journey from Kingston hither, in the light of 
rapid traveling of this day, seems incredible. A month was consumed in reaching 
the point where the village of Owegois now situated, and from thence to Ithaca nine- 
teen days. But a reference to the route pursued and to the manner of traveling ex- 
plains it. From Kingston they crossed to the eastern branch of the Delaware, 
reaching it at Middletown, the southeastern township of Delaware County; there 
they constructed canoes, in which they descended the river to a little below the fork; 
then they crossed to the Susquehanna, and again making canoes, descended that river 
to Owego. Between that place and Ithaca there was no road of any description — 
unless a. well-beaten Indian foot-path might be considered one — and therefore they 
were compelled to clear the way before them in order to journey onward. Having 
arrived at their place of destination, they immediately proceeded in their prepara- 
tions for permanently remaining. In a short time three log cabins were erected, and 
the respective families took possession of their dwellings. The first built, which was 
occupied by Hinepaw, was situated on the Cascadilla Creek near the mill at the cross- 
ing of the stream by Linn street; the second occupied by Yaple was on East State 
street where Jacob M. McCormick'.s house stands [now — 1804 — occupied by Miss Belle 
Cowdry] ; and the third occupied by Dumond was near the same spot. 

The only settlements within hailing distance were at Owego, where three families 
had settled the year previous; at Newtown, where two or three families had located; 
and at a point some four miles north of Cayuga lake, on its outlet, where there were 
also two or three families. 


It must not be supposed that the pioneers had no communication with older settle- 
ments at the cast. Acquaintances were moved to engage in the same enterprise of 
finding homes, and subduing and cultivating the land to fertility. Those imbued with 
this desire in their search for attractive locations, of course traveled routes leading, 
as far as possible, where friends might be found, and such were warmly welcomed at 
all times. They brought information from the east, and on their return carried word 
back from those who had made homes amid the primeval forest. Encouraged by re- 
ports received, other families began preparations for removal to this locality, and 
tluis a current of emigration commenced to flow in this direction, which soon attained 
large proportions and aided materially in opening up and populating the area cov- 
ered by the present county of Tompkins. 

It was only natural that those who first reached here and made their 
future homes, should have felt enthusiastic as to the climate, soil and 
every element necessary to make a settlement desirable; and their re- 
ports induced a large number of persons from the east, relatives or 
friends of those who had gone before, as well as others, to move to the 
head of Caytiga Lake, the present site of Ithaca city, and also to sur- 
rounding neighborhoods within the present bounds of Tompkins coun- 
ty. (Further settlements on the site of Ithaca are noted in the history 
of the village and city in later pages of this work. ) 

Six years after the first settlement at Ithaca, in the year 1705, Capt. 
David Rich came from Western Massachusetts and settled in Caroline, 
and in the same year the widow of Francis Earsley, with ten children, 
emigrated to the same locality from Roxbury, Essex county. New Jer- 

In 1795, Isaac and John Dumond, with Jacob and John Yaple, all of 
whom lost their title to the lot they originally located upon at Ithaca, 
through the knavery or carelessness of their agent, who failed to pay 
taxes at Albany upon their land, retnoved to Danby and built the first 
house in that town. Dr. Lewis Beers and Jabez Beers came from Con- 
necticut in 1807, bringing with them William R. Collins and Joseph 
Judson, aged respectively sixteen and fifteen years. Collins did not re- 
main in Danby, but removed to Ithaca and in after years was a man of 
note in that place. 

The first settlement was made in the town of Dryden in 1797 by Amos 
Sweet, who was followed in the next year by Ezekiel Sandford, David 
Foot and Ebenezer Chausen. 

Enfield was first settled in 1804 by John Giltner (or Geltner) and was 
advanced in the following year by John White, Peter Banfield and 
John Applegate. 


The first settlement in what is now Groton was made about the year 
1796 by Samuel Hogg, at West Groton; Ichabod Brown, John Guthrie 

and Perrin, at Groton; and J. Williams, J. Houghtaling and W. S. 

Clark near McLean. 

The earliest settlement in the town of Lansing was made by Silas 
and Henry Ludlow, brothers, in the year 1791, and Samuel Baker and 
Solomon Hyatt began improvements there in the next year. 

The settlement of Newfield was begun by James Thomas probably 
as early as 1800, and within a year or two afterwards two or three others 
settled there. 

The first settlement in what is now the town of Ulysses was made in 
179',i bv Abner and Philip Tremaine (now " Treman"). 

The foregoing summary of the first settlements in the several towns 
of the county may be useful at this point for reference, while the sub- 
ject is continued in detail in the town histories in later pages of the 


The Work of the Pioneers — What was Accomplished prior to County Organization 

Beginning of the New County Government — The Financial Panic of 1837-8 — Its 

Effects in this County — Recuperation — The War Period — Prompt Action in Ithaca — 
Filling the Various Quotas of the County. 

The history of Tompkins county during tlie period between the time 
of the first settlements and the county organization is quite fully given 
in the several town histories in later chapters of this work. There will 
be found treated with especial care the deeds of the early comers in the 
various localities in laying the foundations of their future homes. 

We learn therein that while progress generally during tluit period was 
steady, it is, on the other hand, true that the early opening of the more 
accessible and beautiful "Genesee country," as it was termed, served 
for a time to check the influx of settlers to this region. The natural 
course of immigration, moreover, seemed to be up the Mohawk valley 
and thence directly westward, which fact, combined with the extrava- 
gant reports of the beauty and richness of the western part of the State, 
produced a marked effect upon the inflowing tide of pioneers. 


As an indication of the privations under which onr forefathers lived, 
W. T. Eddy, from whose interesting reminiscences we shall draw, 
wrote as follows : 

There is considerable said in these days about hard times, bvit let me relate to you, 
as it was told to me how Mr. Earl, the father of the brothers Isaac and Caleb that lived 
and were masons in the village quite a number of years. Mr. Earl, the father, then 
lived up the Inlet nine miles in the town of Newfield. He walked from his home to the 
residence of Judge Townley, in the town of Lansing, a distance of about eighteen 
miles, worked for Mr. Townley until he earned a bushel and a half of wheat, took it 
in a bag on his back, came to the mill on Cascadilla Creek, had it ground, and then 
carried it home to Newfield. 

Mr. Eddy said of the second grist mill that it was owned by Joseph 
S. Sydney and was located on Fall Creek at Free Hollow near the bridge ; 
it was built in 1794. Mr. Sydney sold out and in 1802, built a grist mill 
on Cascadilla Creek not far from the depot of the E., C. & N. Railroad ; 
he died there in 1815. 

But the settlers of what is now Tompkins county were not idle in their 
new homes. We have already seen that a foothold was gained in vari- 
ous localities several years before the opening of the present century, 
and it is certain that all of those who had thus early located here, with 
the many others who followed them prior to the organization of the 
county, had made a remarkable change in the territory in question. 
Roads were opened, one of the first from the eastward, as early as 1791- 
92, over which traveled many of the pioneers. Others in 1804-5, 1807, 
in which year two important highways were opened, and others at a little 
later time, as hereafter described. Saw mills multiplied on the many 
streams and the rich pine forests were prostrated and the logs cut into 
valuable lumber to be sold or used at home in the construction of farm 
buildings, the cleared ground at the same time becoming susceptible to 
cultivation. Clearings appeared here and there in yearly increasing 
numbers, and the original log dwellings were soon superseded by more 
comfortable frame structures. Grist mills, sufificiently well equipped 
to do the coarse grinding which satisfied the hardy people, were soon 
running, and incipient manufactures and mercantile business sprang up. 

Two years before the county organization Ithaca had its newspaper 
in the Seneca Republican, the forefather of the still-existing Journal. 
And there was legal business (where is there not where two or three 
human beings are gathered together?) for such attorneys as David 
Woodcock, Charles Humphrey, and A. D. W. Bruyn were in Ithaca be- 
fore there was a county of Tompkins. The physical ills of the settlers 


were assuaged, let us hope, by Drs. John C. Hoyt, A. J. Miller, Dyer 
Foote, and Daniel Mead in Ithaca, and two or three others in surround- 
ing towns, before the county was formed; and church organization had 
been effected more than a decade earlier. These are all indisputable 
evidences of progress and thrift. Ithaca was as early as 1810 regarded 
as one of the most thriving and promising villages in the interior of 
this State. 

The act of Legislature under which Tompkins county was organized 
was passed April 17, 1817, and constituted the new county from parts 
of Cayuga and Seneca counties. Its area has been twice changed; 
first on March 23, 1822, by the annexation of three towns from Tioga 
county. On the 4th of June, 1853, by enactment a small strip on the 
west side of Newfield was annexed to Chemung county. The act, how- 
ever, was not to become operative until January 1, 1856. Before that 
time Schuyler was erected and this territory became a part of that 
county. Again on April 17, 1864, the town of Hector was taken off and 
annexed to Schuyler county. 

The act of incorporation established the county seat at Ithaca, and 
contained provisions for the erection of court buildings, as described in 
the chapter on the bar of the county. The first principal officers of the 
county were as follows: First Judge, Oliver C. Comstock, appointed 
April 10, 1817. Surrogate, Andrew D. W. Bruyn, appointed March 11, 
1817. Clerk, Archer Green, appointed March 11, 1817. Sheriff, Her- 
mon Camp, appointed April 11, 1817; (he was succeeded by Henry 
Bloom on the 26th of June, 1817. ) District Attorney, David Woodcock, 
appointed April 15, 1817. (Justices of the Peace are given elsewhere.) 

The machinery for the new county government was soon in success- 
ful operation. The piiblic buildings were erected as provided for in 
the act of incorporation, and public improvements were actively pros- 
ecuted until they felt the check of the distressing financial stringency 
of 1836-7. Previous to that time two or three railroads had been char- 
tered and one of them opened to traffic in 1834, amid general rejoicing. 
The Sodus Canal topic was uppermost in the public mind for a num- 
ber of years during the period under consideration, while at the same 
time the agricultural element was steadily pressing forward toward the 
satisfactoiy condition it finally reached. 

Slavery cast its dark shadow over this cotmty until so recent a date, 
comparatively speaking, that it almost astonishes the most thoughtful of 
US wher; brought to fully realize the fc^cts, Tl;e first quarter of th§ 


present century had almost expired before the last remnant of the na- 
tion's curse was expelled. The census of 1830 shows that in the terri- 
tory now contained in Tompkins county, and the town of Hector, then 
a part of it, slaves were held as follows: Ulysses (then including the 
present towns of Ithaca and Enfield), two males and one female. Dan- 
by, two males and four females. Caroline (see history of that town), 
eighteen males and fourteen females. Hector, nine males. Dryden, 
Groton and Lansing, none. In the population of the town of Hector 
there were thirty free colored persons ; in Ulysses, eighteen ; Caroline, 
none; Danby, five. 

In the disastrous financial revulsion and panic which swept over the 
entire country in 1836-7 Ithaca suffered severely, but not more so than 
most other similar places, and far less than some. During the early 
part of the first year named, and to some extent in 1835, the specula- 
tive fever began and soon rose to its highest pitch. Fabulous prices 
were paid for land and fictitious valuation thus created without any solid 
foundation. Of course most of this financial expansion was witnessed 
in and near by the village of Ithaca; but its effects were felt through- 
out the county. Suburban farms were laid out in village lots, and it 
has been stated that scarcely an acre of land within two miles of the 
village was purchasable for tillage. The speculators (and they em- 
braced almost the entire community) saw visions of numerous banks, 
railroads branching out in every direction, canals filled with a continuous 
procession of laden boats, and above all, money without stint. In a 
number of the Ithaca Journal in July of 1836, is a report that a sale of 
sundry water power rights at Fall Creek were sold at auction and brought 
$220,000, and that "a parcel of the De Witt estate which was purchased 
last December for $4,676, sold at auction on the fith [of July] for 
$52, 929. A farm which was purchased last summer for $50 per acre, 
has recently been sold for $500 per acre, and the purchaser has been 
offered and declined an advance on his purchase." Usurious rates of 
interest prevailed everywhere and money was in active demand at ex- 
orbitant figures. This is explainable by the fact that many persons, 
influenced by the general speculative fev^r, were led to borrow funds 
with which they hoped to not only pay the heavy interest from their 
profits, but clear a competency besides ; thus almost the entire com- 
munity was drawn into the whirlpool. There could be but .one ending 
to this. It was precipitated by the issue of President Jackson's well- 
known "specie circular," and the crash was overwhelming to many. 



Men were brought suddenly to realize that there were some things in 
the universe (one of which was the solid ground) that could not be pur- 
chased at depreciated prices with depreciated currency. Banks con- 
tracted their currency, a general suspension of specie payments fol- 
lowed, and ruin was prevalent. The succeeding stagnation in Tomp- 
kins county is evidenced at least to some extent by the fact that while 
previous to 1837 there was various legislation relative to the incorpo- 
ration of companies, inauguration of public enterprises, improving the 
charter of Ithaca village, etc. , some of which went into effect almost 
yearly between that year and 1857 (a period of about twenty years), 
when legislation of this nature nearly ceased. 

Recovery from this memorable panic was slow in this county, and to 
it may undoubtedly be credited in a large degree the extremely conserv- 
ative methods of the business men during the next quarter of a cent- 
ury. But if the growth during that period was slow and business 
methods were conservative, that growth was healthy and built upon a 
solid foundation. The effects of this panic upon Ithaca and its imme- 
diate vicinity are described more in detail in the history of the village 
and city in later pages. 

Again in 1857, at the time of the general bank suspension, the Mer- 
chants' and Farmers' Bank alone paid specie for its bills, but did it by 
gold drafts on Albany. 

The time at length arrived when the inhabitants of this county were 
called upon to share in the burdens, the terrors and the triumphs of the 
great civil war, the records of which are enrolled upon many brilliant 
pages. For this work a concise account of the events of the great con- 
flict as they applied directly to the county must suffice. 

Scarcely had the first roll of the drum been heard in the north when 
active operations were begun in this county. Volunteers came forward, 
many of them being members of the old De Witt Guard, and enrolled 
their names, and on the 23d of April, only six days after the first call 
for troops, they met to the number of sixty-one, sufficient for a company, 
and elected the following officers: Captain, Jerome Rowe; first lieuten- 
ant, James H. Tichenor; second lieutenant, William O. Wyckoif ; first 
sergeant, William M, Godley; second sergeant, E. V. Fulkerson; third 
sergeant, Edward Atwater ; fourth sergeant, Doctor Tarbell ; first cor- 
poral, Leonard Atwater; second corporal, Clinton McGill; third cor- 
poral, James A. Dickinson; fourth corporal, George B. Shepherd. 
This company left for New York on the 3d of May, and by the 8th an- 


other company was filled and commanded by Captain John Whitlock, 
which left on the 9th for Elmira. These organizations joined the 33d 
Regiment which left for the front on the 25th of June, 1861, and saw 
severe service during its term of three years. Military enthusiasm was 
at white heat. The Tompkins County Bank offered the governor f35,- 
000, and J. B. Williams notified the governor that he would advance 
means to fully equip any volunteers raised in this county. 

Meanwhile a committee appointed by the citizens of Ithaca on the 23d 
of April for the furtherance of military operations and particularly to 
raise a fund for the relief of the families of volunteers, had succeeded 
by May in raising nearly $9,000. As accessory to this committee the 
Ladies' Volunteer Association was organized on the 14th of June, and 
the 26th reported that they had received about $350 in cash and a vast 
quantity of supplies of various kinds. Miss Jane L. Hardy was secre- 
tary and treasurer of the association, and was conspicuous in all move- 
ments for the benefit of soldiers and their families; she is still living 
in Ithaca. 

On the 7th of September, 18G1, a mammoth mass convention was 
held in Ithaca, at which patriotic addresses wei^e delivered by Daniel 
S. Dickinson, Horatio Ballard and others ; the call for the convention 
was signed by ten or twelve columns of names in the Journal. 

In the summer of 18G2, when the prospects in the field were looking 
very dark and there seemed to be doubt about securing additional vol- 
unteers, the governor appointed a large committee in each senatorial 
district of the State to take charge of raising a regiment in each district, 
to apply on the 50,000 volunteers required from the State. The names 
of the committee for this district were Lyman Truman, B. F. Tracy, 
George Bartlett, Ransom Balcom, J. B. Williams, J. W. D wight, and 
H. D. Barto. The committee met in Owego on the 31st of July. To 
aid in the work the committee appointed town committees which were 
for Tompkins county as follows : 

Caroline — William Curtis, John Bull, William Taft, Epenetus Howe, 
John J. Bush. 

Danby — W. A. Mandeville, T. J. Phillips, Josiah Hawes, Harvey D. 
Miller, E. L. B. Curtis. 

Dryden — Luther Griswold, Smith Robertson, Charles Givens, Thom- 
as J. McElheny, W. W. Snyder. 

Enfield — W. L. Bostwick, Samuel V. Graham, Joseph Rolfe, L. H, 
Van Kirk, Henry Brewer. 


Lansing — H. B. Lord, A. W. Knettles, J. N. Townley, David Crocker, 
Albert Baker. 

Newfield— B. R. McAllister, C. C. Cook, Oliver Puff, P. >S. Dudley, 
Benjamin Starr. 

Groton— William D. Mount, D. B. Marsh, H. K. Clark, Charles Per- 
rigo, John P. Hart. 

Ithaca — J. L. Whiton, George D. Beers, E. C. Seymour, L. R. King, 
B. G. Jayne. 

Ulysses — Lyman Congdon, J. De Motte Smith, Monroe Stout, David 
Dumont, S. R. Wickes. 

vSo prompt and efficient was the action of these committees that a 
regiment was soon filled, and another followed directly after — the first 
one being mustered in early in August and the latter went to the front 
on the loth of September. Both of these organizations performed he- 
roic deeds on the battlefield and left many of their members among 
the honored dead in unknown graves where they fell, and in the hos- 
pital cemeteries. 

In the prosecution of the work of securing volunteers in the summer 
of 1802 a great war meeting was held in Ithaca on the 35th of July, at 
which many well known men made speeches. Under the then existing 
call for 300,000 men the quota for Ithaca was 83; for Dryden, and Gro- 
ton, 92; for Enfield, Ulysses and Lansing, 92; for Newfield, Danby 
and Caroline, 84. Town committees were appointed to enroll all who 
were liable to draft, preparatory to the draft incident upon failure to fill 
the call of July 2, 1862. The quotas necessary to be raised to avoid 
the draft were as follows: Caroline, 72; Danby, 70; Dryden, 15-1; En- 
field, 58; Groton, 110; Ithaca,' 212; Lansing, 100; Newfield, 92; Ulys- 
ses, lO-t. Total, 972. Meetings were promptly held and a subscrip- 
tion started to raise a fund to pay each volunteer $100 bounty ; nearly 
$15,000 were subscribed at once. This action had the desired effect, 
and was about the first of a series of measures for the payment of the 
liberal bounties that were afterwards given to volunteers. 

Enlistments were now rapid and the 109th Regiment, with compa- 
nies A, F, and G from Tompkins county, was mustered in on the 28th 
of August and left Binghamton on the 30th. Other volunteers from 
this county previous to the time under consideration had joined the 76th 
Regiment, the Oith (mustered in the fall of 1861), and other organiza- 


The i;37tli Regiment was raised in tlie 2-1-th Senatorial District in the 
summer and fall of 1802 and mustered in at Binghamton September 
35. Company D was largely recruited in Tompkins county. 

On the 24th of Marcli, 18(i2, a meeting was called in Ithaca to form a 
Loyal League. The attendance was large and enthusiastic. Wait T. 
Huntington occupied the chair, with A. M. Hull, secretary. The or- 
ganization was effected, with Charles E. Hard};^ as president, and aided 
materially in various ways in the promotion of the Union cause. 

The 14;3d Regiment, in which companies D and I were almost wholly 
from Tompkins county, was mustered into the service October !), 1802. 

The summer of IBOi! was an exciting time. A call for ;500,000 vol- 
unteers had been promulgated and a draft ordered for July in case the 
cpiotas were not filled, which were as follows; Ithaca, 228; Lansing, 
\)i; Groton, 90; Dryden, 124; Caroline, 03; Danby, 51; Newfield, 83; 
Enfield, 54; Ulysses, 80; total, 873. The enrollment in the county 
was 5,370. The quota was not filled and the draft was held for this 
county in July. As is well known, this draft, with the commutation 
provision by which drafted men could pay $300 and be exempt from 
service, resulted in very little accession to the armies of the Union; 
the result was another call in the autumn for still another 30(),000men, 
to be followed by a draft on January 1 for quotas not filled. Under 
this enrollment the quotas were as follows: Ithaca, 110; Lansing, 47; 
Groton, 49; Dryden, 64; Caroline, 33; Danby, 25; Newfield, 41; En- 
field, 27; Ulysses, 40; total, 436. Now the supervisors came forward 
and adopted resolutions offering $300 bounty to each volunteer under 
the call, and taking the necessary steps to provide the issue of $150,000 
in bonds to furnish the funds. Although the quota of the county was 
not filled by the 1st of January, the time was extended for the draft and 
the necessary enlistments were made before the expiration of the ex- 

Under the call for 500,000 volunteers issued July 18, 1804, the Board 
of Supervisors offered a bounty of $300 for one year men, besides the 
$100 offered by the government. Enlisting agents were appointed in 
the several towns and the work of filling the quota went rapidly forward. 
The quotas were as follows : Ithaca, 158, against which there stood a 
credit of 108 ; Lansing, 66, credit 18 ; Groton, 73 ; Dryden, 96, credit 6 ; 
Caroline, 50, credit 2; Danby, 40, credit 4; Newfield, 66; Enfield, 37, 
credit 17; Ulysses, 67, credit 18; total quota, 643; total credit, 173, 


leaving 400. These quotas were all filled by the 7th of September and 
the draft thus escaped. 

The last call for troops was made on December 10, 18G4, and the few 
that were lacking in the county were easily secured. The gross amount 
of bonds issued by the county for war purposes was $317,085. Notifi- 
cation was published that of these bonds $113,371 would be paid on pre- 
sentation at the county treasurer's office, on Feburary 25, ISOfi. All 
these bonds have been since paid. 

The military organizations which included Tompkins county men 
were the 32d, C4th, lOOtb, 137th, liSd, 170th (all infantry), and the 
10th, 15th, and 31st cavalry. A few volunteers may have left the county 
to go elsewhere and enlist. The number of enlistments from each town 
will be found in the later town histories. The county may ever point 
with just pride to the career of her soldiers in the war for the preserva- 
tion of the Union. 


The Panics of 1857 and 1873 — The University and its History and Influence on the 
Growth of Ithaca — Official List of Officers before and since Organization of County — 
Senators — Members of Assembly — County Clerks — Superintendents of Schools. 

There is little to record of a general character in relation to the his- 
tory of the county from the close of the war until the present time, 
that is not given in detail in succeeding chapters. The " flush times," 
as they were called, which immediately succeeded the great conflict, 
when money was plenty and all kinds of individual and corporate un- 
dertakings were being inaugurated, with the reaction which produced 
the financial stringency of 1873, are well remembered. Tompkins coun- 
ty did not enter so largely into the prevailing expansion after the war 
as many other localities, and the rebound was hence not so severe ; but 
its effects were felt in Ithaca more than that of 1857. In 1873 there 
were failures of several notable firms whese credit had previously stood 
high, and which had withstood the stringency of 1857. These failures 
were disastrous ones and their effects were long felt hei-e. 

The great university, of which the only complete history ever writ- 
ten is found in these pages, has grown to its present magnificent pro- 


portions since the war ended. Ithaca as vilhige and city has taken new 
life, especially in quite recent years, and promises to become an impor- 
tant business, educational and social center. 


Previous to the organization of Tompkins county in J 817, several 
residents of the territory now embraced in it, held official positions in 
the counties in which they resided. Thus John Cantine, with Simeon 
De Witt, perfected a treaty with the Onondagas on the 18th of Novem- 
ber, 17'.I3, by which certain lands were quit-claimed to the State. 

The first meeting of the Hoard of .Supervisors of Onf)ndaga county 
was held May. 27, 17!t4. Robert McDowell, of Ulysses, was one of the 
members of the board. Francis A. Bloodgood was a member of the 
Council of Appointment from the Western District in 1812, and a sen- 
ator from 1811 to 1815 inclusive. Henry Bloom was a senator in 1816- 
17. Richard Townley was a member of assembly from Onondaga 
county in 1808 and 1809; Henry Bloom in 180'.1 and 1810. Oliver C. 
Comstock was member of assembly from Seneca county in 1810 and 
1812, and member of congress three terms commencing in 1813. Da- 
vid Woodcock was member of congress fi-om 1815 to 1818 inclusive. 
Arclier Green was member of assembly from Seneca county in 1817. 
Benjamin Pelton was judge of Seneca county in 1809. Moses I. Can- 
tine was district attorney of Seneca county in 1805; and Hermon Camp 
was sheriff of that county in 1817 and held the same office in Tompkins 
county after its organization. 

Senators. — Up to and including the year 1822, five years after the 
organization of Tompkins county, the State was divided into four sen- 
ate districts, the Southern, Middle, Eastern and Western. Henry 
Bloom was the only senator residing in the territory of the present 
county of Tompkins, until the session of 1823, when the State was 
again divided into eight districts, with four senators in each district and 
a term of four years. Tompkins county was in the Sixth District. 
Peter Hager, 2d, was senator from 1826 to and including 1829. Ebe- 
nezer Mack was senator from 1834 to and including 1837; George D. 
Beers, senator from 1845 to and including 1847, when the constitution 
changed the districts to thirty-two in number, placing Tompkins coun- 
ty in the 25th. Timothy S. Williams was the first senator tinder this 
new division, serving in the sessions or 1848 and 1849. Josiah B. Will- 


iaras served in 1852, 1853, 185,4, and 1855. Ezra Cornell, 18(iU and 18(i7. 
John H. Selkreg, 1874, 1875, 187(1, and 1877. Peter W. Hopkins, 1878; 
he died during the session and Edwin G. Halbert was elected to fill the 
vacancy; he was also elected to the full term of 1880 and 1881. David 
H. Evans, 1882 and 1883. Edward S. Esty, 1884 and 1885. diaries 
F. Barager, 188G and 1887. William L. Sweet, 1888 and 1889. Thom- 
as Hunter, 1890 to 1893 inchusive. Charles T. Saxton, 1894. 

AssiiMiiLYMiiN. — The sixth apportionment of members of assembly 
was in operation in 1817, when Tompkins county was erected. Seneca 
county then had three members, which number was reduced to two, 
and Cayuga four members reduced to three. Tompkins county was al- 
lowed two members. In 1818-19, Samuel Crittenden and John Sutton 
were elected members. 1820, Hermon Camp and Joshua Phillips. 
From November 7 to November 21, 1820 and in 1821 and 1822, Sam- 
uel Crittenden and Peter Hager. 1823, Jacob Conrad and Peter Hager, 
2d. 1824, Peter Hager 2d, and NicoU Halsey. 1825, Joshua North 
and Jarcd Patchen. 1826, Nathan Benson and David Woodcock. In 
J 827 the i-epresentation of Tompkins county was increased to three and 
Nathan Benson, Benjamin Jennings and John Sayler were meinbers. 
1828, Amasa Dana, vSamuel H, Dean, Josiah Hedden. 1829, Amasa 
Dana, Samuel H. Dean, Jonathan B. Gosman. 1830, lilijah Atwater, 
Jonathan B. Gosman, Ebenezer Mack. 1831, John Ellis, Jehiel Ludlow, 
John Sayler. 1832, John Ellis, Horace Mack, John James Speed, jr. 
1833, Thomas Bishop, Daniel B. Swartwood, Ira Tillotson. 1834, 
George B. Guinnip, Charles Humphrey, Thomas B. Sears. 1835, 
Charles Humphrey, Parvis A. Williams, Caleb Woodbury. 1836, Will- 
iam R. Fitch, George B. Guinnip, Charles Humphrey. 1837 (num- 
ber of members reduced to two), Lewis llalsey, I^enjamin Jennings. 
1838, Elbert Curtiss, Robert Swartwout. 1839, David Bower, Jesse Mc- 
Kinney. 1840, Wm. H. Bogart, Robert Swartwout. 1841, Levi Hubbell, 
Alpha H. Shaw. 1842, Charles Humphrey, Bernardus Swartwout. 
1843, Sylvanus Lamed, George T. Spink. 1844, Peter Lounsberry, 
Charles M. Turner. 1845, Sherman Miller, Lyman Strobridge. 1846, 
James W. Montgomery, Henry vS. Walbridge, 1847, wSamuel Lawrence, 
Henry W. Sage. 1 848, John Jessup, Alpheiis West. 1 849, Darius Hall, 
Charles J. Rounsville. 1850, Henry Brewer, Elias W. Cad3^ 1851, 
Alexander Graham, Benjamin G. Ferris. 1852, Alvah Hulburt, Ste- 
phen B. Cushing. 1853, David Crocker, jr., Ebenezer S. Marsh. 1854, 
Benjamin Joy, Eli Beers. 1855, Frederick S. Dumont, Justus P. Pen- 



noyer. 1866, William C. Coon, Robt. H. S. Hyde. 1857, Alexander 
Bower, Elias W. Cady. 1858, (representation reduced to a single 
member), Edward S. Esty. 1869. William Woodbury. 1860-Gl, Jer- 
emiah W. Dwight. 18G2-G3, Ezra Cornell. 18(14-65, Henry B. Lord. 
1866, Lyman Congdon. 1867-71, John H. Selkreg. 1872-73, Anson 
Knettles. 1874, Wm. L. Bostwick. 1875, Geo. W. Schuyler. 1876, 
Samuel D. Halliday. 1877, Silas R. Wickes. 1878, Samuel D. Halli- 
day. 1879-80, Chas. M. Titus. 1881, Truman Boardman. 1883, Jno. 
E. Beers. 1883-4, John E. Cady. 1885, Hiland K.Clark. 1886, Chas. 
M. Titus. 1887, Walter G. Smith. 1888-9, Frank J.- Enz. 1890-01, 
Nelson Stevens. 1892-3, Albert H. Pierson. 1894, Edwin C. Stewart. 

County Clerks.— Archer Green was the first clerk of Tompkins coun- 
ty and was appointed April 11, 1817. John Johnston succeeded him 
February 14, 1821, and was elected in November, 1832. Samuel Love, 
elected 1828. Arthur S. Johnson, November, 1834. Wait T. Hunt- 
ington, November, 1837. Willet B. Goddard, November, 1840. Hen- 
ry B. Weaver, November, 1843 ; he died and Ezra Weaver was appoint- 
ed October 2, 1846, to fill out the term. Norman Crittenden, Novem- 
ber, 1846. Horace Mack, November, 1849. Ezra Weaver, Novem- 
ber, 1852. Charles G. Day, November. 1865. Stephen H. Lamport, 
November, 1858. Martin S. Delano, November,, 1861. Thomas J. Mc- 
Elheny, November, 1864 and 1867. Doctor Tarbell, November, 1870 
and 1873. Orange P. Hyde, Nov., 1876. Squire B. Rolf e, Nov., 1879. 
Philip J. Partenheimer, November, 1882, and November, 1885; he 
died February 6, 1888, and Monroe M. Sweetland, was appointed to fill 
the term expiring December 31 following. Leroy H. Van Kirk was 
elected in November, 1888, and re-elected in November, 1891. 

County Treasurers. — William S. Hoyt, elected November, 1848. 
Leander Millspaugh, 1851. Wesley Hooker, 1857. Edward C. Sey- 
mour, 1863. George H. Bristol, 1869. Koert S. Van Voorhees, 1875. 
Edward K. Johnson was appointed in the place of Van Voorhees, who 
resigned in December, 1877, and Johnson was elected in 1878. George 
H. Northrup, 1881. Charles IngersoU, 1890, and re-elected 1893. 

County Superintendents of Schools. — By an act passed April 17, 
1843, Boards of Supervidors of the several counties were directed to 
appoint county superintendents of common schools. Under this power 
J. T. Denman was appointed and served one term. He was succeeded 
by Smith Robertson. The office was abolished May 13, 1847. Since 
1857 these officers have been elected under authority of an act passed 


in 1856. The first election under this act, however, was not held until 
November, 1859. The commisioners for the First District were T. R. 
Ferguson, William W. Ayres, John D. Thatcher, Alviras Snyder, Al- 
bert H. Pierson, Orville S. Ensign, Andrew B. Humphrey, Amasa G. 
Genung, Charles Van Marter. The First District consisted of Danby, 
Enfield, Ithaca, Newfield and Ulysses. The charter of Ithaca city 
took the corporation out of the district, but the town outside remains 
therein. Second District — Marcus Lyon, T. S. Armstrong, Alviras 
Snyder, Jackson Graves, Robert G. H. Speed, James McLachlan, jr., 
Solomon L. Howe, Frank W. Knapp, Ella Gale. The Second District 
consists of the towns of Caroline, Dryden, Groton and Lansing. Al- 
viras Snyder appears as holding the office in both districts. He was 
commissioner while there was only one district prior to 1808, and also 
in the Second District after the county was divided. 


Tompkins County Political Notes — Reminiscences of Important Campaigns — Vote 
of the County on Prominent Officials from 1817 to the Present Time — Political Offi- 
cials of the County, Past and Present. 

While the political character of Tompkins county at and since the 
year 1859 has been quite pronounced, previous to that date majorities 
were limited as to size and not definitely fixed as to party, varying at 
different times from one side to the other. In 1820, the first presiden- 
tial election after the formation of the county, Monroe received the vote, 
as there was practically no opposition, and the name of Daniel D. 
Tompkins upon the ticket for vice-president (the county being named 
after him) added materially to what would have been otherwise a some- 
what one-sided contest. In 1824, in the struggle between Jackson, 
Adams, Crawford and Clay, Mr. Adams had a small majority, followed 
by a large majority in 1828 for General Jackson, and by a smaller ma- 
jority for his re-election in 1832. Mr. Van Buren's majority in 1836 
was very light, reaching only 150 in the county. This was reversed 
in 1840 and Harrison had several hundred votes over Van Buren. In 
1844 Polk received a light majority, while in 1848 Taylor had a ma- 


jority of some 350 over Van Buren and a very large vote over Cass. 
The majority for Pierce in 1853 w^as only 62. 

The anti-Masonic excitement which swept through the State was 
felt in some towns of the county, where the popular vote was very 
largely controlled by it, while in other towns opposition to it was very 
pronounced. The. most marked contest upon these lines occurred in 
1831 when Samuel Love and Eleazer Brown were candidates for coun- 
ty clerk. Love being the Masonic favorite and Brown representing the 
anti-Masonic sentiment. The vote of that year is given to illustrate 
the division. While Love received 575 majority in Ithaca and Caroline, 
Brown's large vote in Hector, Ulysses, Enfield and Groton, left Love 
but 37 majority in the county. 

Love. Brown. 

Ulysses 109 335 

Hector _ _ __ 235 346 

Enfield 69 235 

Newfield 205 118 

Danby ...179 187 

Caroline 238 69 

Dryden 338 401 

Groton 140 279 

Lansing j__ 244 172 

Ithaca __ 580 174 

2,343 2,306 

In 1853 the so-called American party first appeared in Tompkins 
county politics, and although failing to cast a large vote, it gave evi- 
dence of great vitality. Following the agitation of the compromise 
measures of 1850, supplemented by the threatening aspect of the slav- 
ery question, culminating in the anti-Nebraska legislation in 1864 and 
the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, great meetings were held in 
various parts of the county, participated in by men who had before 
been members of the Democratic and the Whig parties. This anti- 
slavery agitation measurably broke up former organizations, the Whig 
pai'ty after the defeat of General Scott in 1852 becoming disorganized, 
although Myron H. Clark, its candidate for governor, was elected in 1854. 

The organization of the Republican party in 1854, so far as it proceed- 
ed, took for its members portions of the Barn-burner or Free-soil Dem- 
ocrats of 1848, and the Seward or Free-soil Whigs from the Whig par- 
ty. Those opposed to the Democratic party who were termed Silver- 
Grey Whigs (so named from the silvery locks of of one of their leaders, 


Francis P. Granger, of Canandaigua), largely entered the American 
party, and that party elected its local candidates by a vote of 817 to 93 
at the Ithaca charter election in the spring of 1855, and county candi- 
dates in November by nearly 600 majority. Stephen B. Gushing, of 
Ithaca, candidate for attorney-general on the American ticket, was 
successful, and assemblymen and lesser officers also by nearly the 
same vote. 

The Fremont campaign of 1856 was one of the most exciting ones 
which ever took place in this locality. Old party lines disappeared, a 
very heated canvass, opening in July, continued in intensity irp to elec- 
tion, and the Fremont ticket received 4,019 votes, the Buchanan ticket 
1,430 votes, and the Fillmore ticket 1,470 votes. Since 1860 Tompkins 
county has never given an anti-Republican majority at a presidential 
election, and only once were the Democrats successful on any State 
ofificer previous to 1884. 

At the election of 1882, the Folger and Gleveland campaign, Presi- 
ident Cleveland received a majority of 929 for governor. The normal 
Republican majority in the county on a full vote in a national campaign 
can be set down as scarcely less than 1,000; it has at times reached 700 
alx)ve this, and once it gave (leneral Garfield only 454. 

County officers since 1850 have been uniformly Republican, although 
the Democrats have succeeded in electing assemblymen five times with- 
in the period in question. 

The temperance sentiment is quite strong in the county, many of the 
towns voting uniformly against license. At the election in November, 
1893, the anti-saloon candidates received a vote of about 1,300, the 
highest ever cast by the county organization, although the mayoralty 
of Ithaca turned upon that question in March, 1893, the anti-saloon 
candidate being successful by a majority of 127. 

The following table is valuable for reference, at least, showing the 
vote of each town in the county in the year 1817 for the several State 
officials : 



a q 

■S- « o '-' "J ■- o 

t) ffi o Q h-i Q e-i 


De Witt Clinton 345 87 223 201 228 202 1286 

Peter B. Porter _ . . 6 . . 

Lieut. Governor, John Taylor 340 84 220 208 229 201 1278 


Jedediah Prendergrast..__ 308 .'52 . 207 228 203 1010 

Isaac Wilson 198 94 238 198 228 202 1148 


John Sutton 671 88 286 88 121 1254 

Samuel Crittenden- _ _ ._ 069 87 . 283 88 121 1248 

Isaac Allen.. 63 216 373 53 207 109 1081 

Caleb Smith. 63 331 373 54 267 111 1088 

Horace Pierce, Phineas Culver, each one vote for governor; David Woodcock, one 
vote for lieutenant-governor; John Wilson, David June, Isaac Wilton, each one vote 
for senator, all from Hector; John Sutton, one vote for governer, and Nathaniel King, 
one vote for lieutenant-governor, both from Covert. 

Vote for 1818 (same towns). — Senator, Gamaliel H. Barstow, 720 ; David E. Evans, 
806; Perry G. Childs, 568; Samuel S. Payne, 371. For Assembly, John Sutton, 1,305; 
Samuel Crittenden, 1,311; Richard Townley, 006; Alex. McG. Comstock, 660. 
Charles H. Monell and Garrett G. Lansing, each 42 for senator. 

1819 — (Covert not in county) — For senators, Gideon Granger, 739; Lyman Payne, 
717; Philetus Swift, 414; Nathaniel Granow, 425. For Assembly, Joshua Phillips, 
1,194; Hermon Camp, 1,143; Richard Townley, 038; Peter Hager 2d, 732. 

1820— For governor, De Witt Clinton, 583 ; Daniel D. Tompkins, 941 ; lieutenant- 
governor, John Taylor, 580; Benjamin Moores, 1,034. 

1821 — For senator, Henry Seymour, 890 ; James McCall, 891 ; Samuel M. Hopkins. 
484; Stephen Bates, 487. For member of congress, William B. Rochester, 1,452; 
David Woodcock, 1,198, Jonathan Richmond, 944; Hermon Camp, 724. The vote 
for a convention to amend the Constitution was 3,403 in favor, and 19 against. This 
election was held from the 24th to the 26th of April. On the 19th of June an election 
for delegates was had, Richard Townley and Richard Smith being chosen. Town- 
ley had 853 votes and Smith 754. The convention assembled on the last Tuesday of 
August, 1821. 

1822 — On the 3d Tuesday of January, 1822, a vote on the Constitution was had. 
It resulted 1,581 in favor and 165 against. The general election under the new Con- 
stitution was held November 4. 5, and 6, 1822. The vote for governor was: Joseph 
C. Yates, 1,798; Solomon South wick, 19, and 29 for all others. 

1823 — On the 3d, 4th, and 5th of November, at the election, Latham A. Burrows 
received 1,371 votes for senator ; 36 for all others. For Assembly, Peter Hager 3d, 
1,735; NicoU Halsey, 1,310; Benjamin Jennings, 988; 57 scattering. 

1824 — Samuel Youngreceived 1,897 votes for governor, and De Witt Clinton 1,667 

1825 — For senator, Peter Hager 2d, received 1,612 votes; Andrew D. W. Bruyn, 


In 1835 on the 15th day of November, the county canvassers, as the record shows: 
"Do set down in writing in words written at full length, the number of votes thus 
given as aforesaid, that is to say: fifteen hundred and sixty-four votes were given 
for the election of electors of President and Vice President 'by districts;' nine hun- 
dred and fifty-five votes were given for ' by general ticket plurality ' and two votes 
were given ifor 'by general ticket majority.'" 

1836— William B. Rochester had 3,130 votes for governor, and De Witt Clinton, 

1837 — For senator, Grattan H. Wheeler had 3,434 votes and 78 scattering. 

1838 — For governor, Martin Van Buren had 3,063 votes; Smith Thompson, 1,595; 
Solomon Southwick, 713, and 5 scattering. 

1829 — For senator, Levi Beardsley had 1,633 votes; Joseph Maynard, 1,373, and 6 

1830— For governor, Francis Granger had 3,591 votes; Enos T. Throop, 1,883; 17 

1831— For senator, John G. McDowell had 3,857 votes; Neheraiah Piatt, 3,379; 8 

1833 — William L. Marcy had 3,369 votes for governor, and Francis Granger 3,093. 
The Jackson electors received 3,336 votes, and Clay electors, 3,045. 

1833 — For senator, Ebenezer Mack received 3,063 votes; John A. Collier, 3,048; 4 

1834 — For governor, William L. Marcy received 3,511 votes; William H. Seward, 
3,077; 5 scattering. 

1835 — For senator, George Huntington received 1,569 votes; 15 scattering. 

1836— Van Buren electors, 3,935; Harrison, 3,786. For governor, W. L. Marcy, 
3,997; Jesse Buel, 2,718. 

1837— For senator, Laurens Hull, 2,960; Calvin H. Bryan, 3,658. 

1838— For governor, William H. Seward, 3,444 votes; Wm. L. Marcy, 3,211. 

1839— For senator, Andrew B. Dickinson, 3,409; William Maxwell, 3,375. 

1840 — Harrison electors, 3,969; Van Buren electors, 3,558. For governor, W. H. 
Seward, 3,903; William C. Bouck, 3,633. 

1841 — For senator, James Faulkner, 3,405; Allen Ayrault, 3,381. Assembly, Ber- 
nardus Swartwout, 3,416; Charles Humphrey, 3,414; Levi Ilubbell, 3,368; Alpha H. 
Shaw, 8,373. 

1842— For governor, William C. Bouck, 3,619; Luther Bradish, 3,395. 

1843— For senator, Clark Burnham, 3,005; Henry S, Walbridge, 3,433. 

1844— Polk electors, 4,013; Clay electors, 3,845. For governor, Silas Wright, 4,051 ; 
Millard Fillmore, 3,831. 

1845— For senator, Thomas J. Wheeler, 3,033; Lorenzo Dana, 3,891. 

1846— For governor, Silas Wright, 3,009; John Young, 8,153. 

1847 — For lieutenant-governor, Hamilton Fish, 3,957: Nathan Dayton, 3,637. At 
the special election in May, for county judge, Alfred Wells received 1,837 votes ; Ben- 
jamm G. Ferris, 1,733. 

1848— Taylor electors, 3,003; Van Buren, 3,648; Cass, 1,370. For governor, Ham- 
ilton Fish. 3,006; John A. Dix, 3,035; Reuben H. Walworth, 1,313. 

1849— Secretary of state, Christopher Morgan, 3,933; Henry S. Randall, 3,133. 

1850 — For governor, Horatio Seymour, 3,475; Washington Hunt, 3,344. 


1851 — At the special election on the 27th of May, for senator, Henry B. Stanton, 
2,970; Josiah B. Williams, 2,984. At the November election, Henry S. Randall for 
secretary of state, 3,180; James C. Forsyth, 3,100. 

1852— Pierce electors, 3,472; Scott electors, 3,410. 

1853— Secretary of state, James H. Ver Planck. 1,487; George W. Clinton, 1,300. 

1854 — For governor, Myron H. Clark, 2,347; Horatio Seymour, 1,482; Daniel Ull- 
man, 1,406. At a special election on the 3d Wednesday of Kebrnary, 1,853 votes 
were cast for the propo.sed convention in regard to canals, and l,i583 against. 

185.5 — For secretary of state, J. T. Headley, 3,103; Preston King, 1,950; Aaron 
Ward, 173; Israel T. Hatch, 474. 

1856 — Fremont electors, 4,019; Buchanan, 1,430; Fillmore, 1,470. For governor, 
John A. King, 3,900; Amasa J. Parker, 1,511; Erastus Brooks, 1,470. 

1857 — Secretary of state, Alraon M. Clapp, 2,865; Gideon J. Tucker, 1,570; James 
O. Putnam, 807. 

1858 — For governor, Edvi^in D. Morgan, 3,450; A. J. Parker, 1,954; Lorenzo Bur- 
rows, 745. 

1859— For secretary of state, Elias W. Leavenworth, 3,280; D. R. Floyd Jones, 
2, ,514. 

1860 — Lincoln electors, 4,348; Douglass, 3,026. For governor, Edwin D. Morgan, 
4,293; William Kelly, 3,067. 

1861— Secretary of state, Horatio Ballard, 3,383; D. R. Floyd Jones, 1,845. 

1802 — For governor, James S. Wadsworth, 4,005; Horatio Seymour, 2,027. 

1803— Secretary of state, ChaunceyM. Depew, 4,277; Daniel B. St. John, 2,708. 

1864 — Lincoln electors, 4,518; McClellan electors, 2,996. For governor, Reuben 
E. Fenton, 4,509; Horatio Seymour, 3,006. 

1805— Secretary of state, Francis C. Barlow, 4,621; Henry W. Slocum, 3,437. 

1866— For governor, Reuben E. Fenton, 4,456; John T. Hoffman, 2,053. 

1867— Secretary of state, James B. McKean, 3,635; Homer A. Nelson, 2,926. 

1868— Grant electors, 4,646; Seymour, 3,100. 

1809 — Republican secretary of state, 3,539; Democrat, 2,456. 

1870— Republican governer, 3,965; Democrat, 2,893. 

1871 — Republican secretary of state, 3,562; Democrat, 2,278. 

1872— Grant electors, 4,318; Greeley, 3,369. 

1873 — Republican secretary of state, 3,118; Democrat, 2,809. 

1874— Republican, 3,370 
1875— Republican, 3,704 
1876— Republican, 5,032 
1877— Republican, 3,293 
1878— Republican, 3,549 
1879— Republican, 4,382 
1880— Republican, 4,896 
1881— Republican, 3,592 
1882— Republican, 2,690 
1883— Republican, 3,050 
1884^Republican, 4,420 
1885— Republican, 4,363 
1886— Republican, 4,161 

Democrat, 3,340. 
Democrat, 3,531. 
Democrat, 4,038. 
Democrat, 3,1.58. 
Democrat, 3,586. 
Democrat, 3,587. 
Democrat, 3,956. 
Democrat, 3,652. 
Democrat, 3,619. 
Democrat, 3,306. 
Democrat, 3,992. 
Democrat, 3,681. 
Democrat, 3,369. 


1887— Republican, ;S,93'J; Democrat, 2,890. 

1888— Republican, 5,073; Democrat, 3,909. 

1889— Republican, 3,763; Democrat, 3,930. 

1890— Republican, 3,730; Democrat, 3,075. 

1891— Republican, 4,330; Democrat, 3,450. 

1893— Republican, 4,717; Democrat, 3,404. 

1893- Republican, 3,600; Democrat, 2,751. 

For delegates at large to the Convention of 1894, Republican average, 3,654; Dem- 
ocrat, 2,743. For district delegates to same, Frank E. Tibbetts, Republican, 3,705; 
Murray E. Poole, Democrat, 2,718. 


The First Roads — How the Pioneers First Reached their Settlements — The Early 
Stages — Early Stage Drivers — The Cayuga Steamboat Company — Its Various Boats — 
Husy Scenes on the Lake — The Celebrated "Smoke Boat" — Modern Steamers and 
Yachts — The Sodus Canal — Other Canal Projects — The First Railroad — Some of its 
Peculiarities — Other Railroads. 

The first settlers of Tompkins county, notably those who came in by 
way of Owego, were compelled to cut their way through the forest, 
and along the path thus created, teams were driven and transporta- 
tion of goods and merchandise commenced in 1788-89. The story of 
making the first paths through a trackless wilderness by the adventur- 
ous pioneer is always an interesting one, if the reader can imagine the 
condition of the face of the country at that time. Where now the vis- 
ion of the observer sweeps over a cultivated landscape, showing all the 
familiar evidences of occupancy by closely associated and busy people, 
the cleared fields presenting an area far greater than that of the wood- 
land, the pioneer might at any given point in his toilsome journey try 
in vain to see more than a few rods from his position, unless it were 
heavenward. Hemmed in on every side by the monarchs of the wood, 
he would, without having learned the mysteries of woodcraft or with- 
out a guide in man or compass, be as much lost as if in mid ocean. 
Yet by the exercise of patient industry and unflinching perseverance 
the pioneer found his way through the wilderness and while his heart 
was light and his spirits exalted he laid the foundations of his home. 


One of the very early and prominent roads terminating at Ithaca 
was that which was cut through from Oxford, Chenango county, by 
Joseph Chaplin in 1791-93, under contract. This road came into 
Tompkins county from the east via Dryden village, Etna and Varna. 
Many of the early settlers passed over this highway in the latter part 
of the last and the early years of the present century. 

In 1804 a charter was granted for the construction of the Bath and 
Jericho Turnpike, by a company bearing this name. This highway 
was laid out through the present towns of Caroline, Dryden, Ithaca, 
Enfield, Hector, and thence on westward by the head of Seneca Lake to 
Bath. Its eastern terminus was at Richford, Tioga county. 

In 1807 a charter was granted to the Ithaca and Owego Turnpike 
Company, and under it, in 1811, the road authorized by its provisions 
was opened. This was one of the more important of the early high- 
ways. In the same year the Ithaca and Geneva Turnpike Company 
opened a road between these two villages. Fi-om that date to the year 
1820, all general travel was confined to these turnpikes. 

In the early years of the county public passenger traffic was carried 
on wholly by stages. Edmund H. Watkins was the pioneer stage man- 
ager in this locality, and came to Ithaca January 1. 1825. He was 
connected with stage lines as owner or agent down to 1857. The first 
stage drivers who regularly mounted the box and sounded their horns 
were John Bartley and John McQueen, both vividly recollected by old- 
er inhabitants. Jesse Grant & Son owned stage lines to Newburg, Ge- 
neva and Auburn in 1837, and competition was so spirited at one period 
that the fare from Ithaca to New York by way of Catskill, was only 

In 1834 Chauncey L. Grant & Co. were proprietors of stage routes to 
Catskill, 160 miles, Newburg 175 miles, Jersey City 200 miles, Auburn 
forty miles, Geneva forty-five miles, Bath fifty-two miles, Elmira forty- 
eight miles. Joshua Cummings controlled the routes to Albany and 
Utica. The three principal hotels in Ithaca were stage offices. 

Full lines of four horse thorough -brace coaches ran from Jersey City, 
Newburg and Catskill to Ithaca. The former came over the Owego 
turnpike and the latter by the Bath and Jericho route, all going west to 
Geneva and Buffalo. Full lines of stages ran from Ithaca to Auburn 
and also to Utica. 

A few of the older inhabitants are still left who delight to talk of the 
coaching days, and the pleasure of bowling along over the turnpike be- 


hind spirited horses, guided by a skillful driver, the sharp crack of 
whose whip echoed in the forest by the roadside. But time had not 
acquired the value in those days that is ascribed to it in these times. 

The author well recollects his own experience in " rapid transit " by 
stage, as late as March, 1841. Hfe left Poughkeepsie on Tuesday 
morning for Fishkill Landing. The ice was moving in the Hudson, 
and passage across that river occupied the entire day. Leaving New- 
burg at four o'clock Wednesday morning, all that day and night and 
Thursday until Friday morning at 2 o'clock were passed in reaching 
Pleasant Mount in Pennsylvania. Leaving there at eight o'clock next 
morning, Owego was reached at 11 o'clock that night. Leaving Owe- 
go at noon on Saturday, Ithaca was reached at eight P. M. — five full 

The mail from New York came over the Jersey City stage route. 
In January, 1843, a season of extreme bad roads, no mail was received 
from the city for an entire week. The stage on Saturday night brought 
up all arrears, and accumulated mail for the six days was contained in 
a single leather bag, with handles on either end, and the barn-door 
opening on the side, secured by a chain and padlock. Letters and pa- 
pers for the week only equaled three bushels in bulk. 

On the 15th of December, 1819, two years after the organization of 
Tompkins county, the Cayuga Steamboat Company was formed, having 
as officers David Woodcock, president, and Oliver Phelps, James Pum- 
pelly, Joseph Benjamin and Lewis Tooker, directors for the ensuing 
year. The company thus formed resolved: " That a steamboat should 
be built to run from one end of Cayuga Lake to the other. " It may be 
worth recording that this was only twelve years after Robert Fulton 
launched his first steamboat, of which he has been falsely credited with 
the invention, on the Hudson River. At a subsequent meeting of the 
directors of the before mentioned company, additional officers were 
chosen as follows: Charles W. Connor, treasurer; Charles Humphi-ey, 
secretary ; Oliver Phelps, agent for the building of the boat. The keel 
o£ the " Enterprise " was laid March 18, 18'i0, and the hull was launched 
on the 4th of the following May. The machinery was manufactured 
in Jersey City and brought to Ithaca by teams. On the first day of 
June a trial trip was made, with about 150 women and men on board. 
Eight hours were consumed in reaching Cayuga. ^ The landing at Ith- 

' In connection with this first steamboat, W. T. Eddy, son of Otis Eddy, has written : 
"In the year 1819 the first steamboat for Cayuga Lake was built on the west bank 


aca was at the southeast corner of the lake, then known as Port Renwick. 
Stages ran from there to the village of Ithaca for transportation of 
passengers. About the year 1827 the steamboat landing was changed 
from Port Renwick* to Green's Landing, the present terminus. The 
boat was eighty feet long, with thirty feet beam and 120 tons capacit)^ 
The Journal of June 7, 1820, made the following announcement: 

The " Enterprise " is connected with the line of stages from Newburg to Buffalo, 
and thus furnishes to travelers from New York, and others going west, one of the 
most expeditious and pleasant routes in the State. The stage runs from Newburg to 
this village in two days. Thus travelers may leave New York at 5 o'clock P. M. in 
tlie steamboat on the Hudson ; the second day arrive at Ithaca ; go on board the 
steamboat " Enterprise" the same night; receive good accommodations, and rest in 
comfortable berths during the passage, resume the stage next morning at Cayuga 
Bridge; and the same night arrive at Buffalo ; making the whole route in three days 
— one day sooner than is performed by way of Albany. 

Early boating on Cayuga Lake was a success. Success in almost any 
direction is always followed by competition. In 1825 Phelps & Good- 
win built the " Telemachus," which, although larger and swifter, was 
not a perfect specimen of water craft. The " Enterprise " then be- 
came a towing boat. In 1827 Elijah H. Goodwin, Richard Varick De 
Witt and S. De Witt Bloodgood purchased the interests of all other 
parties in the company. In 1820 the " De Witt Clinton " was built. 
She ran as a passenger boat and the ' ' Telemachus " was used for freight. 

Capt. T. D. Wilcox had been connected with steamboat navigation 
on the Hudson since 1818, having been employed on the "Paragon," 
the third of Fulton's boats. After remaining there four years he was 
employed on Long Island Sound, where he was captain of the " Ful- 
ton " in 1831-32. He came to Ithaca in 1840 aqd purchased the steam- 

of the inlet and it was launched May 4, 1830, amid much rejoicing. There was some 
difficulty in sliding it down into the water, as one end started first, and it was intend- 
ed that it should go sideways, but the delay was only short and the launching was a 
success. After the boat was finished there was a crowd of ladies and gentlemen 
that had a pleasant time on the trip. It was all going well when David Woodcock, 
who was president of the company, came to my father and said the engineer was 
drunk and wanted him to take charge of the engine. He did it, although it was his 
first effort in that capacity, and was engineer for three weeks, until they could send 
to Albany for another engineer. " 

1 On the 16th of April, 1834, a charter was granted by the Legislature for the 
Ithaca and Port Renwick Railroad. On the 8th of May, 1835, this company was 
authorized to con.struct a canal from Fall Creek to the lake, and collect tolls thereon. 
In 1836 the time for building the railroad was extended two years. 


boats building, the "Simeon De Witt" and the "Forest City." In 
1855 the Cayuga and Susquehanna Railroad Company purchased the 
entire steamboat interest. The " Simeon De Witt " was rebuilt and 
named the " William E. Dodge," and was commanded by William H. 
Leonard. Captain Wilcox repurchased the boats from the railroad 
company, and was sole or partial proprietor until May, 1803, when 
Alonzo B. Cornell purchased Wilcox's interest and sold out to Edward 
Himrod, of Aurora, in 1863. Himrod sold to Charles M. Titus, of Ith- 
aca. Wilcox then repurchased of these parties, and was sole owner 
imtil his death, April 20, 1884. His heirs sold to the Cayuga Lake 
Transportation Company, consisting of Warren Hunt, H. L. Hinckley, 
Horac9 M. Hibbard, and Linn Van Order. In 1892 Hunt purchased 
the whole, and has since run the -boats. Captain Wilcox built the 
"Kate Morgan" in 1855, the "Sheldrake" in 1857, the "Aurora" in 
1859, the "T. D. Wilcox" in 1861, the "Ino ' in 1864, and the " Fron- 
tenac" in 1866. The "Sheldrake" is now the "Cayuga" and is vised 
as a freight-towing steamer. The "Frontenac" is a regular passenger 
boat, and the "Wilcox" is used for excursions. 

In 1863 A. P. Osborn, of Trumansburgh, built the "Cayuga," which 
was run as a freight boat between Ithaca and Syracuse. She was tak- 
en to Saginaw and plied on the Saginayv River. 

In 1864 Howland & Robinson, of Union Springs, built the "How- 
land," placing her on the Ithaca and Syracuse route, but after a short 
time she was withdrawn and used as a freight boat wherever opportu- 
nity offered. 

Capt. Abram Van Order had a steam freight boat in 1856. In 1862 
H. C. Tracy, of Kidder's Ferry, built a steam ferry boat. The "Ith- 
aca," built at Union Springs for a ferry; the "Beardsley," a small 
sidewheel steamer, and the "Emily McAllister," a propeller, were 
purchased by the steamboat company and used for a short time. 
Capt. Abram Schuyler now runs the "Elfin" as a freight steamer. 

Charles Kellogg, the wealthy bridge builder of Athens, Pa., has 
built several fine steam yachts. First, the "Kellogg," then the "Hor- 
ton," and last the "Clara." He transferred the " Kellogg " and the 
"Horton" to Henry Stevens, and sold the "Clara" to parties on the 
Hudson River. He th^n built a still finer boat, and named her the 
"Clara." The "Bradford Almy"and the "Undine" are owned by 
Capt. John Vant, and there are many other yachts in commission at 
the present time. 


Robert L. Darragh, of New York, with a summer residence at Shel- 
drake, has had two fine passenger steamers constructed which are to 
ply on Cayuga Lake, commencing early in the season of 1894. 

In this connection it will be interesting to speak of Phineas Bennett 
and his great invention, the "smoke boat." Mr. Bennett was con- 
nected with boating here between 1835 and 1840, and conceived the 
idea of producing power almost wholly by the combustion of smoke. 
He patented his invention and an engine was built at B. C. Vail's ma- 
chine shop, which stood on ground now owned by John Furey, on the 
northwest corner of Cayuga and Green streets, and was burned in 1840. 
One who saw this engine and witnessed its operation, speaks of it as 
having a wooden balance wheel which was increased in weight by iron 
plates bolted upon it. This bolting was somewhat insecure and the 
motion of the wheel, detaching the weights,- threw the pieces of iron 
fully a hundred feet to the imminent danger of passers by. 

Bennett impressed some persons in New York with the practicability 
of his invention, and a large steamer was built and Bennett's engine 
placed therein. On a trial trip, as related by one of the pa,ssengers, the 
boat started down towards Staten Island zvtt/t the tide. Attempting 
to stem the tide on the return trip, the engine failed entirely and the 
boat was towed back to the city and dismantled. 

Belief that navigation was to be revolutionized by Bennett's idea was 
prevalent in Ithaca. There were 320 shares issued by the company, 
and these were for a long time quoted at $10,000 each. 

The Sodus Canal. — From 1828 to 1838 the whole of this section was 
deeply interested in the construction of the Sodus Canal, which was to 
form a great waterway between Sodus Bay on Lake Ontario, and Ca- 
yuga Lake. Locks were to be constructed from the Erie Canal at 
Clyde to the bay, in a canal to be built. Vessels were to be brought 
east on the Erie' Canal and locked down into the Canandaigua Oiitlet 
and thenc6 sail up Cayuga Lake. It was an attractive scheme. Meet- 
ings were held, the Legislature appealed to for aid, and some work was 
done in clearing out a channel at the head of the bay. In 1836 Henry 
Walton, an artist of some note, painted views of Ithaca, from South, 
West and East Hills. That from South Hill showed Cayuga Lake cov- 
ered with large, square-rigged vessels, supposed to have reached this 
locality through the Sodus Canal. The charter for this ship canal was 
first granted March 19, 1829. The capital stock was $200,000 and the 
work was to be finished in ten years. In 1861 the charter, after re- 


peated amendments and extensions, expired by limitation. In 1862 a 
new act for the construction of the canal was passed, and it was provid- 
ed that if the general government should furnish money to complete 
the work, perpetual right of transit for government vessels free of tolls 
or charges should be granted. This canal appears on. Stone & Clark's 
maps, published in 1840-42. 

Other Canal Projects. — A canal was built by private enterprise 
from Six Mile Creek to Beebe's flouring mill on the west side of the 
Spencer road, just south of the Cayuga street bridge. Boats were to 
be locked up the creek and thus floated to the mills. The mill building 
burned in 1840 and the proposed canalwas never used. 

A company proposed to build a canal from the steamboat landing to 
the Cayuga street bridge over Cascadilla Creek. The lot occupied by 
the brick store on the southwest corner of Cayuga and Farm streets, 
then occupied by a rope walk, carried on by Aaron Curtis, was to be 
excavated and used as a canal basin. Happily for the projectors, but 
little money was spent on the project. 

In connection with this subject it may be noticed that much work 
has been done on the Inlet for the improvement of water communication, 
and for the establishment of ferries across Cayuga Lake. As early as 
April, 1839, J. McLallen was authorized by act of the Legislature to 
establish a ferry from Frog Point (in Covert) to "lot number 08 in 
Lansing, at or near Woodard's, or Countryman's landing," and was 
given its monopoly for fifteen years. He was empowered to charge a 
ferriage of $1 for a four-wheeled coach or pleasure carriage with two 
horses; and 35 cents for an additional horse or mule; for a sulky or 
chaise with one horse, 63 1-3 cents; four-wheeled lumber wagon, 75 
cents; one-horse wagon 50 cents, and for footmen, 35 cents. 

On the 7th of April, 1834, the canal commissioners were directed by 
act of the Legislature, to survey the Inlet and report on the feasibility 
of removing obstructions therein at the bar and adapting it as an ap- 
pendage of the Erie Canal (in the language of the act). A collector's 
office was to be established at Ithaca. On the 3d of May, 1835, an act 
was passed making it the duty of the canal commissioners to, dredge 
out the Inlet channel across the bar so that boats drawing five feet of 
water could pass. Under this act all property passing through the In- 
let from the Erie Canal was to pay a toll. In 1869 $15,000 were appro- 
priated by the State for dredging the Inlet, building a pier on the west 
side of the Inlet channel, etc., and in 1870, $1,000 were appropriated 


for building a lighthouse. In 1871 an appropriation of $1,250 was 
made by the vState to finish the work at the head of the lake, "under 
direction of William W. Wright, commissioner in charge." 

The pier on the east side of the Inlet, being the main one, was built 
by Wm. Mott 2d, in 1836, at a cost of $10,000. It has since been en- 
larged at the head and otherwise improved. 

Railroads. — The Ithaca and Owego Railroad was incorporated Jan- 
uary 28, 1828, and was the second railroad chartered in the State of 
New York. The first officers were Francis A. Bloodgood, president ; 
Richard Varick De Witt, treasurer; Ebenezer Mack, secretary; S. De- 
Witt Bloodgood, Andrew D. W. Bruyn, Cornelius P. Heermans, Myn- 
dert Van Schaick, James Pumpelly, and Alvah Beebe, directors. The 
flat strap rail was used, laid upon timbers running with the rail. The 
road was twenty-nine miles long and at the Ithaca end used two inclined 
planes to reach the flat from the hill above. These inclined planes 
were operated by horse power, a separate power for each plane. The 
upper one was 2,225 feet long with a descent of one foot in twenty-one 
feet. The lower one was 1,733 feet long with a descent of one foot in 
four and 28-lOOths feet, and the total descent on this was 405 feet. 
Cars were drawn on this road with horses from the date of its opening, 
in April 1834, to 1840, when an engine built in Schenectady was brought 
to Ithaca and placed in service. It was not equal to the required duty, 
and a train of cars to attend a mass meeting at Owego arrived there by 
efforts of the passengers pushing both the engine and the cars. 

The engine was afterwards rebuilt at Schenectady and its weight and 
power largely increased. It proved too heavy for the bridges, and 
breaking through one, was so broken as not to be again used. 

The original gauge of the road was six feet and was changed in Sep- 
tember, 1878, to four feet, eight inches. The State loaned its credit 
for the construction of this road to the amount of $300,000. There 
was, of course, default in interest, and on May 20, 1842, the property 
was sold by the State comptroller under the default, and was bought in 
by Archibald Mclntyre and others. 

On the 18th of April, 1843, the Cayuga and Susquehanna Railroad 
Company was incorporated. In 1849 the road was sold to New York 
parties and relaid with heavy rail. January 1, 1855, it was leased to 
the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western road for ninety-nine years. 

The Catskill and Ithaca Railroad was chartered April 28, 1828, with 
a capital of $1,500,000. No work was ever done under this charter,. 


The Ithaca and Auburn Raih'oad was chartered in May, 183U, but no 
work was done under the charter. The proposed route was up the 
south bank of Pall Creek to a point just east of Etna, and thence north- 
ward to Auburn. 

The Auburn, Lake Ontario and New York Railroad was the succes- 
sor of the Ithaca and Auburn, and a large amount of work was done 
on it in 1850 and 1851. The road bed was partially graded from Au- 
burn to Asbury, and between the latter point and Fall Creek about two 
miles were finished. The route was to cross the creek on a high bridge 
nearly on a line with the present University reservoir and Cascadilla 
Creek near Dwyer's mill, thence direct to the present E. C. & N. depot. 
The heavy cut at Besemer's and the fill at Brookton, with the cut be- 
yond, so far as it extends, was the work of the old company. The 
E. C. & N. track is on the old grading from Ithaca depot south for 
about seven miles. 

The Chemung and Ithaca Railroad was chartered in May, 1837, with 
a capital stock of $200,000. Its route was on the east side of the Inlet 
valley to Spencer. No work was done on the road. 

The Ithaca and Athens Railroad Company was organized as the Ith- 
aca and Towanda Railroad in 1807, with a capital stock of $3,000, 000. 
The road was opened in 1871. 

The Geneva and Ithaca Railroad Company was formed under the 
general railroad law in 1870, with a capital stock of $1,250,000. This 
road, with the Ithaca and Towanda, changed to the Ithaca and Athens, 
were consolidated April 10, 1874, and afterwards acquired by the Le- 
high Valley organization. This consolidated line is now known as the 
Geneva, Ithaca and Sayre Railroad. 

The Ithaca and Cortland Railroad, organized under the general law, 
was opened for travel over nine miles of its length between Ithaca and 
Freeville in December, 1870; was opened to Cortland, twenty-one 
miles in all, in December, 1871 ; extended from Ithaca to Elmira and 
opened for travel in 1874. To form a through line the old Midland 
track was utilized from Cortland to De Ruyter, the link thence to Caz- 
enovia was built, and the Cazenovia and Canastota road used to reach 
the New York Central at the latter place. The name of the through 
road was made " Utica, Ithaca and Elmira Railroad." After passing 
through a receivership and being sold, the property was acquired by 
Austin Corbin and his friends, and the name changed to the Elmira, 
Cortland and Northern. The line has been extended to Camden, on 


the Rome, Watertown and Ogdensburg road. Its entire length from 
Ehnira to Camden is 134 miles. 

The Southern Central Railroad, organized under the general law, 
was opened for travel between Owego and Auburn in December, 18G9. 
It was subsequently extended to the southwest to Sayre, Pa., and 
northward to Fairhaven on Lake Ontario. The line is now owned and 
operated by the Lehigh Valley Company. 

The Cayuga Railroad Company was organized in 1871, under the 
general law, for the purpose of constructing a road along the eastern 
shore of the lake between Ithaca and Cayuga Bridge. Work on the 
road was begun late in the same year. The rails were laid in the 
winter of 1873. In the spring of 1873 many miles of the road bed were 
washed out. The company was reorganized in 1874 as the Cayuga 
Lake Railroad Company ; the road was reconstructed, and trains began 
running in the fall. The road passed to control of the Lehigh Valley 
Company in 1877. In 1890 a branch was built from Union Springs to 
Auburn, which is now the main line, the branch to Cayuga Bridge 
being still in use. 

The Midland Railroad, which reached Cortland from De Ruyter, 
utilized the track from there to Freeville, and thence built north to 
Scipio, when work was suspended in 1872. In 1880 the road was fin- 
ished to Auburn and operated until 1889, when it was sold and the 
rails between Freeville and Genoa were taken up. In 1890 the road was 
dismantled between Genoa and Dougall's, but was used from there to 
Auburn as an extension of the Cayuga Railroad in 1891, when the line 
between Union Springs and Auburn was constructed. 

The Pennsylvania and Sodus Bay Railroad Company was organized 
under the general law to construct a road from a point in the town of 
vSpencer where connection was to be made with the Ithaca and Athens 
road, through Newfield, Enfield, Ulysses, Covert, Ovid, Varick, to 
Seneca Falls. Rights of way were procured, the track graded, and 
many culverts and some bridges built. Towns on the route were bond- 
ed in its aid, but the enterprise was finally abandoned. There have 
been changes in ownership and law suits innumerable in regard to the 

Six of the nine towns of Tompkins county issued bonds in aid of rail- 
roads as follows: Ithaca, $300,000, in aid of the Ithaca and Athens road, 
and $100,000 in aid of the Geneva and Ithaca road. Ithaca village, 
,000 in aid of the Ithaca and Cortland road. Lansing, $75,000 in 


aid of the Midland road and the same amount in aid of the Cayuga 
Lake railway. Groton, $15,000 in aid of the Utica, Ithaca and Elmira 
road. Enfield, $25,000 in aid of the Pennsylvania and Sodus Bay road. 
Newfield, $52,000, and Ulysses, $76,000 for the same road. There 
now remains due as principal of these bonds the following sums : 

Ithaca, for Ithaca and Athens road $75,000 

" for the Ithaca and Geneva road _. 30,836.19 

Ithaca city for the Ithaca and Cortland road 29,509.55 

Groton " " " " 15,000 

Enfield for the Pennslyvania and Sodus Bay road 16,800 

Newfield " " " " _ 45,800 

Ulysses " " " '■ 54,300 

At the termination of an extended lawsuit the bonds issued by the 
town of Lansing wei"e declared invalid and ordered canceled. 


The First Newspaper in the County — Its Very Early Publication — Its History 
down to its Present Successor, the Ithaca Journal — Opening of the Telegraph Line 
to Ithaca — The Ithaca Chronicle — The Democrat and its Predecessors — The Weekly 
Ithacan — Newspapers of Trumansburgh — Other Publications. 

Like the history of the newspaper press elsewhere, papers have been 
established in Tompkins county and succeeded ; others, and very many 
of them, after a struggle for existence of brief or longer duration, sus- 
pended, and the hopes of a host of ambitious publishers disappeared 
with the close of their issues. The death roll of newspapers is a long 
one in every populous community. 

The first newspaper attempted in Tompkins county was named The 
vSeneca Republican, and its first issue appeared July 4, 1815, seventy- 
nine years ago, and nearly two years before the organization of the 
county. Jonathan Ingersoll was the publisher. In 1816 its name was 
changed to The Ithaca Journal and Mack & Shepherd purchased it. 
The paper was successively issued by Mack & Searing, Ebenezer Mack, 
and Mack & Morgan, until 1824, when William Andrus became part 
owner of the establishment and the paper was issued by Mack & An- 
drus. In 1827 the title was The Ithaca Journal, Literary Gazette and 
General Advertiser; but the paper survived the burden of such a name. 


111 the following year the name was shortened to The Ithaca Journal 
and Advertiser. In December, 1833, Mack & Andrus sold to Nathan 
Randall. In 1837 Randall sold to Mattison & Barnaby. Mattison sold 
his interest to L. S. Eddy, and Barnaby afterwards acquired the entire 
interest. In 1839, under an execution, the paper was sold to Alfred 
Wells. On the. 1st of July, 1841, John H. Selkreg purchased a one-half 
interest, and Wells & Selkreg published the paper imtil 1853, when 
Selkre'g became sole proprietor. In 1843 the name of the publication 
was again changed to The Ithaca Journal, which title it still holds. In 
July, 1870, the firm of Selkreg & Apgar was formed, and the Daily 
Journal appeared on July 1st of that year. This firm continued until 
1876, when D. J. Apgar resold his interest to J. H. Selkreg. In 1877 
the Ithaca Journal Association, a joint stock corporation, was formed, 
J. H. Selkreg, George E. Priest, Charles M. Benjamin and George W. 
Wood each owning one-fourth. In 1878 Selkreg purchased the interest 
of Wood, and in 1880 sold his whole share to Priest & Benjamin. The 
Journal Association was dissolved in 1891, and the Daily and Weekly 
Journal is now published by Priest & Benjamin. Three papers have 
been absorbed by the Journal, viz. : The Jeffersonian and Tompkins 
Times, established by Charles Robbins in 1835, was sold to George G. 
Freer in 1830, and merged into the Journal in 1837. The Flag of the 
Union, started by Jonathan B. Gosman in 1848, was absorbed by the 
Journal in 1849. The Ithacan, started by H. D. Cunningham and 
George C. Bragdon in 1868, was sold to the Journal in 1870. 

The Ithaca Journal was a Jacksonian organ and continued in the 
Democratic column down to 1856. In 1848 it advocated the election of 
Van Buren as against Cass. In 1856, in July, it became Republican, 
supporting Fremont and Dayton, and has continued an ardent advocate 
of Republican principles since. The Journal now and for many years 
past has ranked among the prominent newspapers of the interior of the 

In 1840 a telegraph line had been constructed and was in operation 
between Utica and New York — a part of the main line then in process 
of building towards Buffalo. A branch wire was operated to Ithaca, 
and for some months the Journal and the Chronicle published small 
broadside dailies, distributing them gratuitously. No charge was 
made for the reports received, and the type set for these dodgers (for 
they were little more than that) was used in the regular weekly issues 
of the two papers. 


In 1830 David D. Spencer, who had just completed his apprentice- 
ship with L. H. Redfield in the office of the Syracuse Gazette and 
Register, associated himself with Mr. Stockton and began the publica- 
tion of the Ithaca Chronicle. In 1823 D. D. Spencer acquired Stock- 
ton's interest and then sold one-half of the establishment to T. S. 
Chatterton, who purchased the remainder in 1828. He changed the 
name of the paper to The Ithaca Republican, and again changed it 
to The Tompkins American ; but he discontinued the publication in 

In February, 1828, David D. and Anson Spencer began the publica- 
tion of The Ithaca Chronicle. Spence Spencer, son of David D., was 
at one period in the firm. In 1853, David D. Spencer dying, Anson 
Spencer became sole proprietor. In 1854 he sold the establishment to 
A. E. Barnaby & Co., who changed the name of the paper to The 
American Citizen. The paper again came into the hands of Anson 

Timothy Maloney began the publication of The Tompkins Democrat 
in the autumn of 1856, continuing it until his death in 1860. Samuel 
C. Clisbe then purchased the office and sold one half to Barnum R. 
Williams. Clisbe retired and the paper was consolidated with The 
Citizen (just mentioned), and the name changed to The Democrat in 
November, 1863. The business was conducted by Spencer & Williams 
until the summer of 1872, when Mr. Spencer again acquired the entire 
ownership and sold one-half to Ward Gregory, December 1, 1873. Mr. 
Spencer died July 26, 1876, and Mr. Gregory purchased Mr. Spencer's 
interest. On the 1st of March, 1889, George W. Apgar bought a one- 
half interest in the property. Mr. Gregory died May 30, 1 880, and his 
widow retaining his interest, the firm remains unchanged. The Re- 
publican Chronicle advocated the election of Adams in 1824, and was 
the Whig organ up to 1854 in this county, when Barnaby & Co. made 
it the organ of the American party. This continued until 1860, and it 
then became and has since continued the Democratic organ of Tomp- 
kins county. It is ably edited and its sterling principles and firm 
adherence to the doctrines of its party give it a powerful influence. 

The Weekly Ithacan is at the present time (1894) published by Lewis 
A. Clapp, son of Asahel Clapp, who died March 1, 1893. In May, 
1856, H. D. Rumsey started the publication of Rumsey's Companion 
at Dryden. .The name was so®n changed to The Fireside Companion, 
and again a few months later to The Dryden News. In 1857 G. Z, 
House purchased the concern and changed the name of the paper to 


The New York Confederac)^ The paper was soon afterward discon- 
tinued. In July, 1858, Asahel Clapp resuscitated the publication under 
the name of The Dryden Weekly News. He enlarged and improved 
it, and in April, 1871, in connection with Haines D. Cunningham and 
Edward D. Norton, the establishment was i-emoved to Ithaca and the 
name of the paper changed to The Weekly Ithacan and Dryden News, 
with local editions for each village. After the lapse of about six 
months the firm was dissolved and Mr. Clapp became sole owner. In 
June, 1874, he sold the establishment to George Ketchum, who failed 
in 1876, and Mr. Clapp was compelled to foreclose his lien on the office 
and bid it in. Since that date the paper has been enlarged and im- 
proved and has attained a large circulation. The Ithacan supported 
the Greenbackers in their daj', but has made a consistent record for 
temperance ever since its establishment. 

The Press in Trumansburgh. — The best history of the newspapers 
of Trumansburgh is printed in a publication devoted to the history of 
that village and published from the Free Press office in 1890. This 
publication, evidencing great research and labor in preparation, gives 
by far the most comprehensive history of the largest village in Tomp- 
kins county outside of Ithaca, covering also much of the history of the 
town of Ulysses and many other matters in which the inhabitants of 
that locality have an interest. The writer of this volume here acknowl- 
edges the great help it has been to him in his task. We quote from its 
pages the following facts : The first newspaper in Trumansburgh was 
the Lake Light, an anti-Masonic paper, commenced in 1827 by W. 
W. Phelps. The Light was extinguished in 1829 for want of support. 
The Anti-Masonic Sentinel was its successor, published by R. St. John, 
but it lived only about three months. In 1832 David Fairchild started 
The Advertiser. He succeeded in his business and in 1837 sold his 
establishment to Palmer & Maxon ; the latter soon afterward retired, 
and Mr. Palmer continued sole publisher. John Gray succeeded him, 
changing the title to The Trumansburgh Sun. Hawes & Hooker suc- 
ceeded Gray, changing the name to The Gazette. Not succeeding, the 
establishment came into the hands of John Creque, jr., who afterwards 
leased it to S. M. Day, who changed the. name of the paper to The 
Trumansburgh Herald. Mr. Day was succeeded by W. K. Creque, 
who called the paper The Independent. Its publication ceased in 1863, 
and Corydon Fairchild, of Ovid, purchased the materials. • 

In November, 1800, A. P. Osborn started the Trumansburgh News, 
with Edward Himrod as associate editor. Himrod afterwards leased 


the office of and continued the paper, but Osborn sold the plant to John 
McL. Thompson. A. O. Hicks and W. W. Pasko bought of Thomp- 
son, and were succeeded by J. W. Van Amie, and he by W. H. Cuff- 
man, who continued the publication until the office was destroyed by 
fire, February 32, 1864. On April 5, 1865, O. M. Wilson issued the 
first number of The Tompkins County Sentinel, the name of which was 
afterwards changed to The Trumansburgh Sentinel. February 13, 
1879, he sold the paper to C. L. Adams, and January 1, 1894, he sold 
to Charles A. Vorhees, its present proprietor. 

In 1873 A. F. Allen published The Advance, which was continued 
only three months. On the 7th of November Mr. Allen revived the 
Free Press and has successfully conducted it ; it may now be properly 
styled an established newspaper. 

The Dryden Herald was started at that village in 1871 by William 
Smith, who a few months later sold out to Osborn & Clark. In 1876 
Ford & Strobridge acquired the establishment. It subsequently came 
into the hands of A. M. Ford, and is now successfully published by his 
sons, J. B. & W. A. Ford. The Herald is neutral in politics with Re- 
publican tendencies. 

Other more or less ephemeral publications in this county have been 
The Tompkins Volunteer, which was started in Ithaca by H. C. Good- 
win in 1840. John Gray afterwards owned the establishment, and he 
sold to J. Hunt, jr., who issued the paper as The Tompkins Democrat. 
The plant was removed to Chenango county. 

The Western Messenger was started by A. P. Searing in Ithaca in 
1826 and continued about two years. Searing also started The Western 
Museum and Belles Lettres Repositoi-y in 1821, continuing it some two 

James M. Miller published The Castigator in 1823. In this paper 
appeared the proclamations of the Moral Society, famous in olden 

O. A. Brons.on began the publication of The Pliilanthropist, a Uni- 
versalist organ, which lived about a year. 

The Templar and Watchman, a temperance journal, was started by 
Orlando Lund, who sold an interest to Charles F. Williams. Subse- 
quently Lund sold to Myron S. Barnes, who with Williams continued 
the paper about two years. 

Edgar St. John commenced the publication of a temperance weekly 
in 1845 and continued it about two years. It was printed in the Jour- 
nal office. 


The Christian Doctrinal Advocate and Spiritual Monitor was started 
at Mott's Corners (now Brookton) in 1837. It was the organ of the 
Seventh-Day Baptists and secured a large circulation, principally in the 
Southern and Western States. The paper continued several years, 
when the office was removed elsewhere. 

The Ithaca Daily Leader was started November 2, 1809, by William 
A. Burritt. It was a small sheet six and one-half by nine and one-half 
inches printed matter, two columns on a page. February 1, 1870, it 
appeared as a three-column sheet, and the pages enlarged to eight and 
one-half by eleven inches. It subsequently passed into the hands of 
H. D. Cunningham and E. D. Norton, by whom it was enlarged. It 
was published by them until December 31, 1872, when it was discon- 

The Groton Balance was started in January, 1831, by H. P. Eels & 
Co., who issued it a few months, when it passed into the hands of E. 
S. Keeney, and its name changed to The Groton Democrat. It was 
discontinued in 1840. 

The Groton Journal was established by H. C. Marsh, November 9, 
1806. He continued its publication until January, 1872, when it was 
purchased by A. T. Lyon, who issued it until December 9 of the same 
year, when it was sold to L. N. Chapin, who sold it to W. H. Allen, 
who took possession July 17, 1879. He associated 'with him H. L. 
Wright. L. J. Townley, the present proprietor, came on the paper 
October 16, 1879, and established the Lansing department, when the 
name was changed to the Groton and Lansing Journal and did business 
as the Journal Printing Company. November 17, 1883, Mr. Townley 
purchased the establishment and associated with him H. L. Wright, 
under the firm name of Townley & Wright. December 1, 1885, Mr. 
Wright disposed of his interest to Mr. Townley, who has since pub- 
lished the paper. The Journal is a large folio, ably edited, and of 
great influence. 



History of Tompkiiis County Agricultural Society— Its First Officers— Insigniii- 
cance of Early Premiums Offered— Sales and Purchases of Property— History of the 
County Poor House— Statistics of its Present Condition— Masonic Societies in the 
County — Other Societies and Institutions. 

There was an Agricultural Society in existence in this county at or 
soon after the organization in 1817, but no records are accessible in 
regard to its proceedings. In 1830 the annual meeting, as reported in 
the American Journal of March 22, was held on the 1st of March, when 
William T. Southworth was chosen chairman, and Piatt Ketchum sec- 
retary. Officers were chosen for the ensuing year as follows : William 
T. Southworth, president; Alexander Bower, George Robertson, Peter 
Himrod, William Morrison and Job Allen, vice-presidents; Piatt 
Ketchum, corresponding secretary; Jacob G. Dykeman, recording sec- 
retary; Luther Gere, treasurer; William R. Collins, auditor. 

The sum of $186 was offered that year in premiums, and the fair was 
held on the last Tuesday in November at the Ithaca Hotel. Old resi- 
dents speak of the " show," as it was termed, as a great success. The 
fair closed with awards to successful exhibitors, after which a proces- 
sion was formed which marched to the Presbyterian Church, where a 
prayer was offered by Rev. William Wisner, and an oration delivered 
by William T. Southworth. The premiums awarded were then paid in 
specie at the close of the church exercises. 

There are no attainable records in regard to this society after 1820 
for a number of years. The fairs are, however, remembered, showing 
that their commencement was in 1839. vSome authorities claim that 
the reorganization was in 1841, and another one in 1838. In 1855 the 
society purchased four blocks of land near the steamboat landing, and 
in 1857 another block, five in all, bounded on the west by Cascadilla 
Creek; on the north by Raili-oad avenue; on the east by Auburn street; 
and on the south by Lewis street. On this tract was erected a two- 
story exhibition hall, fifty by one hundred feet in dimensions, and a 
trotting- track laid out. In 1875 this property was sold to B. G. Jayne, 


and forty-five acres bought west of Meadow street and south of Clinton 
street, in the southwest part of the city. There a large number of 
buildings have been erected for exhibition and other purposes, and the 
society, in point of efficiency and resources, stands abreast with any 
county society in the State. 

Abstract of receipts and disbursements of Tompkins County Agri- 
cultural Society for 1893: 

Balance from last report §^7.83 

G. C. McClure, ex-treasurer $ 53.08 

From gate receipts 1,075.10 

Rent of building 55.00 

Rent of privileges 534.90 

Annual members at $1.00 , 2,666.00 

Members paying $5 each 620.00 

Entries for races 312.00 

Advertisers in Premium List 150.00 

Ives Pool Fund, 1893 488.05 

State of New York, 1893.... 259.35 

Note at Tompkins County National Bank 500.00 

Receipts for 1893 6,713.54 



For permanent improvements ..$ 111.64 

Labor 495.51 

Material, lumber, etc 186.77 

Salaries 50.00 

Printing and advertising 070.71 

Services of superintendents, police, watchmen, gateraen and 

clerks 216. 00 

Supplies for fair 204.84 

Music during fair 115.00 

Insurance fees and miscellaneous bills 85. 66 

Race purses 866. 00 

Payment on indebtedness... , 1,130.59 

Total premiums on stock 1,425.00 

Premiums paid for 1892 183.29 

Premiums other than above, 1893 750.00 

Total disbursements 6,491.01 

At the annual meeting of the society in 1894 it was resolved to bor- 
row the sum of $3,500 to pay the indebtedness of the society, and the 
further sum of $1,300 for needed improvements. The following officers 
were elected for 1894: 



President, George H. Baker (re-elected); secretary, Carey B. Fish; 
treasurer, L. H. Van Kirk (re-elected) ; directors, R. G. H. Speed, 
William Nixon, W. O. Newman. Vice-presidents: Caroline, Henry D. 
Thomas ; Danby, L. L. Beers ; Dryden, C. D. Burch ; Enfield, B. Oltz ; 
Groton, Z. Cook; Ithaca, C. E. Seaman; Lansing, Delos Harring; 
Newfield, C. Seabring; Ulysses, A. H. Pierson. 

Tompkins County Pook-Housh. — It was ten years after the organiza- 
tion of this county before action was taken by the Board of Supervisors 
towards the establishment of a county poor-house. The first record in 
regard thereto appears in the proceedings of the board on the 23d of 
November, 1837, when a resolution was passed declaring the advis- 
ability of establishing a poor-house and appropriating the sum of $4,000 
for that purpose. Of the sum appropriated, f 1,500 were to be levied 
at that session, $1,350 in 1838, and the remaining $1,350 in 1839. A 
committee of one from each town was named to superintend'the work 
of building, consisting of the following named persons : Solomon Sharp, 
Dryden; John Guthrie, Groton; Sullivan D. Hubbell, Hector; Elbert 
Curtis, Danby; Nicoll Halsey, Ulysses; Gilbert J. Ogden, Enfield; 
John White, Newfield; Nicholas Townley, Lansing; Ira Tillottson, 
Ithaca; Charles Mulks, Caroline. 

The site chosen is in the town of Ulysses about six miles northwest 
from Ithaca The original building was of wood, erected under the 
resolution of 1837 and added to from time to time as became necessary. 
Quite extensive out-buildings were also constructed upon the farm of 
100 acres, the soil of which is first-class, perhaps as good as can be 
found within the limits of the county. 

Through age and long use the original building and its additions 
finally reached a condition necessitating very extensive repaii^s, prac- 
tically rebuilding, or else the erection of an entirely new structure. 
Public sentiment throughout the county favored new, more commo- 
dious and comfortable buildings, and on the 20th of November, 1801, a 
committee was appointed to take into consideration the entire subject, 
embracing repairing of the old house or the the erection of a new one, 
and also change of location. In February, 1893, the board refused to 
change the location, authorized a new building, and at a s]5ecial session 
in June, 1893, appropriated $20,000 for the purpose. The new struc- 
ture is of brick, ample in size, and constructed with special reference 
to the comfort of inmates and economy in details of management. 


The Board of State Charities, in their annual report for 1802, notes 
that the new building was in process of construction ; that there were, 
on the 1st of November, thirty-six men and ten women inmates; there 
were no insane : and that three children had been born in the house 
during the year then ending. 

The county superintendent of the poor is, by resolution, made keeper 
of the house. The average cost of support of inmates per year was 

The report of the Boai-d of Supervisors for the year ending Novem- 
ber 16, 1893, shows that the whole number of days' support for the 
5^ear was 14,298 ; for which the cost of board and clothing was $2,440.13. 
The average cost per week was $1. 19 and a fraction. On November 
15, 1802, there were thirty-six persons in the house; November 15, 
1893, forty-eight persons. 

Statistical. — The Supervisors' reports for 1893 show that in the 
town of Ithaca there are 16,293 acres of land, and in the city, 2,940 
acres. The assessed value of real estate, including village property 
and the real estate of corporations, was, in the town, $568,585; in the 
city, $2,599,376. The total assessed valuation of personal property in 
the town was $38,725; in the city, $512,155. The amount of town 
taxes for the town was $5, 842. 27 ; for the city, $34, 745. 41. The amount 
of county taxes for the town was $1,557.98; for the city, $10,892.65. 
The aggregate taxation for the town was $8,961.45; for the city, $56,- 
553.26. The rate of tax on $1 valuation was, in the town, .015; in the 
city, .0182. 



























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Comparison of State Law with the Common Law— Evokition of the Courts— Tlie 
Court of Appeals— The Supreme Court— The Court of Chancery— The County Court 
— The Surrogate's Court — Justice's Court — District Attorneys — Sheriffs — Court 
House — Judicial Officers — Personal Notes — Important Trials. 

The statement is commonly expressed that the judicial system of the 
vState of New York is largely copied from the common law of England. 
AVhile this is true to a great extent, there are important differences re- 
vealed by a close study of the history of the laws of this State, showing 
that our system is in many important respects an original growth. In 
the simple yet initiative inatter of entitling a criminal process there is 
a radical difference between our method and that which must be fol- 
lowed in England. Here it is "The people versus the criminal;" 
there, "Rex versus the criminal." In the one it is an independent 
judiciary responsible directly to the people; in the other the court is 
subservient to the king. 

This dominant idea of the sovereignty of the people over our laws, 
as well as in other respects, has had a slow, conservative, yet steadily 
progressive and systematic growth. In the early history of the State 
the governor was in effect the maker, interpreter and enforcer of the 
law?. He was the chief judge of the Court of Final Resort, while his 
councillors were generally his obedient followers. The execution of 
the English and Colonial statutes rested with him, as did also the exer- 
cise of royal authority in the Province ; and it was not until the adop- 
tion of the first Constitution, in 1777, that he ceased to contend for 
these prerogatives and to act as though the only functions of the court 
and councillors were to do his bidding as servants and helpers, while 
the Legislature Should adopt only such laws as the executive should 
suggest and approve. By the first Constitution the governor was 
wholly' stripped of the judicial power which he possessed under the 
Colonial rule, and such power was vested in the lieutenant-governor 
and the Senate, the chancellor and the justices of the Supreme Court ; 
the former to be elected by the people, and the latter to be appointed 


by the Council. Under this Constitution there was the first radical 
separation of the judicial and the legislative powers, and the advance- 
ment of the judiciary to the position of a co-ordinate department of the 
government, and subject to the limitation consequent upon the appoint- 
ment of its members by the Council. 

But even this restriction was soon felt to be incompatible, though it 
was not until the adoption of the Constitution of 1846 that the last con- 
nection between the purely political and the judicial parts of the State 
government was abolished; and with it disappeared the last remaining 
relic of the colonial period as regards the laws. From this time on the 
judiciary became more directly representative of the people in the elec- 
tion by them of its members. The development of the idea of the 
responsibility of the courts to the people, from the time when all its 
members were at the beck and nod of one wellnigh .irresponsible mas- 
ter, to the time when all judges, even of the Court of Last Resort, are 
voted for by the people, has been remarkable. Yet, through all this 
change there has prevailed the idea of one ultimate tribunal from 
whose decision there can be no appeal. 

Noting briefly the present arrangement and powers of the courts of 
this State and the elements from which they have grown, we see that 
the whole scheme is involved in the idea of, first, a trial before a 
magistrate and jury — arbiters respectively of law and fact — and then a 
review by a higher tribunal of the facts and law, and ultimately of the 
law by a court of last resort. To accomplish the purposes of this 
scheme there has been devised and established, first, the present Court 
of Appeals, the ultimate tribunal of the State, perfected in its present 
form by the Conventions of 1867 and 1868, and ratified by a vote of the 
people in 1869; and taking the place of the old " Court for the trial of 
Impeachment and Correction of Errors " to the extent of correcting 
errors of law. As first organized under the Constitution of 1846, the 
Court of Appeals was composed of eight judges, four of whom were 
elected by the people and the remainder chosen from the justices of 
the Supreme Court having the shortest time to serve. As organized 
in 1809, and now existing, the court consists of the chief judge and six 
associate judges, who hold oflice for a term of fourteen years from and 
including the first day of January after their election. This court is 
continually in session at the Capitol in Albany, except as it takes re- 
cess from time to time on its own motion. It has full power to correct 
or reverse the decisions of all inferior courts when properly before it 


for review. Five judges constitute a quorum, and four must concur to 
render judgment. If four do not agree the case must be reargued; but 
no more than two rehearings can be had, and if then four judges do 
not concur, the judgment of the court below stands affirmed. The 
Legislature has provided by statute how and when proceedings and 
decisions of inferior tribunals may be reviewed in the Court of Appeals, 
and may in its discretion alter or amend the same. Upon the reorgan- 
ization of the court in 18G9 its work was far in arrears, and the law 
commonly known as the "Judiciary Act " provided for a Commission 
of Appeals to aid the Court of Appeals. And still more recently, in 
1888, the Legislature passed a concurrent resolution that section G of 
article G of the Constitution be amended so that upon the certificate of 
the Court of Appeals to the governor of such an accumulation of causes 
on the calendar of the Court of Appeals that the public interests" re- 
quired a more speedy disposition thereof, the governor may designate 
seven justices of the Supreme Court to act as associate judges, for the 
time being, of the Court of Appeals, and to form a second division of 
that court, and to be dissolved by the governor when the necessity for 
their services ceased to exist. This amendment was submitted to the 
people of the State at the general election of that year and was ratified, 
and in accordance therewith the governor selected seven Supreme 
Court justices, who were constituted the second division of the Court 
of Appeals. The only citizen of Tompkins county who has been placed 
upon the bench of this court is Francis M. Finch, a present incumbent 
of the office. He received the appointment May 25, 1880, from the 
governor and Senate, and was afterwards elected to the same position. 
Second to the Court of Appeals in rank and jurisdiction stands the 
Supreme Court, which, as it now exists, is made up of many and widely 
different elements. It was originally created by act of the Colonial 
Legislature May 6, 1G91, and finally by ordinance of the Governor and 
Council, May 15, 1G99, and empowered to try all issues to the same 
extent as the English Courts of King's Bench, Common Pleas and Ex- 
chequer, except in the exercise of equity powers. It had jurisdiction 
in actions involving $100 and over, and to revise and correct the de- 
cisions of inferior courts. An appeal lay from it to the Governor and 
Council. The judges — at first there were five of them — annually made 
a circuit of the counties, under a commission naming them, issued by 
the governor, and giving them nisi priiis, oyer and terminer, and jail 
delivery powers. Under the first Constitution the court was reorgan- 


ized, the judges being then named by the Council of Appointment. 
All proceedings were directed to be entitled in the name of the people, 
instead of that of the king. 

By the Constitution of 1831 many and important changes were made 
in the character and methods of this court. The judges were reduced 
in number to three and appointed by the governor, with the consent of 
the Senate, to hold office during good behavior, or until sixty years of 
age. They were removable by the Legislature when two-thirds of the 
Assembly and a majority of the Senate so voted. Four times each 
year the full court sat in review of their decisions upon questions of 
law. By the Constitution of 1846 the Supreme Court as it then existed 
was abolished, and a new court of the same name, and having general 
jurisdiction in law and equity, was established in its place. This court 
was divided into General Terms, Circuits, Special Terms, and Oyer 
and Terminer. Its members were composed of thirty-three justices, 
to be elected by the people, and to reside, five in the first and four in 
each of the other seven judicial districts into which the State was 
divided. By the Judiciary Act of 1847 General Terms were to be held 
at least once in each year in counties having more than forty thousand 
inhabitants, and in other counties at least once in two years ; and at 
least two Special Terms and two Circuit Courts were to be held yearly 
in each county, except Hamilton. By this act the court was authorized 
to name the times and places of holding its terms, and those of Oyer 
and Terminer; the latter being a part of the Circuit Court and held by 
the justice, the county judge and two justices of sessions. Since 1883 
the Oyer and Terminer has consisted of a single justice of the Supreme 

It is proper at this point to describe one of the old courts the powers 
of which have been vested in the Supreme Court. We refer to the 
Chancery Court, an heirloom of the colonial period, which had its 
origin in the Court of Assizes, the latter being invested with equity 
powers under tl)e duke's laws. The court was established in 1683, and 
the governor or such person as he should appoint, a.ssisted by the 
Council, was designated as its chancellor. In 1608 the court went out 
out of existence by limitation; was revived by ordinance in 1701; sus- 
pended in 1703, and re-established in the next year. At first the 
Court of Chancery was unpopular in the Province, the Assembly and 
the colonists opposing it with the argument that the crown had no 
authority to establish an equity court in the colony, and doubtful of the 

(o^Ar-^^-^y^ 0/v-^-v^^£/^^ C!:>^--v^._^^ 


propriety of constituting tlie Governor and Council sucli a court. 
Under the Constitution of 1777 the court was recognized, but its chan- 
cellor was thereby prohibited from holding any other office except 
delegate to Congress on special occasions. Upon the reorganization of 
the court in 1778, by convention of representatives, masters and ex- 
aminers in chancery were provided to be appointed by the Council of 
Appointment; registers and clerks by the chancellor. The latter 
licensed all solicitors and councillors of the court. Under the Consti- 
tution of 1821 the chancellor was appointed by the governor and held 
office during good behavior, or until sixty years of age. Appeals lay 
from the Chancery Court to the Court for the Correction of Errors. 
Under the second Constitution equity powers were vested in the circuit 
judges, and their decisions were reviewable on appeal to the chancellor. 
But this equity character was soon taken from the circuit judges and 
thereafter devolved upon the chancellor, while the judges alluded to 
acted as vice-chancellors in their respective circuits. But, by the 
radical changes made by the Constitution of 1846, the Court of Chan- 
cery was abolished, and its powers, duties and jurisdiction vested in the 
Supreme Court, as before stated. 

By act of the Legislature adopted in 1848, and entitled the "Code of 
Procedure," all distinctions between actions at law and suits in equity 
were abolished, so far as the manner of commencing and conducting 
them was concerned, and one uniform method of practice was adopted. 
Under this act appeals lay to the General Term of the Supreme Court 
from judgments rendered in Justice's, Mayor's or Recorder's, and 
County Courts, and from all orders and decisions of a justice at Special 
Term of the Supreme Court. 

The judiciary article of the Constitution of 1846 was amended in 
1809, authorizing the Legislature, not more often than once in five 
years, to provide for the organization of General Terms, consisting of a 
presiding justice and not more than three associates; but by chapter 
408 of the laws of 1870 the then organization of the General Term was 
abrogated and the State divided into four departments and provision 
made for holding General Terms in each. By the same act the gov- 
ernor was directed to designate from among the justices of the Su- 
ureme Court a presiding justice and two associates to constitute a 
General Term in each department. Under the authority of the Con- 
stitutional Amendment adopted in 1882, the Legislature in 1883 divided 
the State into five judicial departments, and provided for the election 


of twelve additional justices to hold office from the first Monday in 
June, 1884. 

In June, 1887, the Legislature enacted the Code of Civil Procedure 
to take the place of the Code of 1848. By this many minor changes 
were made, among them a provision that every two years the justices 
of the General Terms, and the chief judges of the Superior City Courts, 
should meet and revise and establish general rules of practice for all 
the courts of record in the State, except the Court of Appeals. 

Such are, in brief, the changes through which the »Supreme Court of 
this State has passed in its growth from the prerogative of an irre- 
sponsible governor, to one of the most independent and enlightened 
instrumentalities for the protection and attainment of the rights of 
citizens of which any state or nation can rightfully boast. So well is 
this fact understood by the people, that by far the greater amount of 
business, which might be done in inferior courts at less expense, is 
taken to this coiirt for settlement. 

In this court, and those which it directly succeeded, the following 
Tompkins county men held office: In the Court of Common Pleas, 
Oliver C. Comstock, appointed April 10, 1817 ; Richard Smith, appointed 
June 10, 1818; Andrew D. W. Bruyn, appointed January 18, 1830; 
Amasa Dana, appointed March 16, 1837; Henry D. Barto, appointed 
February 18, 1843. In the organization of the judicial districts of the 
State, Tompkins coiinty was included in the Sixth, and Douglass 
Boardman, of Ithaca, was elected justice in 1865, and continued in 
office until 1870. On December 24, 1873, he was appointed associate 
justice on the General Term Bench. A more extended biography of 
Judge Boardman will be found on another page of this work. 

Next in inferiority to the Supreme Court is the County Court, held 
in and for each county of the State at such times and places as its 
judges may direct. This court had its origin in the English Court of 
Sessions, and, like that court, had at first criminal jurisdiction only. 
By an act passed in 1683, a Court of Sessions, having power to try both 
civil and criminal causes by jury, was directed to be held by three jus- 
tices of the peace, in each of the counties of the Province twice each 
year, with an additional term in Albany and two in New York. By 
the act of 1691 and the decree of 10!)',), all civil jurisdiction was taken 
from this court and conferred upon the Court of Common Pleas. By 
the sweeping changes made by the Constitution of 1846, provision was 
made for a County Court in each county of the State, excepting New 



Yoi'k, to be held by an officer to be designated the county judge, and 
to have such jurisdiction as the Legislature might prescribe. Under 
authority of this Constitution the County Courts have been given, from 
time to time, jurisdiction in various classes of actions which need not 
be enumerated here, and have also been invested with certain equity 
powers in the foreclosure of mortgages; to sell infants' real estate; to 
partition lands; to admeasure dower and care for the persons and 
estates of lunatics and habitual drunkards. The Judiciary Act of 18G0 
continued the existing jurisdiction of County Courts, and conferred 
upon them original jurisdiction in all actions in which the defendants 
lived within the county, and the damages claimed did not exceed 
$1,000. Like the Supreme Court, the County Court now has its civil 
and its criminal side. In criminal matters the county judge is assisted 
by two justices of sessions, elected by the people from among the jus- 
tices of the peace in the county. It is in the criminal branch of this 
court, known as the Sessions, that all the minor criminal offenses are 
now disposed of. All indictments of the grand jury, excepting for 
murder or some very serious felony, are sent to it for trial from the 
Oyer and Terminer. By the Codes of 1848 and 1877, the methods of 
procedure and practice were made to conform as nearly as possible to 
the practice in the Supreme Court. This was done with the evident 
design of attracting litigation into these courts, thus relieving the Su- 
preme Court. In this purpose there has been failure, litigants much 
preferring the shield and assistance of the broader powers of the Su- 
preme Court. By the Judiciary Act the term of office of county judges 
was extended from four to six years. Under the Codes the judges can 
perform some of the duties of a justice of the Supreme Court at 
chambers. The County Court has appellate jurisdiction over actions 
arising in Justice Courts and Courts of Special Sessions. Appeals lay 
from the County Court to the General Term. County judges were ap- 
pointed until 1847, after which they were elected. 

In the County Court of Tompkins county the following have held 
offices: County judges, Oliver C. Comstock, April 10, 1817; Richard 
Smith, June 10, 1818; A. D. W. Bruyn, January 18, 1826; Amasa 
Dana, March 16, 1837; Henry D. Barto, February 18, 1843; Alfred 
Wells, elected June, 1847-51; Douglass Boardman, 1851-65; Samuel 
P. Wisner, 1856-59; Henry S. Walbridge, 1859-67; Mills Van Valken- 
burg, 1867-74; Marcus Lyon, 1874-91; Bradford Almy, elected No- 
vember, 1891. 


Special county judges were authorized for this county by the Legis- 
lature in 1852. The following persons have held the office: Jerome 
Rowe (special judge and surrogate), 1852-63; Arthur S. Johnson, 
1862-71; George W. Wood, 1871-72; Jesse M. McKinney, 1873-77; 
Edward A. Wagner, 1877-81; Jared T. Newman, 1881-84; John Tyler, 
1884-89; Judson A. Elston, 1889-92; James L. Baker, 1892-94. 

Surrogate's Courts, one of which exists in each of the counties of the 
State, are now courts of record having a seal. Their special jurisdic- 
tion is the settlement and care of estates of persons who have died 
either with or without a will, and of infants. The derivation of the 
powers and practice of the Surrogate's Court in this State is from the 
Ecclesiastical Court of England, through a part of the Colonial Coun- 
cil, which existed during the Dutch rule here, and exercised its author- 
ity in accordance with the Dutch Roman law, the custom of Amsterdam 
and the law of Aasdom ; the Court of Burgomasters and Scheppens, 
the Court of Orphan Masters, the Mayor's Court, the Prerogative 
Court and the Court of Probates. The settlement of estates and the 
guardianship of orphans which was at first vested in the Director-Gen- 
eral and Council of New Netherlands, was transferred to the Burgo- 
masters in 1063, and soon afterward to the Orphan Masters. Under 
the Colony the Prerogative Court controlled all matters in relation to 
the probate of wills and settlement of estates. This power continued 
until 1092, when by act of legislation all probates and granting of 
letters of administration were to be under the hand of the governor or 
his delegate; and two freeholders were appointed in each town to take 
charge of the estates of persons dying without a will. Under the 
duke's laws this duty had been performed by the constables, overseers, 
and justices of each town. In 1778 the governor was divested of all 
this power excepting the appointment of surrogates, and it was con- 
ferred upon the Court of Probates. Under the first Constitution siir- 
rogates were appointed by the Council of Appointment; under the 
second Constitution, by the governor with the approval of the Senate. 
The Constitution of 1846 abrogated the office of surrogate in all coun- 
ties having less than 40,000 population, and conferred its powers and 
duties upon the county judge. By the Code of Civil Procedure surro- 
gates were invested with all the necessary powers to carry out the 
equitable and incidental requirements of their office. 

The following persons have held the office of surrogate in Tompkins 
county: Andrew D. W. Bruyn, appointed April 11, 1817; Edmund F. 


Pelton, appointed March 21, 1821; Miles Finch, appointed March 27, 
1823; Charles Humphrey, March 4, 1831; Evans Humphrey, January 
8, 1834; Arthur S. Johnson, March 3, 1838; George G. Freer, Febru- 
ary 14, 1843. 

The only remaining courts which are common to the State are the 
Special Sessions, held by a justice of the peace for the trial of minor 
offences, and Justice Courts with limited civil jurisdiction. Previous 
to the constitution of 1821, modified in 182(), justices of the peace were 
appointed ; since that date they have been elected. The office and its 
duties are descended from the English office of the same name, but are 
much less important here than there, and under the laws of this State 
are purely the creature of the statute. The office is now of little im- 
portance in the administration of law, and with its loss of old-tiine 
power has lost also much of its former dignity. 

The office of district attorney was formerly known as assistant attor- 
ney-general. The districts then embraced several counties in each and 
were seven in number. On the 15th of April, ISl?, upon the organiz- 
ation of Tompkins county, a new district was formed, number the 
eighth, which included Broome, Cortland, Seneca and Tompkins coun- 
ties. At first the office was filled by the Governor and Council during 
pleasure. The office of district attorney, as now known, was created 
April 4, 1801. By a law passed in April, 1818, each county was con- 
stituted a separate district for the purposes of this office. During the 
era of the second Constitution district attorneys were appointed by the 
Court of Special Sessions in each county. The following have held the 
office in Tompkins county : David Woodcock (appointed or elected) 
June 11, 1813; Amasa Dana, January 38, 1823; Samuel Love, May 15, 
1837; Benjamin G. Ferris, May 10, 1840; Alfred Wells, May 17, 1845 
Arthur S. Johnson, June 14, 1847; Douglass Boardman, June, 1847 
William Marsh, November, 1850; John A. Williams, November, 1853 
Marcus Lyon, November, 1856; Harvey A. Dowe (appointed vice 
Lyon, removed from county), June 10, 1804; Samuel H. Wilcox, No- 
vember, 1804; Merrit King, November, 1807; Samuel D. Halliday, 
November, 1873; Simeon Smith (appointed vice Halliday, resigned), 
1875; David M. Dean, November, 1876; Clarence L. Smith, Novem- 
ber, 1882; Jesse H. Jennings, November, 1883, and re-elected in 1891. 

Sheriffs during the colonial period were appointed annually in Oc- 
tober, unless otherwise noticed. Under the first Constitution they 
were appointed annually by the Council of Appointment, and no person 


could hold the office more than four successive years. The sheriff 
could hold no other office and must be a freeholder in the county to 
which appointed. Since the Constitution of 1821, sheriffs have been 
elected for a term of three years, and are ineligible for election to the 
succeeding term. The following have held this office in Tompkins 
county: Hermon Camp (appointed), April 11, 1817; Henry Bloom, 
Jime 20, 1817; Nicoll Halsey, March 2, 1819; Nicholas Townley, Feb- 
ruary 12, 1821, and elected November, 1822. (After this date the 
sheriffs have been elected in November of each year named. ) Eben- 
ezerVickery, 1825; Thomas Robertson, 1828; Peter Hager 2d, 1831; 
Minos McGowan, 1834; Jehiel Ludlow, 1837; Edward L. Porter, 1839; 
Ephraim Labar, 1842; John P. Andrews, 1845; Charles C. Howell, 
1848; Lewis H. Van Kirk, 1851; Richard J. Ives, 1854; Smith Rob- 
ertson, 1857; Homer Jennings, 1800; Edward Hungerford, 1803 ; Eron 
C. Van Kirk, 1866; Horace L. Root, 1869; Eron C. Van Kirk, 1872; 
Barnard M. Hagin, 1875; William J. Smith, 1878; John K. Follett, 
1881; J.Warren Tibbetts, 1884; John K. Follett, 1887; J.Warren 
Tibbetts, 1890; Charles S. Seaman, 1893. 

Such legal business as the pioneers of what is now Tompkins county 
found necessary for about twent);^ years after their various settlements 
and down to the formation of this county in 1817, was of course trans- 
acted at the county seats of Cayuga and Seneca counties (the former 
taken from Onondaga county in 1797, and the latter from Cayuga in 
1804). There were, without a doubt, lawsuits among those early set- 
tlers, but they were not so numerous nor so important as those of later 
days. The pioneers felt a too kindly spirit towards each other to admit 
of their often bringing malicious prosecutions against their neighbors, 
and they were far too busy with their labors in making homes for 
themselves and their children to willingly squander time in traveling 
to distant court houses, when traveling was a serious matter, there to 
wait the often tardy action of the primitive judiciary. 

The act of the Legislature which organized Tompkins county desig- 
nated Ithaca (then a little hamlet in the old town of Ulysses) as the 
county seat. It would seem that somebody in the then counties of 
Cayuga and Seneca feared that the new county would not fulfill its 
proper destiny, for the act provided that in case of failure on the part 
of the town to convey a site for the county buildings and raise $7,000 
with which to erect the same, the territory of the new county was to be 
reannexed to Cayuga and Seneca. But these provisions were promptly 

tilled (Sf. (2'e^ 


Til 10 I'^IKST COURT. (il! 

complied with, and in 1818 a building- for a court house and jail was 
erected and ready for occupancy. As a " hall of justice " it was quite 
insignificant; but it served its purpose until 1864, when the present 
structure was erected on the same site. 

The old court house became inadequate for its purposes, and an act 
was passed by the Legislature authorizing the erection of the present 
structure, which was begun in 1854 and finished the succeeding year. 
The act named vStcplicn B. Gushing, Samuel Giles and Horace Mack a 
building committee, and under their careful direction the building was 
completed at a cost of fl3,154.7G. In the light of modern architectural 
practice it cannot be said that the court house is an honor to the coun- 
ty; indeed, this fact is so apparent that at this date (1894) measures 
are advocated for the erection of a new structure which will properly 
serve the people and honorably reflect the progress of the community. 

The first judicial officers of the county were as follows: First judge, 
Oliver G. Gomstock, appointed April 10, 1817; surrogate, Andrew D. 
W. Bruyn, appointed March 11, 1818; sheriff, Hermon Gamp, appointed 
April 11, 1817; district attorney, David Woodcock, appointed April 11, 
1817; clerk. Archer Green, appointed April 11, 1817. The first jxis- 
tices of the peace (appointed 1817) were as follows: W. Wigton, Elia- 
kim Avery, A. D. W. Bruyn, Henry Bloom, Gharles Bingham, 
Nathaniel F. Mack, John Sutton, Simeon F. Strong, Joseph Goodwin, 
John Bowman, J. Bennett, Samuel Love, John Ellis, William Martin, 
Peter Rappleya, Ghester Goborne, Thomas White, Richard Smith, 
Henry D. Barto, Galeb Smith, Peter Whitmore, J. Weaver, Stephen 
Woodworth, Lewis Tooker, John Bowker, Gharles Kelly, G. Brown 2d, 
James Golegrove and Abijah Miller. * 

At the first Gourt of General Sessions in this county. May 28, 1817, 
the following proceedings took place : 

Present, John Sutton, esq., senior judge; Thomas White, Richard 
Smith, and John Ellis, judges and justices of the peace; Gharles Bing- 
ham, Parley Whitmore, John Bowman, and William Wigton, assistant 

Bills of indictment were presented to said court by the grand inquest 
of said county against the following persons, viz. : John G, Murry, 
Daniel Newell, Humphrey D. Tabor, Daniel Murry, Alvin Ghase, 
Abraham Osborne, and Samuel Osborne. The above were " severally 
recognized in the sum of $100 each." Their securities were John 
Townsend, jr., for J. G. and D. Murry; Jabez Rowland, for H. D. 


Miirry; Isaac Chase, for Alvin Chase; Isaac Chase and Henry Hewlin, 
for A. and S. Osborne. 

The witnesses, who were also " recognized in the sum of $50 each," 
were Joseph Bowen, Chester Coborn, Samuel Rolff, and William Coy- 

At this tei-m of court a bill was returned by the grand jury for theft 
or petit larceny against Birdsey Clark. " Mr. Johnson pleaded against 
the jurisdiction of the court. The court overruled the objection, and 
ordered that the prisoner give bail or be committed to jail. The 
prisoner requested and obtained permission to be tried by a special 
session." A bill of indictment was also returned against Calvin Kel- 
logg for assault and battery. 

The first petit jury was organized at the September term, 1817, and 
consisted of the following persons: 

Samuel Knapp, Marvin Buck, John Collins, Oliver Miller, Abner N. 
Harland, Horace Cooper, John Sniffen, Aaron K. Matthews, John 
Walden, Caleb Davis, Augustus Ely, and Peter Vanvliet. 

The first case tried by this jury was the indictment against Messrs. 
Murry, Tabor, Abraham and Samuel Osborne, and Alvin Chase, for 
riot. They were found guilty, and Messrs. Tabor, Daniel Murry, and 
Abraham Osborne fined $10 each, and Alvin Chase and Samuel Os- 
borne $5 each. 

The first Court of Common Pleas was held at the " meeting-house," 
in the village of Ithaca, town of Ulysses, on the fourth Tuesday of May, 
1817. Senior judge, John Sutton; judges, Richard Smith, Thomas 
White, and John Ellis; assistant justices and justices of the peace, 
William Wigton, Charles Bingham and John Bowman. 

" The general pleas and the general commissions of the peace having 
been read, the court opened in due form. The court adjourned for one 
hour, to meet again at Champlin & Frisbie's hotel. The court met 
agreeably to adjournment; present as before. The venire for sum- 
moning the grand jury having been returned by John Ludlow, esq., 
coroner, their names being called, they all answered. Mr. Ben John- 
son objected to the grand jury being sworn, because they were sum- 
moned by a coroner and the venire directed to him. The court 
overruled the objection, and directed that the grand jury be sworn. 
They were accordingly sworn, and John Bowker, esq., was appointed 
foreman of the said inquest. At this court it was also 


Resolved, By the Court, that those attoniies \v)io were authorized to practice in 
the counties of Seneca and Cayuga, and in the Supreme Court, and in good standing 
as such, be admitted in this court. 

"On the following niorninji- the court, havin}^ no further business, 

The first will recorded and proven was that of John Morris, of Lans- 
ing, A. D. W. Bruyn being at that time surrogate. It was proven 
September 6, 1817; Isaiah Giles, J. Whitlock, and Sarah Giles, wit- 

. The first letters of adininistration were issued May 0, 1817, to Eliza- 
beth Smith, on the estate of Alexander Smith, of Ulysses. The second 
letters of administration were issited to Barzillai King, jr., and Henry 
D. Barto, on the estate of Barzillai King, of Covert. 

Tompkins cottnty, in respect to its population, is among the smaller 
cotinties of this State, and its bar has not, therefore, been as numerous 
as in other and more populous counties; but it will not suffer in com- 
parison with the bar of any other interior section in respect to the 
character, ability and honor of its members. It has had, and now has, 
members occupying the highest judicial positions in the .State, the 
duties of which have been performed to the honor of the incumbents 
and the people whom they represent. This cotmty was quite well 
equipped with lawyers at its organization in 1817, and it is a pleasure 
to record some brief personal characteristics of many of the early rep- 
resentatives of the i^rofession, as well as of those of more recent times. 

One of the foremost of the early attorneys of this county was Ben 
Johnson, whose services were often in demand in the more important 
cases, and who was called to oppose some of the most distinguished 
lawyers of the State. Mr. Johnson was born at Haverhill, N.H., June 
22, 1784. His early education was obtained in the district schools, 
with a little academic training. He entered the law office of Foote & 
Rumsey, in Troy, N.Y., studying there in company with John A. Col- 
lier, with whom he subsequently formed a partnership for practice in 
Binghamton; this existed but a .short time, when Mr. Johnson removed 
to Hector (then in Cayuga), but came to Ithaca some years previous 
to his marriage, which occurred in Noveinber, 1817. He btiilt the 
house on vSeneca street, where he passed the remainder of his life. His 
office was on Aurora street, and he practiced alone until 1819, when he 
became associated with Charles Humphrey. After several years con- 
tinuance of this partnership, Mr, Johnson joined with Henry S, Wal- 


bridge, which connection terminated in 1839. His next partner was 
his son-in-law, Anthony Schuyler. His death took place at his home 
in Ithaca, March 19, 1848. We find the following written of Mr. John- 

When fully aroused in an important trial, Ben Johnson was regarded by the most 
astute advocates as the peer of the ablest counsel in the State. Erudite, of logical 
mind, and possessed of rare powers in debate, his efforts before the courts always 
challenged attention, and often admiration. An indefatigable worker, he kept 
scrupulously within the bounds of his vocation, concentrating his mental and phys- 
ical strength upon the cases in hand. His nature was social and genial, though quiet 
and undemonstrative. 

David Woodcock established himself in Ithaca as early as 1812, and 
soon took a prominent position at the bar of the State. Traveling the 
district with the Circuit Courts, as a forcible and astute jury lawyer, in 
persuasive power was seldom excelled by any whom he met at the bar. 
He represented Seneca county in the Legislature (1814-15), was dis- 
trict attorney in 1818, and was elected to Congress in 1821. At the 
close of the XVITth Congress he retired to his professional practice; 
but was called again to the Legislature in 1820, where he was a lead- 
ing member of the House. Declining re-election, he was in 1828 again 
elected to Congress, where his abilities were at once recognized. On 
returning he resumed his practice at the bar and was suddenly stricken 
down with his armor on. He died at Ithaca in September, 1835. His 
nature was kind and genial, generous and warm hearted, and his in- 
fluence and example with the younger members of the bar was always 
salutary. His son, Don C. Woodcock, a lawyer of great ability, re- 
moved from Ithaca to Troy, and died in that city. 

Charles Humphrey, already mentioned as a partner of Mr. Johnson, 
was another conspicuous attorney of the early years, who devoted to 
the service of the country his great legal abilities in establishing and 
fostering not only local improvements, but rendered signal service to 
the State. He was a forcible advocate, clear and shar-p in attack and 
repartee, and long adorned the bar of the State. He was a member of 
the Legislature in 1834, and re-elected in the two succeeding sessions, 
serving as speaker of the House in both the LVIIIth and LIXth ses- 
sions. Years before this he had been sent to the National Legislature, 
representing the Twenty-fifth District, composed of Tioga and Tomp- 
kins counties, taking his seat in 1825. After continuing a large prac- 
tice manv years he was again prevailed upon to take a seat in the State 


Legislature in 1842. He also served some years as clerk of the Su- 
preme Court at Albany. He suffered from a painful constitutional 
disease in his later years, but returned to Ithaca and took up his prac- 
tice in important cases before the Court of Appeals and in the Supreme 
Court. Supported upon crutches and standing before the highest 
State court, he always commanded its strict attention and won ad- 
miration from distinguished members of the State bar. He died in 
Albany July 18, 1850, while in professional attendance at the Supreme 

Andrew D. W. Bruyn was an early and prominent member of the 
bar; held the office of surrogate 1817 to 1821, and afterwards under 
the second Constitution served as first judge of the county, 182G to 
1837. Elected to represent the Twenty-first District, counties of Che- 
mung, Cortland, Tioga and Tompkins, in the XXVth Congress, he 
took his seat September 4, 1837, and died at Washington in July of 
the following year. Judge Bruyn was distinguished for his legal 
acquirements and laborious industry in his profession. He was es- 
pecially noted for strict observance of all those social, public, private 
or official duties which, with a high sense of personal honor, make a 
well rounded character. In his profession he was powerful in argu- 
ment, while on the bench his decisions were clear and dignified, and 
wholly unbiased. 

Amasa Dana was an early lawyer of Tompkins county whose profes- 
sional standing gave it honor and prominence, and whose high religious 
and moral character reflected the brightest luster. He acquired prom- 
inence as an advocate early in life, and was elected to the Legislature 
in 1828 and 1829, having already discharged the duties of the office of 
district attorney from 1823 to 1827. Returning from the Legislature 
to resume his practice he was elected to Congress from the Twenty- 
second District, serving from December, 1839, to iVlarch, 1841 ; and 
again was called to the same high office (1843 to 1845). He also served 
as first judge of the Covinty Court, 1887 to 1843. Resuming his prac- 
tice in 1845 he gave his whole attention to its duties until his death, 
December 24, 18G7, at the age of seventy-six years. It has been writ- 
ten of him : 

Judge Dana not only adorned the profession he had chosen by a life of most faith- 
ful performance and observance of every exacting requirement of duty to society, to 
his home, and to every responsible public trust, but deeply imbued with a high and 
religious sentiment, he brought to the discharge of his professional, judicial and 


legislative requii-ements a devout reliance vipon the favor of a God in whom he 
trusted. . His memory will be long cherished by the church at whose altar 

he was a devout worshiper, not less than by the bar of which he was so distinguished 
an ornament. 

Other members of the early bar were Stephen Mack, who graduated 
from Yale in I8i;], located in Owego in 1814, and soon afterward settled 
in Ithaca, where he practiced his profession many years. He was a 
diligent and methodical lawyer, and died at the age of seventy-one 
years, January 7, 1857. 

Edmund G. Pelton was a lawyer of some prominence in early years 
and held the ofifice of surrogate in 1821 ; and there were others who 
are, perhaps, entitled to mention in this connection, but whose good 
deeds have gone into the tinremembered history of the past. 

William Linn, though he cannot be called a distinguished lawyer, 
confining himself largely to office work, was conspicriotis for his schol- 
arly attainments and his polished style of oratory upon the platform. 
His numerous public addresses were widely circulated and regarded 
by cultivated scholars as models of logical force and elegant diction. 
He died when nearly eighty years of age. He studied for the pure 
love of it, and was richly endowed with historical and classical knowl- 
edge, and was the great orator at all great assemblies from 1810 to 
1845. He was the author af the Roorback hoax of 1844. 

Horace King, whose "Early History of Ithaca " attracted consider- 
able attention, was a native of Ithaca. He had just entered on the 
practice of his profession in 1847, when he delivered his historical lec- 
ture. His very early death arrested a career which his qualifications 
as a pleader, and his attractiveness as a public speaker, must have 
made one of note in this coinmunity and elsewhere. 

Augustus Sherrill was one of the old-time lawyers of Ithaca, whose 
memory is yet vividly recalled by those here from 1830 to 1840. Care- 
fttl, painstaking and accurate, he was appreciated by clients, and en- 
joyed to a marked degree the confidence of the community. 

George G. Freer practiced law in Ithaca for many years with Samuel 
Love. He was proprietor of the Tompkins Times in 1830 and ap- 
pointed surrogate by Governor Bouck in 1841). Mr. Freer removed to 
Watkins, and died there some ten years ago. 

George D. Beers, as an advocate before a jury, was almost invariably 
pitted against such eminent practitioners as Ben Johnson and Charles 
Humphrey. His keen analytical mind grasped the salient points in a 


case, and he had a remarkable faculty of impressing a jury by the 
earnestness of his pleading and the grasp he had on the strong features 
of the case in hand. Mr. Beers was born at Hobart, Delaware county, 
June 7, 1812, and removed to Ithaca just after the organization of the 
county. He graduated from Union College, his diploma bearing the 
autograph of the remarkable Dr. Eliphalet Nott. He was admitted to 
practice in the Supreme Court in July, 1831), and in the Court of Chan- 
cery in IS:54. In 1814 he was elected to the State vSenate under the 
four-year term of four senators to a district. In 1879 he attended the 
fiftieth anniversary of his college class. He died in Ithaca, October 
12, 1880. 

Frederick G. Stanley practiced law in Ithaca four years along in the 
thirties. But little can be ascertained in regard to his early life or his 
famil}'. Those of his profession who knew him and his conduct of 
cases, speak of him as the peer of the brighest intellects who have dig- 
nified the bar in this section of the State. Mr. Stanley removed to 
Buffalo, and after a few years, during which he built up a large client- 
age, he died. 

Moses R. Wright was a young and brilliant lawyer who came to 
Ithaca in 1841, and whose career of great eminence was ended by his . 
untimely death about ten years afterwards. No record is obtainable 
on his life, but there is scarcely a resident of Tompkins county who 
will not recall him, and those who knew him personally yet retain vivid 
recollections of his great power as an advocate and his clear conception 
qf legal principles. He was a writer, especially on political subjects, 
of great force. 

Henry S. Walbridge finished his law studies in the law office of Ben 
Johnson and, as before stated, entered into partnership with the latter. 
This gave him the advantages of Mr, Johnson's reputation to a certain 
extent and enabled him to soon occupy a commanding position, to which 
his superior qualifications also entitled him. He was elected to the 
Legislature in 1827, and again in 1840, serving with credit to himself 
and satisfaction to the people. After a period of devotion to his pro- 
fession he was elected to Congress from this district, and served from 
1851 to 1853. Returning to Ithaca, he was' elected first judge of the 
county in 1859, in which high office he discharged his duties with 
eminent ability and faithfulness until 1867. He soon afterward met 
with accidental death in a railroad casualty near the city of New York. 


Benjamin G. Ferris was a college graduate, and soon after finishing 
his education he entered the office of David Woodcock. Admitted to 
the bar in due time, he soon took an enviable position in his profession 
and rapidly advanced to the front rank. He served in the Legislature 
in 1851, was district attorney of this county (1840-45), and in 1853 was 
appointed secretary of Utah Territory by President Fillmore. A short 
time in that uncongenial position sufficed for him, and he returned to 
Ithaca and resumed practice, spending a few intervening years in New 
York city. He died in Ithaca in 1893. 

Alfred Wells studied law in the office of Humphrey & Woodcock, 
and after his admission to the bar soon became prominent in the pro- 
fession. This is indicated by his early selection in 1847 as first judge 
of the county, in which office he served four years. He was elected to 
the XXXVIth Congress (1859-Gl) and was recognized as an able legis- 
lator. Returning to his profession, he was afterwards appointed 
assessor of internal revenue, and occupied that station at the time of 
his death. 

Douglass Boardman during the greater part of his professional life 
occupied a foremost position at the bar and in the judiciary. His 
abilities as a lawyer were recognized soon after he was admitted, and 
he was early called to judicial labor. Elected first judge of this county 
in 1851, he served as such four years, relinquishing for that position 
the office of district attorney, to which he was chosen in ] 847. Return- 
ing to his practice in 1865 he pursued it with diligence and eminent 
success for ten years, when the general knowledge of his fitness to 
adorn the bench led to his selection for Supreme Court judge in 18G5. 
At the close of his first term of eight years he was renominated and 
elected without a competitor for a term of fourteen years. Soon after- 
wards, and on the death of Hon. John M. Parker, Judge Boardman 
was appointed to the vacancy thus made on the General Term bench of 
the Sixth District. His death occurred at his summer residence at 
Sheldrake in 1892. 

William H. Bogart was a lawyer by profession and spent many years 
in Ithaca. He was a man of fine natural qualifications; was elected 
to the vState Legislature in 1840 and served one term; he also served 
as clerk of the House and the Senate. He was a graceful writer and 
an eloquent speaker. Later in his life he removed to Aurora, where 
he enjoyed an elegant leisure in a beautiful and hospitable home. 


Milo Goodrich was for a number of years prominent in the bar of 
the county, located at Dryden. He was a native of Cortland county, 
studied in Worcester, Mass., and was admitted in 1840, soon after 
which he settled in Dryden. He was elected to the XLIId Congress, 
was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1807, and held other 
positions of honor. As a lawyer he was skillful, and gave the most 
unremitting care to preparation of his cases. About the year 1870 he 
removed to Auburn, N. Y., whei'e he died. 

Merritt King was a son of one of the pioneers of the town of Danby, 
where his grandfather settled as early as 1800. By self-sacrificing 
efforts he obtained a liberal education; served honorably in the One 
Hundred and Thirty-seventy Regiment N. Y. V for three years, and 
held the rank of major when mustered out. He studied in Ithaca, and 
took a regular course at the Albany Law School, graduating with 
honor. He served twice as district attorney (18(37 and 1870), and in 
the fall of 1875 received the nomination for member of Assembly, but 
was defeated by the university vote. 

Stephen B. Cushing is remembered as one of the most promising and 
brilliant advocates at the bar of Tompkins county from 1837 to 1855. 
Almost from the beginning of his practice he stepped to the front rank 
as a jury lawyer; was elected to the Legislature in 1853, and was a 
prominent candidate for speaker on the Democratic side. Turning 
much of his attention to politics, he was nominated in 1855 for attorney- 
general of the State, on the American ticket, was elected, and entered 
upon the duties of the office January 1, 1856. On retiring from that 
position he formed a partnership with Daniel E. Sickles, of New York 
city, and continued a successful practice. He died there suddenly in 

Charles Clarence Van Kirk, born in Ithaca, November 4, 1855, died 
Aiigust 1, 1892. He was educated in the Ithaca Academy and after 
some years passed in Colorado and in lumbering business learned sten- 
ography, in which he became an expert. During his study he read 
law in the office of Henry A. Merritt, of Troy, He was admitted to 
the bar in 1885, and for a time had a large income from reporting and 
as a referee. On account of weakening sight he returned to Ithaca in 
1887 and opened a law office, continuing to practice until his death. 



Almy, Bradford, Ithaca. 
Austin, William, Trumansburg. 
Baker, James L., Ithaca. 
Blood, Charles H., Ithaca. 
Bouton, D. C, Ithaca. 
Burchell, Geo. R. , Dryden. 
Burns, Thomas W., Ithaca. 
Baldwin, M. M., Groton. 
Benton, Frank R. , Ithaca. 
Clock, Fred. L., Ithaca. 
Davis, George B., Ithaca. 
Day, Chas. G., Ithaca. 
Dean, D. M., Ithaca. 
Dean, Fred. N., Newfield. 
Kllsworth, l^crry (>., Ithaca. 
Elston, J. A., Ithaca. 
Estabrook, W. B., Ithaca. 
Esty, Clarence H. , Ithaca. 
Finch, Wm. A., Ithaca. 
Finch, I'^rancis M., Ithuca. 
Fish, Gary B., Ithaca. 
Fredenburg, E. E, , Ithaca. 
Gift'ord, Gardner C, Ludlow ville. 
Goodrich, George E., Dryden. 
Halliday, Samuel D., Ithaca. 
Hare, William W., Groton. 
Hopkins, Herman S., Groton. 
Horton, Randolph, Newfield. 
Hungerford, A. A., Ithaca. 

Jennings, J. H., Ithaca. 
Leary, Frank M., Ithaca. 
Lyon, Marcus, Ithaca. 
Monroe, Geo. E., Dryden. 
Mallery, L. D., Dryden. 
Mead, M M., Ithaca. 
Milne, John A., Trumansburgh. 
Newman, Jared T., Ithaca. 
Noble, WiUiam N., Ithaca. 
Noble, Ossian G., Ithaca. 
Osborn, Alvah P., Trumansburgh. 
Poole, Murray E., Ithaca. 
Rhodes, Dana, Groton. 
Smith, Simeon, Ithaca. 
Smith, W. Ilazlitt, Ithaca. 
Smith, Clarence L., Ithaca. 
Smith, Raymond L., Ithaca. 
Stoddard, Giles M., Groton. 
Sweetland, Monroe M., Ithaca. 
Tibbetts, Frank E., Ithaca. 
Tichenor, James II., Ithaca. 
Ticheuor, Edwin C, Ithaca. 
Tompkins, M. N., Ithaca. 
Turner, Samuel B., Ithaca. 
Terry, Eugene, Ithaca. 
Van Cleef, Mynderse, Ithaca. 
Van Vleet, D. F., Ithaca. 
Whiton, Fred. J., Ithaca. 
Wolcott, Clarence R., Ithaca. 

Humphrey, William R., Ithaca. 

Imi'or'i'ani' TuiAi.s AND CuiMKS. — As it ])arl of the criminal record of 
Tompkins county, the remarkable career of Edward H. Ridloff shotild 
not be omitted. He was born near the cit)' of St. Johns, in the Prov- 
ince of New Brunswick, and was hanged at Binghamton, Brooine 
county, on the 18th of May, 1871. His father's name was William 
RuUoffson, the son taking the name of Rullolf upon removing to this 
localit)'. Financial circumstances denied him a professional career, 
and he became a clerk in a store in St. Johns. His employers were 
twice burned out and Rulloff left his clerkship to begin the stitdy of 
law. For a theft in the store of those he formerly served he was ar- 
rested, tried and convicted, and served a sentence of two years in State 
prison. At the close of his sentence he disappeared from St. Johns, 


and nothing is known of his career until he appeared in Dryden in May, 

1842. He claimed to be in search of employment, even as a laborer, 
if nothing better offered. His acquirements attracted great attention, 
and he secured a position as a drug clerk in Ithaca. He soon acquired 
an intimate knowledge of drugs and their effects, and then left the 
business. He next opened a select school in Dryden, and among his 
pupils was Miss Harriet Schutt, a most amiable and lovely girl of 
seventeen years. Rulloff paid her marked attention, and in opposition 
to the wishes of her parents, he married her on the 31st of December, 

1843. Almost immediately afterwards Rulloff, entirely without cause, 
developed an insane jealousy and treated his wife with positive cruelty, 
in one instance striking her with an iron pestle and felling her to the 
floor. He removed to Lansing, where a daughter was born in April, 
1845, and for a period Rulloff treated his wife with more kindness. He 
acquired quite a library, began the study of medicine, and was called 
to treat a child of William H. Schutt that was suffering with some slight 
ailment; but the babe died in convulsions and the child's mother also 
died with symptoms of poisoning two days after. The body of Mrs. 
Schutt was exhumed in 1858 and distinct traces of copper found in the 

The evening of the 23d of June was the last time Rulloff's wife and 
child were seen alive. The next morning Rulloff borrowed a horse and 
wagon of Thomas Robertson, who lived opposite, placed a heavy chest 
in the wagon and drove away towards Cayuga Lake. On the following 
morning he returned, the chest then being quite light, took it into the 
house, filled it with books and clothing, and removed it in the following 
night. Then Rulloff disappeared, but was tracked to Cleveland, Ohio, 
by Ephraim Schutt, brother of Mrs. Rulloff, who arrested the criminal 
and returned with him to Ithaca. Large sums were expended in 
dragging Cayuga Lake for remains of the wife and child, but without 
success. The bodies not being found, Rulloff was indicted for abduct- 
ing his wife, was tried in January, 1846, found guilty and sentenced to 
prison for ten years. At the close of his term he was indicted for the 
murder of his daughter. He secured a removal of his case to Tioga 
county, where he was tried on the 18th of October, 1866, found guilty 
and sentenced to be hung. From this verdict an appeal was taken to 
the General Term, which was heard in April, 1857. An appeal was 
then taken to the Court of Appeals. 



Jacob S. Jarvis was the jailor in charge of RiilloiT, and allowed his 
son, Albert, to have lengthened visits to RiillofiE's cell, where the latter 
instructed him in the languages and other studies. On the oth of May, 
1857, through the connivance of the son, the prisoner escaped, the son 
fleeing with him. The Court of Appeals soon afterward reversed the 
decision of the courts below, and RullofT surrendered to the sheriff to 
await his final discharge. 

A meeting of citizens was held and organized for the purpose of 
breaking into the jail and lynching the piisoner on the 19th of March, 
1859. The sheriff learned of the plot and removed Rulloff to Auburn 
the previous day. He was afterwards surrendered to the authorities 
of Pennsylvania to be tried for burglaries committed in Warren, in that 
State. He escaped conviction there, and for a time disappeared from 
view of all acquaintances. 

On the 20th of November, 1801, he was sentenced to prison for two 
years and six months under the name of James H. Kerron, at Pough- 
keepsie. Rulloff at all times seems to have been in communication 
with Jarvis, who assisted his escape from Tompkins county jail in 1857, 
and a man named Dexter, and in all probability pursued a life of crime, 
which ended in breaking into the store of D. M. & E. G. Halbcrt, in 
Binghamton, on the 17th of August, 1870: Two clerks slept in this 
store, and one of them, Frederick A. Mirrick, was killed by Rulloff. 
An alarm being given, the burglars fled. Dexter and Jai-vis were 
drowned while attempting to cross the Chenango River, but Rulloff 
escaped for a few days, when he was arrested and imprisoned. His 
trial began on the 5th of January, 1871, and continued seven days, 
when the jury returned a verdict of murder in the first degree. Rulloff 
was sentenced to be hanged on the 3d of March. A stay was granted, 
but the murderer was executed in the city of his last crime on the 18th 
of May, 1871. 

This case was so remarkable in all its features as to attract universal 
attention, and the American Journal of Insanity of April, 1873, devoted 
fifty pages to a review of the life of Rulloff. 

A legal case of great interest came before the people in early j'cars 
in this county which grew out of tiie feeling which existed, especially 
in the town of Caroline, between those who brought into that town a 
few slaves and those who did not keep them and never had. Between 
the years 1805 and 1808 a considei-able and very respectable colony of 
Southerners came into Caroline and brought with them in all some 


forty slaves; their neighbors were from the East and were, of course, 
bitterly opposed to slavery. The feeling thus engendered and fostered 
finally culminated in the indictment and and trial of Robert Hyde for 
removing slaves from this State in violation of the statute. The law 
for the gradual abolition of slaveiy in New York prohibited the re- 
moval of a slave from the State for the purpose of sale. About the 1st 
of December, 182.3, Hyde and his mother-in-law, the widow Julia 
vSpeed, had gone to their former home in Virginia for a visit and had 
taken with them a negro girl, Liza, a slave, whom it was believed they 
intended to sell. Hyde had not com)jlicd with the law in getting the 
consent of a niagistrate to take the slave away temporarily, and when 
he returned without her he had not proven that his failure to bring her 
back was from any unavoidable cause. In the following summer when 
Hj'de came back without the negro girl, curiosity and inquiry were 
general and suspicion was, aroused. The entire community believed 
the girl had been sold, and Hyde's premises and those of the other 
slave owners were watched for months day and night to prevent a repe- 
tition of the proceeding. At the Oyer and Terminer of January, 1835, 
Abiathar Rounsvell appeared before the grand jury as complainant 
against Hyde in the matter. Amasa Dana was district attorney, and 
Hon. Nicoll Halsey foreman of the grand jury. An indictment against 
Hyde was found and he was first tried at the Court of Sessions in the 
following May. Ben Johnson, the Nestor of the Tompkins county bar, 
was counsel for Hyde. The prosecution depended largely upon the 
testimony of widow Speed ; she sat near the door of the court room 
and just before she was called as a witness she slipped out of the room 
and disappeared. This was an unexpected piece of strategy, but as the 
case could not then be put over, John G. Speed was sworn (he was 
Hyde's brother-in-law), and under direction of the judges the jury 
found the defendant not guilty of the fifth count of the indictment and 
did not pass iipon the remaining counts, of which there were six in all. 
Hyde's second trial took place in the following December before Samuel 
Nelson, when several witnesses were sworn, but Hyde was acquitted. 
Mr. Hyde lived till between 1860 and 1860 and bore the reputation of 
being a good citizen and a kind man. The animosities connected with 
this affair continued to some extent until a second generation, but have 
now wholly disappeared. 

Since the organization of Tompkins county there have been three 
executions for murder, the first public, and the other two in the jail 


yard. In the fall of 1831 Guy C. Clark, a shoemaker, brutally mur- 
dered his wife with an axe, in a part of the old Columbia inn, then 
occupying ground on the corner of State and Cayuga streets and. part 
of the Clinton Hall block on the north. Clark was tried, convicted and 
hung in public at Fall Creek, alniost upon the precise spot occupied by 
the large brick school house, but ixpon an elevated bluff since brought 
down to a level. The day of the execution, February 3, 1832, was a 
stormy one, melting snow covering the ground. A band of music 
headed the procession which conducted Clark to his fate. Many thou- 
sand spectators were present, some arriving on the previous day, and 
a few who were unable to find accommodations camped out over night 
or found shelter in barns or outhouses. Peter Hager 2d was sheriff 
and Minos McGowan, imder-sheriff. The body of Clark was buried, 
but it is doubtful whether the grave was very carefully guarded, as the 
body was stolen on the night following the execution. 

On the 13th of Jtily, 1841, a shoemaker named John Jones was mur- 
dered by John Graham, a fellow-workman, in a ravine just north of 
Buttermilk Falls, about two miles southwest of Ithaca. The remains 
of Jones were discovered, Graham was arrested, Jones's watch found 
upon his person, and money which evidence showed was taken from 
the body of the murdered man. Although the evidence was wholly 
circumstantial, it was so conclusive that Graham was convicted and 
executed in the yard of the old court house, on ground now occupied 
by the county jail, on May 5, 1842. Edward L. Porter was sheriff, 
and William Byington, under-sheriff. 

In 1871 an aged man named John Lunger and his wife occupied an 
old boat drawn up on the shore of the lake a few rods south of Good- 
win's Point, nearly eight miles from Ithaca. Michael Ferguson, a 
nephew, lived with them, and a young girl was employed by them. 
Ferguson killed Lunger and his wife, took the girl in a row boat, 
crossed the lake, came to Ithaca and started on foot to escape into 
Pennsylvania. The murder was discovered, Ferguson pursued, cap- 
tured, tried, sentenced, and hung June 17, 1871. He was dull of in- 
tellect and possibly never fully realized the enormity of the crime 
he committed. Horace L. Root was sheriff, and R. H. Fish, under- 



Early Methods of Medical Study— Medical Societies Authorized by Statute — 
Tompkins County Medical Society — The Homceopathic Medical Society — Dr. E. J. 
Morgan, sr. — The "Registration Law" — List of Registered Physicians. 

The pioneers to any locality have always been closely followed by 
"the good physician." This is one of the unpleasant necessities of 
hitman experience. In the first years of the present century the State 
of New York, unlike Pennsylvania and the New England States, had 
done very little to encourage science, and there was no school of med- 
icine worthy of the name nearer than Boston or Philadelphia. Few 
young men could then afford to go so far to qualify themselves for a 
profession, whatever inducements its future offered. This led to the 
prevailing custom among yoimg aspirants for medical practice to 
enter the office of a neighboring physician, study his books for two or 
three years, at the same time accompanying his tutor in professional 
visits. At the end of such a term the young doctor felt qualified to 
begin his professional career. 

Laws then governing the admission and practice of physicians were 
practically worthless, but in 1806 the Legislature passed an act repeal- 
ing former laws applying to the profession, and authorizing a general 
State Medical Society and County Societies. Under this act a society 
was organized in Onondaga county in 1806, and others closely followed 
in the counties from which Tompkins county was organized. 

The first . records of Tompkins County Medical Society have been 
lost, but it is known that an organization was effected in the year 1818, 
the year following the organization of the county. As far as can be 
known, the following physicians were the original members: A. J. 
Miller, O. C. Comstock, A. C. Hayt, Dyer Foote, Alexander McG. 
Comstock, P. A. Williams, Daniel L. Mead, Augustus Crary, J. Young, 
Jason Atwater, Charles Emmons, John W. Phillips. George W. Phil- 
lips, and Daniel Johnson. But there were, of course, physicians in 
the county who had practiced among the earlier settlers many years 
before the organization of this society ; and some of them had, ap- 



John C. Hayt, Ithaca 1818 

A. J. Miller " 1818 

Dyer Foote, " 1818 

Daniel L. Mead " 1818 

Augustus Crary, Groton 1818 

C. P. Hearmans, Ithaca 1818 

parently, either died or removed from the locality before 1818. Among 
those early physicians may be mentioned Dr. Lewis Beers, who was 
one of the early settlers of Danby in 1797 ; Dr. Dyer Foote, who was 
practicing in Ithaca at a very early date; Jason Atwater, who was 
practicing in Hector in early years, and others whose names will be 
found in later histories of the town and county. 

The medical society continued its existence, with varying degrees of 
success, until the year 1844, when for some reason its regular meetings 
ceased. During that period the following physicians joined the society 
in the years following their names. The towns in which they practiced 
are also given as far as possible : 

Ashbel Patterson, Danby 1824 

Albert Curtiss, " 1834 

Eh Beers, " 1838 

Joseph Speed, Caroline 1835 

DavidL. Mead, " 1818 

James Ashley, " 1832 

R. W. Meddaugh, " 1832 

Lyman Eldndge, " 1 831 

Edw. H. Eldridge, " 1835 

Chas. M. Turner, NewHeld 1825 

David McAllister, " 1833 

David G. Jessup, " 1824 

M. C. Kellogg, " 1833 

Jason Atwater, Hector 1818 

J. Young, Hector (and Ithaca) 1818 

Edmund Brown, Hector 1825 

Horace Smith, " .1838 

Wm. "Woodward, " 1838 

Henry I'^ish, " 183<l 

Alexander McG. Comstock, Hector, 1818 

Nathan Scovell, Hector 1828 

Myron A. Smith, " 1840 

Nelson Nivison, " _. 1837 

M. D. Hause, " ._ 1839 

Moses Tompkins, " .._ 1827 

Wm. Georgia, " 1833 

Justus Lewis, Hector (and 'I'rumans- 

burgh) 1833 

John Collins, Hector 1828 

Jno. W. Thompson, " 1838 

O. C. Comstoclc, jr., Ulysses 1828 

J. H. Jerome, Ulysses 1838 

P. A. Williams, " (and Enfield).. 1818 

Horace Bacon , " 

Geo. W. Phillips, " 

Henry IngersoU " ..- 

N. S, Jarvis, " .-- 

David McAllister, " 

v. Cuyler, " 

B. B. Armitage, " 
Samuel P. Bishop, " 

Abraham Miller, " 

H.K.Webster, " 

D.R.Towner, " 

W. S. Pelton, " 

Joel E. Ilawley, " 

William Bacon, " -- 

Henry Sayles, " 

John Stevens, " 

Charles Coryell, " 

L. Sutherland, " 

H. Ingersoll, jr, " -. 

James A. Hovey, " 

J. C. Hall, Enfield (and Ithaca) 1831 

Joshua S. Miller, Enfield 1833 

J. P. A. Williams, " -1821 

A. C. Sherwood, " (and New- 
field) - 1841 

Lewis Beers, Danby -- 1823 

Frederick Beers, " 1833 




Abraham Chase, Ulysses 1831 H. Harris, Dryden 1828 

Lewis Halsey, ' " ... 1823 John Page, " 1828 

(). C. Conistock, " (andEivfield).18]8 E. G. Bush, " 1833 

D. K. McLallen, " ■' ...1838 Isaac S. Briggs," 1841 

Samuel E.Clark, " " ...1829 Jas. W. Montgomery, Dryden 1828 

lileazur Crane, Groton.. 1822 Hiram Moe, Lansing 1827 

John W. Phillips, Dryden 1 820 Chauncy P. Farlin, " 1840 

Richard Lanning, " 1828 John F. Burdick, Lansing (and Ith- 

Michael Phillips, " 1830 aca) 1839 

Edwin P. Healy, " 1841 

Besides the foregoing list, the following physicians practiced in the 
county and were members of the societ}^ during the short periods re- 
spectively named: 

Ira Wright, 1821 to 1840. Oliver Barker, 1830 to 1843. 

Charles Edmunds, 1821, died in 1838. E. W. Cram, 1833 to 1843. 

Salmon Frisbee, 1821 to 1828. William Holmes, 1833 to 1834. 

Daniel Johnson, 1831 to 1830. Mordecai Morton, 183.5 to 1842. 

James Deland, 1824. A. E. Phelps, 1834 to 1835. 

D. W. Roberts, 1834 to 1838. Myron A. Smith, 1840 to 1843. 

Henry S. Rinkham, 1833 to 1828. Myron Baldwin, 1837 to 1838. 

D. Barber, 1828, removed in 1835. Norman Gaston, 1843 to 1844. 

Austin Church, 1829 to 1830. D. Lacy, 1843 to 1844. 
George E. Powers, 1829 to 1883. 

After a long period of inactivity, the society was reorganized in Oc- 
tober, 18G2, and the following officers chosen: President, Edward H. 
Eldridge; vice-president, Henry B. Chase; secretary, S. P. Sackett; 
treasurer, S. Rhoades. 

List of TPresidents of the Tompkins Medical Society: 1863-3, Edward 
H. Eldridge; 1864, John M. Farrington; 1865, Richard Laning; 1866, 
C. C. Cook; 1867, T. S. Briggs; 1868, S. H. Peck; 1869, S. P. Sackett; 
1870-1, Henry B. Chase. A reorganization with changes in the con- 
stitution was effected in 1871, and in December of that year Dr. Moe, 
of Groton, was elected president; J. D. Lewis, of Trumansburg, vice- 
president; S. P. Sackett, of Ithaca, secretary; M. M. Brown, of Ithaca, 
treasurer; and S. H. Peck, librarian. President for 1872-3, William 
R. Fitch; 1874, George Rightmire; 1875, A. J. White; 1876-7, A. D. 
Stmonds; 1878-9, J. M. Farrington; 1880, E. J. Roth well ; 1881, J. 
Winslow; 1882, J. R. Gregory; 1883, J. M. Farrington; 1884-6, S. H. 
Peck; 1887, Judson Beach; 1888, W. C. Gallagher; 1889, John Win- 
slow; 1890, Eugene Baker; 1891-3, John Winslow; 1894, C. P. Biggs. 

The regular members of this society in 1894 are Drs. E. Baker, C. P. 
Biggs, E. H. Kyle, E. Meaney, S. H. Peck, S. P. Sackett, J. Winslow, 


B. G. Wilder, E. H. Hitchcock, W. C. Gallagher, J. Beach, J. E. Burr, 
J. P. Fahey, J. M. Potter, W. H. Lockerby. Honorary members: 
Drs. James Law, S. H. Gage, Mrs. Gage. 

Officers for 1894: President, C. P. Biggs; vice-president, E. Baker; 
secretary, J. M. Potter; treasurer and librarian, E. Meaney. Censors, 
E. Baker, S. H. Peck, S. P. Sackett, W. C. Gallagher, J. M. Potter. 
Delegate to State society, B. G. Wilder. 


This society, composed of physicians of the homoeopathic school, was 
organized on the 9th of vSeptember, 1880, at the office of Dr. E. J. 
Morgan in Ithaca. Preliminary to the organization the following 
physicians met at the same office on the 11th of August in that year: 
E. J. Morgan, sr., E. J. Morgan, jr., D. White, A. Bishop, N. R. 
Foster, G. E. Orton, Rufus Tallmadge, J. W. Brown, J. S. Kirkendall, 
S. J. Parker, and A. M. Baldwin. Besides these persons, Drs. D. C. 
Barr, William Barr and L. W. Carpenter responded to the call for the 
meeting, but were unable to attend. Dr. White was made chairman 
of the meeting, the objects of which were stated " to unite as many 
physicians as possible in fonning a society which should eventually 
become legalized by receiving a charter from the State Homoeopathic 
Society." The following officers were then nominated and elected: 
President, E. J. Morgan, sr. ; vice-president, D. White; secretary, A. 
M. Baldwin ; treasurer, J. S. Kirkendall. A committee on constitution 
and by-laws was appointed, composed of the following: -Drs. E. J. 
Morgan, jr., S. J. Parker, G. E. Orton. This meeting was adjourned 
to meet again at the parlors of the Clinton House on the 9th of Sep- 
tember. On this date the constitution and by-laws which had been 

' There is little doubt that the village of Ludlowville, in Lansing, has the honor 
(if it is an honor) of being the residence about one year of Frederick Hahnemann, son 
of the great founder of the homcEopathic school of medicine. According to the 
account of Lorenzo Meyers, of Ludlowville, Frederick Hahnemann landed in New 
York from Germany in 1827, where he boarded a canal boat then running on the 
canal, by Andrew Meyers, father of Lorenzo Meyers, and was brought to " Meyers's 
Landing,'' near the site of Ludlowville. Hahnemann opened an office and practiced 
to some extent ; but the prejudice of old school physicians finally became so strong 
that he left and went on westward, at least as far as Illinois, where trace of him is 
lost. Dr. Frederick Humphrey, formerly of Ludlowville, now of New York city 
(corner Williams and John streets), who has written a history of homoeopathy, gives 
credence to the above statements. 

^ ^ (\l/_..'±l^..t.^^C^ ^^^ 


psepared by the committee were adopted, and Drs. Besemer, Kirken- 
dall and Parker were elected censors. Dr. Parker read a paper oft 
"Infantile Hygiene," which was the first read before the society. 
Drs. L. W. Carpenter, Rufus Tallmadge and J. W. Brown were ap- 
pointed to read papers before the next meeting. Dr. C. E. Van Cleef 
was added to these appointments as a substitute. 

The society continued in active existence until 1886, the last meeting 
of which there is any record having been held on February 17 of that 
year. The only apparent reason for its discontinuance was a lack of 
sufficient interest to call its members together from the various towns 
of the county and to inspire the preparation and reading of papers that 
would bring the members together. 

At the meeting of October 13, 1880, a committee consisting of Drs. 
William Barr, L, W. Carpenter, of Ludlowville, N. K. Foster, of 
Dryden, and A. M. Baldwin, of Groton, was appointed to investigate 
the legality of the diplomas then registered; also " the right to prac- 
tice of either transient or permanent physicians who may hereafter 
locate in this county. " At the succeeding meeting the committee re- 
ported the names of several physicians whose diplomas were of doubt- 
ful legality. The names of these were Drs. D. K. Allen, J. C. Wall, 
Ransom Johnson, E. F. Butterfield, and J. A. Northup. Nothing 
further seems to have been done with the men. 

Dr. E. J. Morgan, jr., was chosen delegate to the State Society for 
1881, and Dr. Baldwin delegate to the County Society, including the 
counties of Tompkins, Tioga, Broome and Cortland. 

Two women were admitted to membership in the society in January, 
1881, after considerable discussion. These were Mistresses H. G. 
Smith and M. L. W. Lacy. 

In April, 1881, a committee consisting of Drs. Van Cleef, White and 
Parker was appointed to prepare and file articles of incorporation for 
the society. 

In June, 1881, the following amendment was made to the constitu- 
tion : ' ' We believe in, and approve of, the law of similia similibus 
curantur; yet that belief shall not interfere with any therapeutical 
opinion that any individual member may hold." 

At the meeting of June 35, 1881, election of officers was held with 

the following result: President, E. J. Morgan, sr. : vice-president, David 

White; secretary, A. M. Baldwin; treasurer, J. S. Kirkendall. In 

June, 1883, the following officers were elected: President, David 



White; vice-president, S. N. Jones; secretary, S. J. Parker; treasurer, 
J. S. Kirkendall. 

By this time, in the history of the, society, complaints were entered 
on the minutes of non-attendance and lack of interest on the part of 
the members. 

For the year 1883 the following officers were elected : President, S, 
N. Jones; vice-president, C. E. Van Cleef; secretary, S. J. Parker; 
treasurer, J. S. Kirkendall; censors, D. C. Barr, S. W. Carpenter, R. 
Tallmadge. E. J. Morgan, sr. , was appointed delegate to the State 
Society; S. J. Parker, delegate to the Medical Society of the State of 
New York ; and J. S. Kirkendall, delegate to the State Eclectic So- 

Officers for 1884: President, C. E. Van Cleef; vice-president, S. J. 
Parker; secretary, E. J. Morgan, jr.; treasurer, J. S. Kirkendall. 
Delegates same as previous year. 

There is no record of an election of officers in 1885, and as before 
stated, the last meeting was held in February, 1886. 

Regarding further details of proceedings at these various meetings, 
it may be added that Dr. E. J. Morgan, sr. , Dr. Kirkendall, and sev- 
eral of the others read papers of importance to the profession, while the 
society, as a whole, undoubtedly contributed in a connsiderable degree 
to the elevation and advancement of this school of practice in the 

Edward Jay Morgan, M.D., of Ithaca, N.Y. , was born in Venice, 
N.Y., on June 29, 1825. His father, Thomas Morgan, of New London, 
Conn., died in 1836. From circumstances connected with the financial 
condition of the country at the time, and although having once possessed 
a considerable fortune, he left his family almost wholly unprovided for. 
His mother was a remarkable woman, and to her wisdom, fortitude and 
christian character the subject of this sketch owes much. He was 
thrown from almost the first upon his own resources, a circumstance 
which in after life he came to look upon as having exerted a materially 
beneficial effect upon him. At the age of fourteen he went to Auburn, 
N.Y., for the purpose of acquiring a knowledge of dentistry, in order 
that he might earn means sufficient to defray his expenses while at 
school. He was soon enabled to commence an academic course at Au- 
burn, which he completed at Groton, N.Y. He prepared himself to 
enter an advanced course in Hamilton College, then intending to join 
the ministry. Circiimstances changed his determination, and in 1844 

E. J. MORGAN, M. D. 8;i 

he went to Ithaca, N.Y. , but not to cease studying. Soon after reach- 
ing Ithaca he commenced the study of medicine with the late Dr. J, E. 
Hawley, allopath, who was at that time the principal surgeon in Ithaca 
and the adjoining country. Having by practicing dentistry obtained 
the funds necessary to enter a medical college, and sufficiently pre- 
pared himself, he took two courses of lectures in 1848 and 184-0, at 
Geneva Medical College, becoming at the same time a pupil of Profes- 
sor Thomas Spencer. He graduated in 1850, immediately returned to 
Ithaca, and commenced the practice of medicine and surgery, in part- 
nership with his former preceptor, Dr. Hawley. 

During the winter of 1855 he was called to a neighboring city to see 
liis invalid mother, by whose bedside he met Dr. Horatio Robinson, of 
Auburn, the able and honored pioneer of homceopathy in Western New 
York. Through his influence Dr. Morgan was induced to examine 
into the claims of the new system, which he had been taught to regard 
as but the " fabric of a vision," but which, upon earnest investigation, 
he found to be based on a broad and solid foundation of scientific re- 
search. Against the advice of many of his friends he studied and 
adopted homoeopathy that same year. But he was never an extremist. 
Perhaps having studied both schools tempered any undue bias he might 
have had. Of course he experienced at this time much of the ridicule 
and opposition that one naturally meets with in espousing a new and 
unpopular cause or science. Nevertheless, he soon built up a practice, 
and before many years had succeeded in converting to homoeopathy 
many of the most intelligent and cultured people of Ithaca and the ad- 
joining country. His practice was one of the largest in central New 
York, and, in fact, few physicians have for a longer term of years en- 
joyed the esteem and confidence of any community. He is still sent 
for far and wide in consultation. 

At one period he was temporarily engaged at a medical institution 
at Spencer Springs, N.Y. , the management of the homoeopathic dis- 
pensary being entrusted to him. His services to the cause of medicine, 
at the time he sought connection with this establishment, enlisted nu- 
merous highly complimentary testimonials from the best known of 

In 1851 Dr. Morgan married the youngest daughter of Judge Andrew 
De Witt Bruyn, of Ithaca, by whom he has two children, a son and a 
daughter ; the former is also an homoeopathic physician. 


Dr. Morgan's years of active practice extended from 1851 to 1893, 
but since 1890 his health has been breaking, though he did not retire 
from the field till October, 1893. And still very many of his old fam- 
ilies cling to him, awaiting with anxiety the result of this last and very 
serious illness which the past winter (1891:) has taken him up to death's 
very door, but from which he seems to be recovering though nearly 
sixty-nine years of age. Dr. Morgan is an eminent surgeon. It is 
perhaps in the diagnosis of disease that his greatest talent lies. His 
judgment is swift and as unerring as direct. It has many times been 
said of him that he seldom made a mistake, that when he made a pre- 
diction it was usually fulfilled. This talent has brought him in the 
years past many compliments from specialists in the larger cities, and 
more than once he has had tempting offers to devote himself exclusively 
to the diagnosis of disease. 

Dr. Morgan's manner and presence in the sick room is unusually 
pleasing. He is rarely sympathetic and gives himself as well as his 
medicine to his patients. Many and many a time he has been known 
to walk the floor till long after midnight, studying or worrying over 
very sick patients, when he should have been asleep. 

That his health was unbroken during the strain of so many years was 
due without doubt to his recreation with gun and rod. He was a most 
enthusiastic sportsman and went a few weeks of many succeeding 
summers into what used to be called John Brown's Tract, a region 
which particularly captivated him. For he loves and knows natiire in 
many of her phases as well as he knows medicine. The trees and birds 
and rocks and flowers are known to him by name and companionship 
and he ever delights to study their habits. 

Judge F. M. Finch, the poet lawyer, one of his oldest and most inti- 
mate friends, wrote of him twenty years ago when in John Brown's 
Tract : 

. . The doctor, first of all — 
Since always first — at early breakfast call, 
At floating for the dazed and wondering deer, 
At whipping wave and ripple far and near, 
At watching loon, the diver's distant wake, 
At wreathing clouds of smoke, like dreaming Turk ; 
Or climbing granite peak, moss-grown and gray, 
Scored by the storms in many a frost and fray; 
And only last when Toil, bronze-armed and grand. 
Summoned his weary steps and doubtful hand. 


Yet not an idler: He who wars with death, 
Upon the narrow ledges of a breath, 
On doubtful foothold of a tremulous grasp. 
May idle sometimes when the summer flowers 
With leaf and garland crown the resting hours; 
But not when low the fire of being burns, 
And life or death upon a heart-beat turns. 

So M , prone on the earth, his tossing hair 

Loose to the tangling of the forest air — 
But often, in the train of marching years, 
To throw the doubtful dice of smiles or tears. 

Dr. Samuel L. Sibley was the finst homcEopathic physician in practice, 
and opened his office only a Tew years prior to the beginning' of Dr. 
Morgan's practice. He was formerly an old school physician. He 
practiced eight or ten years, when his health failed. He built the 
brick residence now occupied by Dr. Hoysradt ; was a successful prac- 
titioner and a courteous gentleman. Other homceopathic physicians 
who practiced successfully in Ithaca were Dr. J. W. Thompson, who 
began a little later than Dr. Morgan, and died about three years later. 
Dr. Charles E. Swift was for a time a partner of Dr. Morgan, and re- 
moved to Auburn, where he had a large practice and died there 
recently. Dr. C. A. Welch, for a time partner with Dr. Morgan, was 
an able physician, and removed west. 

The Legislature of this State has done much to advance the interests 
of the medical profession, as well as those of the sick, by passing laws 
regulating practice, protecting regularly qualified physicians, and plac- 
ing restrictions upon those who might be disposed to claim a profes- 
sional position without having graduated from recognized medical 
colleges. In 1872 a law was passed specifying the means by which 
applicants might be admitted to practice medicine, either by examina- 
tion before a medical society, or by attendance at some recognized ' 
school. In 1880 what has been known as the " Registration Law " was 
passed, which required all physicians to personally register with the 
county clerk their name, place of birth, proposed residence in the 
county, the institution or society by which they were licensed, and the 
date of such license or diploma. A refusal to comply with the require- 
ments of this law is a misdemeanor. 

Under this law, which went into effect in 1880, the following named 
physicians have registered in the county clerk's office in Ithaca. The 
list is valuable for reference and preservation in case of d estrnction of 
the record book : 


August 11, 1880, Alvah Morse Baldwin, Groton ; born in Venice, Cayuga county; 
Halinemann College, March 10, 1880. 

August 14, 1880, John A. Northrup, Ithaca; born at Orange, Schuyler county, N.Y., 
Geneva Medical College, January 28, 18G(i. 

August 16, 1880, J. J. Goodyear, Dryden; bom in Groton; Cincinnati College of 
Medicine and Surgery, February 26, 1880. 

August 16, 1880, E. J. Rothwell, Ludlowville ; born in Ontario, Canada, University 
of Michigan, March 25, IS?,"). 

August 16,1880, Henry B. Chase, Jacksonville; born at Whitestown, N. Y. , Gene- 
va Medical College, February 32, 1850. 

August 10, 1880, A. J. White, Trumbull's Corners; born in Newfield; University 
of Buffalo, February 19, 1863. 

August 16, 1880, Marcus A. Dumond, Danby, born in Danby; University of Buf- 
falo, February 25, 1880. 

August, 17, 1880, Elfred R. Barney, Ithaca; born in Erie county, N. Y., University 
of Michigan, March 27, 1872. 

August 18, 1880, George M. Beckwith, Ithaca ; born at Plattsburg, N. Y. , Univer- 
sity of the City of New York, February 19, 1878. 

August 21, 1880, John S. Kirkendall, Ithaca; born in Danby; Cleveland Homeo- 
pathic Hospital, February 25, 1880. 

August 26, 1880, David White, Ithaca; born in Delhi, N. Y.. Eclectic Medical In- 
stitute, Cincinnati, February 3, 1859. 

August 31, 1880, Delmer Clayton Tripp, Ithaca; born in Ithaca; Bellevue Medical 
College, March 1, 1875. 

August 23, 1880, Mary L. W. Lacy, Ithaca; born at Groton, N. Y. ; Eclectic Med- 
ical College, New York, February 15, 1872. 

August 26, 1880, Orville S. Ensign, Ithaca; born in Ithaca; University of Michigan, 
July 1, 1880. 

August 30, 1880, Huldah T. Smith, Ithaca ; born in Enfield ; Eclectic Medical Col- 
lege, New York, February 3, 1880. 

August 28, 1880, Diana C. Briggs, Dryden ; born in Genoa, N. Y. ; Tompkins 
county Board of Censors, January 13, 1875. 

August 28, 1880, Samantha S. Nivison, Dryden ; born at Jacksonville, Tompkins 
covmty, N. Y. , Female Medical College, Philadelphia, March, 1855. 

August 28, 1880, A. D. Simonds, Etna; born in Virgil, N. Y. ; Syracuse University, 
February 12, 1873. 

August 28, 1880, Reuben L. Smith, Ithaca ; born in Ulysses, N. Y. ; Long Island 
College Hospital, June 21, 1877. 

September 9, 1880, L. W. Carpenter, Trumansburg ; born in Bridgewater, N. Y. ; 
Cleveland Medical College, March 14, 1877. 

September 2, 1880, Richard Lanning, McLean ; born in Ulysses, Medical Society 
of Herkimer county, January 14, 1828. 

September 2, 1880, David T. Barr, Ludlowville; born in Sharon, N. Y. ; Cleveland 
Homeopathic College, March 15, 1851. 

September 2, 1880, Solon P. Sackett, Ithaca ; born in Nassau, Rensselaer county, 
N. Y. ; Geneva Medical College, January 24, 1843. 


September 4, 1880, Ruf us Tallmadge, Truraansburg ; born in New Canaan, Conn. ; 
Ontario County Medical College, May 4, 1843. 

September 4, 1880, John E. Beers, Danby; born in Danby; Georgetown Univer- 
sity Medical College, Washington, April, 1864. 

September (!, 1880, Mary L. Briggs, Dryden ; bornin Dryden ; University of Mich- 
igan, June 29, 1879. 

September 6, 1880, D. K. Allen, Dryden; born in Brookfield, N. Y. ; Philadelphia 
University of Medicine and Surgery, February 1, 1871. 

September 7, 1880, J. Watson Brown, Ithaca; born at Wyalusing, Pa. ; University 
of Buffalo, February 35, 1879. 

September 8, 1880, E. J. Morgan, jr., Ithaca; born in Ithaca; New York Homeo- 
pathic Medical College, February 28, 1878. 

September 0, 1880, Anna T. Nivison, Dryden; born in Ulysses; New York Medi- 
cal College for Women, March 23, 1808. 

September 9, 1880, Oziel Nivison, Dryden; born in Ulysses; New York Eclectic 
College, February 24, 1877. 

September 10, 1880, Alonson Bisliop, Ithaca; born in Exeter, N. Y. ; New York 
Homeopathic Medical College, March 1, 1868. 

September 10, 1880, G. E. Orton, Ithaca; born in Lisle, N. Y. ; Medical College of 
New York, February 3, 1877. 

September 11, 1880, William O. G. Springer, Jacksonville; born in Litchfield, Me., 
Medical School of Bowdoin College, Me., August 2, 1865. 

September 13, 1880, Elias R. Weaver, Groton; born at Pharsalia, N. Y. ; University 
of Buffalo, February 25, 1852, 

September 14, 1880, C. E. Van Cleef, Ithaca; born in Seneca Falls, N. Y. ; New 
York Homeopathic Medical College, February, 1874. 

September 14, 1880, John Goodyear, Groton ; born in Sempronius, N. Y. ; Cortland 
Medical Society, July 15, 1843. 

September 14, 1880, Eli Beers, Danby ; born in Danby ; Herkimer County Medical 
Society, May 15, 1827. 

September 14, 1880, Ziba Hazard Potter, Ithaca; born in Yates county; Geneva 
Medical College, January 22, 1867. 

September 15, 1880, Judson Beach, Etna; born in Springfield, Susquehanna county. 
Pa. ; The University of Michigan, March 35, 1874. 

September 15, 1880, William Fitch, Dryden; born in Franklin, Delaware county, 
N. Y. ; Albany Medical College, January 29, 1846. 

September 15, 1880, Isaac S. Briggs, Dryden ; born in Chatham, Mass. ; Harvard 
University Medical Department, August 36, 1879. 

September 15, 1880, Edmond H. Kyle, Enfield; bornin Harrisville, Butler county. 
Pa. ; University of Pennsylvania, March 13, 1876. 

September 15, 1880, Charles E. Weidman, Dryden; born in Etna; Albany Medi- 
cal College, March, 1880. 

September 16, 1880, Edward Davis Allen, Dryden ; born in Madison county, N. Y. ; 
New York City Eclectic Medical College, March 1, 1880. 

September 16, 1880, Edward Jay Morgan, Ithaca ; born in Venice, Cayuga county ; 
Geneva Medical College, March, 1849. 


September 17, 188(», John C. Wall, Caroline Centre; born in Abinjjton, Luzerne 
county, Pa. ; The Board of Censors of the Eclectic Medical Association, June 1, 1870. 

September 17, 1880, F. S. Jennings, McLean ; born in Moravia, Cayuga county, 
N. Y. ; Medical Department of the University of the City of New York, February, 
17, 1880. 

September 20, 1880, Solomon H. Peck, Ithaca; born in Sullivan county, N. Y. ; 
The Medical Department of the University of the City of New York, March 9, 1862. 

September 21, 1880, Almon Robinson, McLean; born in Exeter, Otsego county, 
N. Y. ; The Central New York Eclectic Medical Society, July 10, 1874. 

September 23, 1880, Newel K. Foster, Varna; born in Canterbury, Merrimack 
county, N. H. ; Long Island College Hospital, Brooklyn, June 27, 1878. 

September 23, 1880, W. J. Gulick, North Lansing; born in Peoria county. 111.; 
University of Pennsylvania, March 11, 1805. 

September 23, 1880, John I. Montgomery, Dryden ; born in liryden ; Bellevue Hos- 
pital Medical College, March 1, 1807. 

September 25, 1880, George F. Dudley, Newfield ; born in Newiield ; Bellevue 
Hospital Medical College, February 26, 1875. 

September 25, 1880, Charles T. Kelsey, Enfield ; born in Enfield ; Jefferson Med- 
ical College, Philadelphia, March 6, 1852. 

September 27, 1880, Lucy W. Harrison, Jacksonville ; born in Jacksonville ; Eclec- 
tic Medical College of the State of New York, February 3, 1874. 

September 28, 1880, Wm. C. Gallagher, Slaterville ; born in Cortland, Cortland 
county, N. Y. ; Geneva Medical College, January 25, 1863. 

September 28, 1880, John Flickinger, Trumansburg ; born in Fayette, Seneca coun- 
ty; The Albany Medical College, June 10, 1856. 

September 28, 1880, John W. Farrington, Trumansburg; born in Fishkill, Dutch- 
ess county, N. Y. ; New York Medical College, March 5, 1857. 

September 29, 1880, Stephen U. Jones, Groton ; born in Springfield, Kings county. 
New Brunswick ; Cleveland Homeopathic College, February 14, 1872. 

September 29, 1880, Darius Hall, Lansingville ; born in Sempronius, Cayuga coun- 
ty, N. Y. ; The College of Medicine and Surgery, Fairfield, February 9, 1833. 

September 29, 1880, Judson S. Gibbs, Groton ; born in Montezuma, N. Y. ; The 
Medical College of the Syracuse University, June 22, 1876. 

September 29, 1880, Wesley Newcomb, Ithaca; born in Rensselaer county ; The 
Academy of Medicine at Castleton, Vermont, November 4, 1833. 

September 29, 1880, M. D. Goodyear, Groton ; born in Groton ; Michigan Univer- 
sity at Ann Arbor, Mich., March 25, 1868. 

Sejitember 30, 1880, Christopher C. Cook, Newfield; born in Gorham, Ontario 
county, N. Y. ; Niagara County Medical Society, March 7, 1845. 

September 80, 1880, W. II. Barr, Ludlowville; born in Auburn; Cleveland Homeo- 
pathic Hospital College, February, 1876. 

September 30, 1880, Benjamin Dunning, Trumansburg; born in Goshen, Orange 
county; Medical Department of Columbia College, March 6, 1841. 

September 30, 1880, Samuel J. Parker, Ithaca; born inDanby; New York Medical 
College, March, 1860. 

September 30, 1880, Mary A. Sanford, Ithaca; born in Urbana, Steuben county; 
University of Michigan, Medical Department, June 26, 1879. 



September 30, 1880, John R. Gregory, Covert, Seneca county, N. Y. ; born in West 
Troy, Albany county, N. Y. ; Albany Medical College, December 28, IBHS. 

September 30, 1880, Adeline E. Prentiss, Ithaca; born in Ithaca; Homeopathic 
Hospital College at Cleveland, Ohio, February 16, 1876. 

September 30, 1880, John Winslow, Ithaca; born in Lynn, Mass; Bellevue Hospi- 
tal Medical College, March 1, 1866. 

September 30, 1880, S. Augustus Seabring, Neviffield; born in Newfield; Long Isl- 
and College Hospital, June 33, 1873. 

October 1, 1880, Benjamin F. Cornell, Ithaca; born in Ithaca; New York Univer- 
sity, February 20, 1877. 

October 1, 1880, Alfred H. Haven, Ithaca; born in Portsmouth, N. H. ; Harvard 
University Medical College, July 17, 1861. 

October 2, 1880, Charles A. Boyce, McLean; born in Franklin, Delaware county, 
N. Y. ; Medical Department of Syracuse University, June 15, 1879. 

October 4, 1880, Ransom Johnson, Speedsville; born in Virgil, Cortland county, 
N. Y. ; Eclectic Medical College of Pennsylvania, March 17, 1875. 

October 7, 1880, Isaac E. Hill, Trumansburg ; born in Tompkins, Delaware county. 
Eclectic Medical Institute of Cincinnati, Ohio, January 27, 1858. 

Octobers, 1880, Martin Beseraer, Mott's Corners; born in town of Dryden ; The 
Cleveland Homeopathic Hospital College, February 17, 1875. 

October 11, 1880, Emmet C. Strader, Mecklenburg; born in Lowville, Lewis coun- 
ty, N. Y. ; New York Homeopathic Medical College, February 28, 1878. 

October 18, 1880, John F. Burdick, Lansing; born in Halifax, Vt. ; Medical College 
of Castleton, Vermont, October, 1837. 

December 1, 1880, Frank A. Kerst, Jacksonville; born in Jacksonville; The Uni- 
versity of Buffalo, February 35, 1880. 

Januarys, 1881, Burt Green Wilder, Ithaca; born in Boston, Mass. ; Medical School 
of Harvard University, March, 1866. 

January 13, 1881, Henry W. Bull, Slaterville; born in Dryden; College of Physi. 
cians and Surgeons, March 36, 1839. 

January 30, 1881, E. F. Butterfield, Rochester; born in Pompey, Onondaga coun- 
ty ; Metropolitan Medical College, 69 East Broadway, and Eclectic Medical College, 
19 East 33d Street, NewYork, February 1863-73. 

February 15, 1881, E. A. Everitt, Ithaca; born in Amenia, Dutchess county; Al- 
bany Medical College, June 10, 1856. 

June 25, 1881, Walter H. Lockerby, Ludlowville; born in Braceville, 111. ; Faculty 
of the University of Buffalo, February 31, 1881. 

September 13, 1881, A. E. Magoris, Binghamton ; born in New York City; Long 
Island Medical College, June 33, 1880. 

February 16, 1811, William D. Hoffman, Ithaca: born in Huntington, Pa. ; Iowa 
Medical College, Keokuk, la., February 20, 1860. 

March 3, 1882, William Alfred McCorn, Newfield; born in Newfield; Buffalo Med- 
ical College, February 81, 1882. 

March 4, 1882, Abram Chase, Jacksonville ; born in Jacksonville ; Faculty of the 
University of Buffalo, February 25, 1883. 

March 37, 1882, Charles R. Barber, Etna; born in Wyoming; Buffalo Medical Col- 
lege, February 21, 1883. 


Aprils, 1883, Richard W. Ellis, Trumansbilrg ; born in Farmer Village; Univer- 
sity of Michigan, June 25, 1873. 

May 5, 1883, J. A. Lewis, Ithaca; born in Susquehanna county, Pa. ; University of 
the City of New York, March 7, 1869. 

May 11, 1883, James Lewis Beers, Freeville; born in Danby; University Medical 
College, New York city, February 36, 1883. 

July 3, 1883, Jacob Cristman, Freeville; born in Herkimer county, N. Y, ; Eclectic 
Medical College, Philadelphia, Pa., January 26, 1857. 

July 13, 1883, Eugene Baker, Dryden ; born in Fulton county, N. Y. ; University 
of Michigan, June 29, 1883. 

August 38, 1883, George W. Davis, West Danby; born in Trenton, Wis.; The 
University of Buffalo, February 21, 1883. 

August 38, 1883, Edward B. Wiley, Varna; born in Mifflin, Juniata county. Pa, 
Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, March 14, 1883. 

September 30, 1883, M. II. Smith, Danby; born in Trumansburgh; the United 
Status Medical College at New York city, March 4, 188l>. 

April 7, 1883, Lysander T. White, Enfield Centre ; born in Cayutaville, Schuyler 
county, N. Y. ; University of Buffalo, February, 1809. 

April 11, 1883, Bina A. Potter, Ithaca; born in Danby; Medical Department of 
the University of Buffalo, February 27, 1883. 

April 34, 1883, Michael P. Conway, Ithaca: born in Ithaca; College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, Baltimore, March 1, 1883. 

July 9, 1883, Chester L. Skinner, Fi'eeville; born in Auburn; College of Homeop. 
athy, March 15, 1883. 

September 30, 1883, Mary A. Allen, Slaterville; born in Delta, O., University of 
Michigan, March 24, 1875. 

September 10, 1883, Chilton B. Allen, Slaterville; born in New Foundland; The 
University of the City of New York, March, 1881. 

September 20, 1883, George L. Rood, Etna; born in Centre Lisle, Broome county; 
Eclectic Institute, Cincinnati, C, June 5, 1883. 

January 24, 1884, Emory A. Eakin, Buffalo; born in, Gallipolis, O. ; Miami Medi- 
cal College, Cincinnati, O. Endorsed by Medical Faculty of Niagara University of 
Buffalo, March 3, 1869. 

April 11, 1884. Homer Genung, Brookton; born in Brookton; Homeopathic Hospi- 
ial College of Cleveland, O., March 15, 1884. 

June 3, 1884, M. J. Jackson, New York city; born in Prussia; Eclectic Medical 
College of New York, March 1, 1884. 

November 14, 1884, Edgar Randolph Osterhout, Trumbull's Corners; born at Jack- 
son Corners, Monroe county, Pa. ; Bellevue Hospital Medical College of the City of 
New York, March 13, 1884. 

November 34, 1884, Edward Hitchcock, jr., Ithaca; born at Stratford, Connecticut; 
Dartmouth Medical College, June 30, 1881. 

December 8, 1884, Franklin B. Smith, Buffalo; born in Hillsdale, Mich. ; Hahne- 
mann Medical College, Chicago, 111., February 36, 1879. 

March 37, 1885, James S. Carman, Jacksonville; born in Jacksonville; Medical 
Department of Howard University, Washington, D. C. , March 9, 1885. 


June 0, 1885, Will De Lano, Ithaca; born at Groton ; Eclectic Medical Institute, 
Cincinnati, O., June 2, 1885. 

June 20, 1885, Charles Lewis Tisdale, Brooltton ; born in Auburn ; Hahnemann 
Medical College, Chicago, 111., March 32, 1878. 

August 31, 1885, Edward B. Lighthill, Syracuse; born in Germany; Eclectic Med- 
ical College of the City of New York, March 1, 1882. 

November IH, IHH5, Richard E. Cross, Utica; born at Lancaster, N. IF., JfaculLy 
of Norwich University, Vermont, September 29, 1852. 

November 15, 1885, Addison L. Low, Watertown, Jefferson county; born in Will- 
iamston, Oswego county; New York University Medical College, February 18, 1874. 

May 13, 1886, George Fiske, Chicago, 111. ; born in Madison county; Yale Medical 
School, June, 1883. 

July 14, 1886, Horace W. Nash, Ithaca; born in Trumansburgh ; New York Home- 
opathic Medical College, March 13, 1884. 

July 21, ]88(), David P. Terry, Trumansburgh; born in town of Ulysses; Homeo- 
pathic Hospital College, Cleveland, O., March 19, 1884. 

January 10, 1887, Loretta Abel, Ulysses ; born in Ulysses ; Homeopathic College 
for Women of the City of New York, April 1, 1885. 

March 29, 1887, Albina Hunter, Ithaca; born at Cato, Cayuga county; Michigan 
University, June 24, 1883. 

April 9, 1887, B. L. Robinson, McLean ; born at South Cortland, N. Y. ; Jefferson 
Medical College, Philadelphia, April 5, 1887. 

April 9, 1887, William F. Seaman, Newfield; born at Almond, Allegany county, 
N. Y. ; Eclectic Medical College, New York City, March 0, 1882. 

April 26, 1887, R. F. Gates, Notth Lansing ; born at Maine, Broome county, N. Y ; 
Geneva Medical College, January 27, 1867. 

June 24, 1887, Thomas TurnbuU, jr., Ithaca; born at Brooklyn; University of 
Pennsylvania, May 2, 1887. 

September 19, 1887, Andrew S. Blair, Ithaca ; born at Conesville, N. Y. ; Univer- 
sity Medical College of the City of New York, March 2, 1882. 

July 2, 1888, Joseph R. Broome, Trumansburgh ; born at Utica, N. Y. ; Eclectic 
Medical College of Cincinnati, June 5, 1888. 

August 7, 1888, William C. Freeman, Elmira; born at Branford, Ontario, Can.; 
Trinity College, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, July 24, 1853, and endorsed by Medical 
Department of Niagara University, Buffalo, N. Y., June 14, 1888. 

January 14, 1889, S. Fayette Stagg, Elmira ; born at Panton, Vt. ; Howard Medi- 
cal College of Washington, D. C, and endorsed by the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons of the City of New York, March 8, 1878. 

Aprils, 1889, Julia vS. Baright, Ithaca; born at Bedford, Calhoun county, Mich.; 
the Faculty of the Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital of Chicago, 111. , Feb- 
ruary 21, 1889. 

April 6, 1889, Emmett D. Page, Brooklyn; born at Triangle, Broome county; 
Long Island College Hospital, June l'7, 1882. 

April 17, 1889, Marian A. Townley, Lansing; born at Lansing; Medical University 
of Buffalo, March 26, 1889. 

June 39, 1,889, John L. Babcock, Ithaca; born at Oswego; University of the City 
of New York, March C, 1886. 


August 14, 1889, F. Dela Claire Balcolm, Syracuse ; born at Ransomville ; The 
Physio-Medical Institute, Marion, Ind., March 14, 1889. 

August 14, 1889, William Ryder, Syracuse ; born at Little Falls, N. Y. ; The Curtis 
Physio-Medical Institute, Marion, Ind., March 14, 1889, 

Noifember 6, 1889, Elma Griggs, Ithaca; born at Limestone, N. Y. ; the Hahne- 
mann Medical College, Chicago, 111., February 14, 1887. 

November lii, 1889, Charles F. Griswold, Groton ; born at Owego ; University of 
Vermont, July 15, 1889. 

November 22, 1889, Franklin D. Pierce, Union Springs; born at Venango county. 
Pa. ; University of the City of New York, March 19, 1878. 

May 32, 1890, De Forest A. Reid, Brookton; born at Caroline, Tompkins county, 
N. Y. ; Homeopathic Hospital College of Cleveland, O., March 20, 1890. 

June 10, 1890, Edward Meany, Ithaca; born at Enfield; the Medical Department 
of the University of Buffalo, March 1, 1887. 

June 16, 1890, Matthew Joseph O'Connell, Covert, Seneca county; born at Tru- 
mansburgh; the Niagara University of the State of New York, April 15, 1890. 

July 30, 1890, I. N. Willard, Ithaca; born at Fairfield, N. Y. ; Bellevue Medical 
College, February 26, 1875. 

November 13, 1890, John C. Beebe, Buffalo; born at Oyster Bay, Long Island; 
Toledo Medical College of Toledo, O., March 7, 1888. 

Mai-ch27, 1891, William T. Jones, Enfield; born at Ulysses; Buffalo Medical Uni- 
versity, at Buffalo, N. Y., March 34, 1891. 

April 1, 1891, Jeanette M. Potter, Ithaca; born at Ithaca; the Buffalo Medical 
University, March 35, 1890. 

April B, 1891, John E. McTaggart, Auburn; born at Ontario, Canada; the Buffalo 
Medical University, February 20, 1871. 

April 7, 1891, James P. Fahy, Ithaca; born at Ithaca; the Medical University of 
Buffalo, March 24, 1891. 

May 6, 1891, Channing A. Holt, Albany; born at Hartford, Conn. ; University of 
the City of New York, February 17, 1877. 

Augusts, 1891, Howard B. Besemer, Ithaca; born at Dryden ; Medical Department 
of the University of the City of New York, March 24, 1891. 

August 17, 1891, William H. Longhead, jr., Elmira; born at Elmira; Medical De- 
partment of the University of Buffalo, March 34, 1891. 

August 31, 1891, William B. Christopher, Speedsville; born at Galena, 111.; Syra- 
cuse Medical College, June 11, 1891. 

April 11, 1892, Ben W. Genung, West Danby; born at Caroline; Cleveland Med- 
ical College, Cleveland, O., March 33, 1892. 

July 1, 1893, George B. Lewis, Ithaca; born at Owego; Medical Department of 
the University of- the City of New York, March 6, 1886. 

July 25, 1892, Charles D. Vernooy, Enfield; born at Accord, Ulster county; Syr- 
racuse University College of Medicine, June 9, 1892. 

November 31, 1892, Newton D. Chapman, Ludlowville; born at Groton; Medical 
Department of the University of New York, April 4, 1893. 

December 38, 1893, Robertune L. Smith, Richford, Tioga county; born at Rich- 
ford; Medical Department University of New York City, April 4, 1893. 


May 8, 1893, Wilbur G. Fish, Ithaca; born at Lansing; Cleveland Medical College 
of Cleveland, O., and endorsed by the University of the State of New York, March, 
33, 1893. 

March 30, 1882, Charles P. Beanian, Stamford, Conn. ; born at Philadelphia, Pa. ; 
The New York Homeopathic College of the City of New York, March Ifl, 1882. 

June 14, 1893, Arthur D. White, Ithaca; born at Ithaca; University of the State of 
New York, May 27, 1893. 

July 15, 1893, James Allen Blair, Trumbull's Corners; born in Scotland; The Uni- 
versity of the State of New York, July 15, 1893. 

September 22, 1893, Frank L. Washburn, Ludlowville ; born at Dryden ; Long Isl- 
and College Hospital, March 22, 1893. 

September 22, 1893, Charles P. Beaman, Ithaca; born at Philadelphia ; University 
of the State of New York, March 16, 1882. 

October 19, 1893, Joe Van Vranken Lewis, Ludlowville; born at Prattsburg, Steu- 
ben county; University of the State of New York, July 17, 1893. 



While it is true tliat the town of Ithaca is of comparatively recent 
formation, settlements within its present limits began very early — 
about a quarter of a century before Tompkins county was formed — 
and when all other sections of the present county were a wilderness, 
untrodden except by the Indians and the few white men who had been 
sent out to drive them from their ancestral homes. 

The town of Ithaca as a separate organization has come down from 
the original town of Ulysses, through the following changes : Ithaca 
was formed from Ulysses, which was erected as one of the original 
towns of Onondaga county, March 5, 1794. Its history is traced as 
Ulysses, Onondaga county, from March 5, 1794; as Ulysses, Cayuga 
county, from March 8, 1799; as Ulysses, Seneca county, from March 
39, 1804; as Ulysses, Tompkins county, from April 17, 1817; and as 
Ithaca, Tompkins county, from March 10, 1821. 

It is the central town of the county and contains thirty-six square 
miles of territory, of which nearly eight-tenths is under cultivation, 

1 On account of the very early settlement of the site of Ithaca and its present im- 
portance in the county, it is thought best to depart from the chronological order of 
town formation and place it first. 


the remainder being woodland. The population, according to the 
census of 1890, is 12,343. Cayuga Lake reaches southward into the 
town about two miles, and its deep valley continues on two miles 
further, with a width of about one and one-half miles. Towards the 
great trough there is a general rolling and imdulating descent from 
the outer borders of the town, until within about a mile of the lower 
plane, where the descent becomes very steep and continues to the bot- 
tom of the valley. In Chapter II the reader will find detailed de- 
scription of the picturesqiie scenery produced by the peculiar land and 
water formations in this town, especially in the near vicinity of Ithaca 
city. No other locality in the State of New York, and few in the 
country, are more worthy of admiration from the lovers of nature in 
her most attractive moods, or of visits from the gifted artist. Nestled 
in the deep vale near the head of the lake, at the foot of the majestic 
eastern and western hills, the village gracefully lay through its many 
years of early growth, while in the last quarter century it has reached 
out upon the hillsides, where hundreds of beautifid residences adorn 
spacious and well kept grounds. 

The soil of the town is chiefly a gravelly or sandy loam upon the 
high lands, excepting in the southern part, where it is in many places 
shallow and constituted of disintegrated shale or slate. The soil on the 
flats is a rich alluvium. Grain and stock growing has been the princi- 
pal occupation in the agricultural districts, while on the slopes of the 
hills near Ithaca, peaches, grapes and other fruits are raised success- 

The first settlers in this town found several clearings in the valley 
which had been made by the Indians, who had cut away the low hazel 
and thorn bushes and planted corn. 

In another and earlier chapter of this work mention has been made 
of the eleven men who came on here from Kingston in April, 1788, 
with two Delaware Indians for guides; also the return in April of the 
following year of three of their number, Jacob Yaple, Isaac Dumond, 
and Peter Hinepaw, who made the first settlement in the town, on a 
four hundred acre lot, of which the west line of the present Tioga street 
in Ithaca formed the western limit. These pioneers planted corn on 
the Indian clearings, ^ left their crops with John Yaple, a younger 

' It is reported that these Indian clearings served the settlers in common for sev- 
eral years for corn grounds, while they stored their gathered crops in cribs on the 
hillside. The first settler, it is said, did not think they could raise corn on the hills. 


brother of Jacob, and returned to Kingston for their families. They 
came back to their new homes in September, bringing a few farming 
tools, a little household furniture, and a number of horses, cattle, .sheep 
and hogs. 

The three families nxtmbered twenty persons: Jacob Yaplc, his wife 
and three children (Philip, Mary and Peter, and John Yaple, the 
brother, who was then twenty-four years of age); Isaac Dumond, his 
wife and three children (Peter, Abram and Jenny), and John Dumond 
and his wife, then lately married; Peter Hinepaw, his wife and five 
children (whose names we cannot give, the eldest of whom was about 
twelve years of age). 

The three families soon had built log cabins for each, situated as 
described in Chapter III, and began their toil in the wilderness. 
They encountered the usual hardships, as well as some that were not 
so common. Rattlesnakes abounded, for one thing, and the tale has 
come down that about thirty were killed in a day where Hinepaw's 
cabin stood, near the site of the Cascadilla Mills, and that a populous 
den of the dangerous reptiles was discovered and cleared out. The 
few Indians remaining here were friendly and aided the pioneers to 
some extent. In the summer they occupied the hillsides, but when 
cold weather approached they pitched their wigwams in the gorge of 
Six Mile Creek. But the larger portion left this section the second 
year after the coming of the settlers. The preparation of the food 
supply, too, was accomplished with great difficulty. The first crop of 
corn, with twenty-four bushels of wheat brought by one of the pioneers 
from a settlement on the Upper Nanticoke, had to be carried to Wilkes- 
barre to be ground. That was the nearest mill until the second year, 
when Jacob Yaple built a small mill near Hinepaw's cabin on the Cas- 
cadilla, capable of grinding perhaps twenty-five bushels in a day. * 

It is, perhaps, more probable that they did not at first use the hillsides, because they 
were not cleared. 

' To obtain potatoes to plant, John Yaple traveled on foot one hundred and sixtj' 
miles to a point on the Delaware River, where he obtained three pecks of the 
precious seed and carried them in a sack all the way back to the settlement. 

Mr. King says that it had. been claimed that the Indians had raised potatoes at 
Taughanic a few years previous to the coming of the white settlers; but this seems 
quite doubtful, for there is not the slightest reason for believing that the Indians 
would not have shared with their neighbors in anything so desirable and so difficult 
to obtain. Moreover, the Indians, as far as known, cared little for the potato. 


Until the building of Yaple's little mill much of the corn was pounded 
in the top of a fire-hollowed stump. The mill was called " the little 
pepper mill," and served the needs of many settlers for a number of 
years. Mr. King states that when a man took a grist of two or three 
bushels from a considerable distance to be ground he often had to stay 
all night to get it. The mill stones, as well as the rest of the structure, 
were made by Mr. Yaple himself, the stones being roughly formed 
from granite boulders. There was no bolting cloth and the bran was 
partially separated from the wheat flour with a sieve. As the settlers 
increased in numbers, considerable grain was taken to other towns, 
even long distances, to Owego and elsewhere, lo be ground. 

That other family necessity, salt, was easily obtained from the In- 
dians, and it was imiversally believed in early times that there was a 
source of surface supply near at hand. But, if so, it has never been 
discovered by white persons. There are legends and stories innumer- 
able of Indians going northward at various times and soon returning 
with a supply of salt; and one member of the Sager family has stated 
that brine itself was brought by Indians near to his home and there 
boiled. As far as the writer is personally concerned, there is one great 
weakness in these tales, i. e., Why did not the whites learn the where- 
. abouts of the sovtrce of supply from the last of the Indians just before 
they left the locality for good ? A few trifling gifts at such a time 
would surely have caused the valuable secret (valuable no longer to the 
Indians) to be divulged. And there is another element of improb- 
ability in the matter scarcely less noteworthy; that is the fact that no 
white man watched the Indian or squaw when going for salt. Certainly 
no scruple of conscience could have prevented, and it would seem to 
have been a comparatively easy task, if, as represented, the salt spring- 
was near at hand. And moreover, if there ever was a salt spring here, 
where was it ? Is it not more probable that the salt came from the 
Onondaga Springs, either brought from there by the Indians who left 
the head of the lake for it, or obtained it between here and there from 
other Indians?^ The recent discovery of salt in the town of Lansing 
may possibly have some bearing upon this question. 

' Between 1817 and 1830, Mr. Torry, father of Elijah B. Torry, having faith in the 
traditions concerning salt in this valley, sunk two shafts to a considerable depth, at 
a spot just south of the present corporation, near tlie Spencer road ; but instead of 
salt water, he tapped perennial veins of fresh. Portions of the old curbing were still 
to be seen but a few years since. Again, in 18(j4 an attempt to obtain salt by boring 


The families of Yaples, Dumond and Hinepaw lost the land they had 
located here, through nonpayment of taxes at Albany by their agent, 
and the first two removed in 1795 to the northern part of Danby, while 
Hinepaw located near the site of Aurora. They were men of solid and 
respectable character and reared families of children. (Further allusion 
is made to them in the history of Danby. ) 

In the month of September, 1786, Robert McDowell, Ira Stevens and 
Jonathan Woodworth moved with their families from Kingston, near 
Wilkesbarre, Pa., to Tioga Point and Chemung. The next summer 
Robert McDowell, Nehemiah and Charles Woodworth (sons of Jona- 
than), Abram vSmith, Joseph vSmith and Richard Loomis came from , 
Chemung, by way of Catharine, to the head of Cayuga Lake, and there 
cut and put up a quantity of marsh hay, and then returned to Chemung. 
The ensuing fall Abram Smith and the two Woodworths again visited 
the lake flats, this time bringing cattle to winter them on the hay al- 
ready prepared. In the spring of 1788 they went back to Chemung, 
when Mr. McDowell, accompanied by Jane, his eldest daughter, then 
about seven years, and two boys — one a negro — returned to the rude 
farm at the head of the lake, where Ithaca now stands, and planted a 
quantity of corn and sowed some spring wheat, and followed up this 
enterprise in the fall of the same year by bringing in his entire family, 
composed of himself, wife, and five children — Jane, Hannah, Euphius, 
John and Daniel. 

Mr. McDowell was the first settler on the Abraham Bloodgood tract 
of 1,400 acres; since known as all that part of the corporation of Ithaca 
lying west of Tioga street. He put up his cabin somewhere near what 
is now the junction of Seneca and Cayuga streets, about where stands 
the fine residence of Samuel H. Winton. Upon this spot, until 1874, 
stood a wooden building erected by Mr. Henry Ackley (father of Mrs. 
Winton) in the year 1812 or 1813. 

very deep was made ; but the company, formed for the purpose, died of too much 

As a matter of historic interest in this connection, we cannot withhold this further • 
quotation from the Journal of De Witt Clinton, dated Ithaca, August 11, 1810: 
" It is said that there are salt lakes [licks?] in this country, and one near this place, 
formerly much frequented by deer, which were in great plenty when the country 
was first settled, and on being pursued by dogs immediately took to the lakes, in 
which they were easily shot. . . This is probably a link in the chain of fossil 

salt, extending from Salina to Louisiana, like the main range of the Alleghany 
Mountains." — Campbell' s Life of De Witt Clinton, p. 163. 


The descendants and near relatives of McDowell have been prom- 
inent in many waj's in Tompkins county. He was a son of John Mc- 
Dowell, a Scotch immigrant. One daughter of Robert married NicoU 
Halsey and became the mother of ten children, several of whom were 
leading- citizens. 

Nehemiah Woodworth related that in June, 1788, Captain Jonathan 
Woodworth and his two sons, with five others, followed Sullivan's trail 
to Peach Orchard, then passed down Halsey's Creek to the Cayuga 
Lake, and encamped on the north side of Goodwin's Point, and on the 
following day went up to the head of the lake. In July the same party 
of six named in Mr. Halsey's account (except that David Smith is sub- 
stituted for Abram) made hay on the lake flats, where they were 
joined by Peter Hinepaw and Isaac Dumond. The Woodworth party 
brought provisions and two cows; and that fall drove in all their stock, 
about seventy head of cattle and horses. During the winter, Abram 
Smith and a man named Stevens (Ira?) had trouble with wolves, one 
of which they killed. They killed also a large bear on the lake, near 
vSalmon Creek. The account further says that the Woodworth family 
" moved in, in the spring of 1789, and remained until 1793;" that they 
had a mortar made from a large stump standing "near the present 
court-house," and that Nehemiah assisted in bringing in the mill-stones 
on an ox sled. On the farm of the late Dr. J. F. Burdick, in Lansing, 
within the memory of many residents of that town, one of these tree 
mills for grinding corn was still to be seen. 

This is the only record we have concei^ning the settlement of the 
Woodworth family at Ithaca. The mill-stones alluded to were prob- 
ably the first that were brought in — not the first nsed. 

In 1791 John Dvimond, the pioneer, who had been married just be- 
fore leaving his former home, became the father of the first white child 
born within the limits of what is now Tompkins county. The child 
was a daughter, was named Sally, and became the wife of Benjamin 
Skeels, of Danby, who removed to Indiana in 1840. 

William Van Orraan came in about the time under consideration, the 
precise date being unknown. He first settled on two hundred acres, a 
part of military lot number eighty-two, where he lived about twelve 
years, but was one of the many unfortunate ones who lost his property 
through defective title. Walter Wood succeeded him on the farm. 
Mr. Van Orman then took a farm on lot eighty-three, then owned by 
George Sager, who had purchased from a Mr. Pangborn, who received 


it for military service. In 1834: Mr. Van Orman built his substantial 
brick house near Buttermilk Falls. He was of considerable prom- 
inence and was assessor of Ulysses town in 1795. 

George Sager settled about ] 793 on the tract he bought of Pangborn 
(al)ove noticed). Tic brought with him his mother and younger brother, 
Simon, (icorgc was unmarried and about thirty years old. lie after- 
wards married Chai-ity, daughter of Bezal lialley, and later settled in 
that vicinity and built a double log cabin and a frame barn, one of the 
first. This barn was afterwards used for Methodist meetings under 
Rev. Dr. Baker. 

In 1823 Mr. Sager built a stone house, where he passed the remain- 
der of his life. 

Of course, there was a woeful scarcity of "store goods" in those 
early days, and it was several years before a merchant was established; 
but a very enterprising man named Lightfoot brought a load of goods 
up the lake in the year 1791, and began trade in a shanty which he 
built near the site of the steamboat landing. He had tea, coffee, a 
little crockery, small stock of dry goods, a little hardware, and gun- 
powder and lead, a barrel or two of whisky. 

Horace King, in naming the early settlers who succeeded the Mc- 
Dowells, uses the following language : 

I cannot tell the order after this in which the early inhabitants came in, and can 
only mention, as being among the first, the Davenports, who came in the second or 
third year, and settled on the hill west; the Blooms, who came in the third year and 
settled where their descendants still remain (in Lansing, near the Ithaca line); 
Francis King, who came in the fifth year and located two miles south upon the 
hill ; Moses De Witt, who came here as agent of Mr. Simeon De Witt ; Patchin, who 
built his cabin about half way between the Cascadilla and Fall Creeks; Abram and 
Henry Markle, the Sagers, the Brinks, who settled a short distance south of Eben- 
ezer Mack's late residence ; Mr. William R. Collins, who built just across the inlet, 
west; Van Orman, Van Etten, Banfield, Shoemaker, Miller, Greene and Smith. 

Mrs. Philes came to the " Flats " to reside in 1813, Mr. Dumond 
then having a house on the southeast corner of Mill and Tioga streets. 
The first school she attended was kept by Mrs. Buel (wife of Judge 
Buel, and whose maiden name was Enos), in a small house standing, 
until a very few years since, on the southeast corner of Mill and Aurora 

Governor Clinton mentions Abram- Johnson, whom he saw at Ithaca, 
as formerly a sergeant in Clinton's brigade, and the author of a song 
on the storming of Fort Montgomery, which was afterwards printed. 


Of the foregoing, Nathaniel Davenport, from New Jersey, settled 
with his wife and four children on lot eighty-seven, just north of the 
Bloodgood tract, and built his cabin on the site of the stone house re- 
cently occupied by Mrs. Walter P. Williams. Their youngest child, 
Abram, married in 1798 Mary Johnson, daughter of Abram Johnson, a 
pioneer of 1791 ; this was the first marriage in what is now the city and 
town of Ithaca. Abram Johnson was a native of Staten Island, but 
came to Ithaca from the Mohawk Valley, and after a shoi-t stay in the 
village here settled on a farm a few miles south. He was the father 
of eight children, five of whom were sons. One of them, John, became 
an Ithaca merchant and was the second clerk of this county. Arthur 
S., another son, lived in Ithaca, where he was prominent as a lawyer 
and held a number of official positions. 

Benjamin Pelton settled on lot ninety-nine, the Fall Creek property, 
about 1797, his dwelling standing in the middle of what is now Aurora 
street, at the top of a high spur of gravel since leveled down. He ad- 
vertised in the Journal, March 4, 1819, that he had "opened a Scriv- 
iner's office at the Yellow House near Peter Demund's. " Mr. Pelton's 
son, Richard W., became owner of a large farm on South Hill, now 
largely covered with residences. He was the first postmaster of Ithaca 
in 1804. Another son, Edmund G., was a prominent early attorney, 
and held the office of surrogate in 1831. Abram Markle came here 
before 1798, and in that year performed the first marriage ceremony, 
before noticed; he was then a justice of the peace. 

David Quigg was a settler at Ithaca as early as the first year of the 
century and was the first regular merchant. An old account book of 
Lansing & Quigg shows that he was conducting a store in 1801. He 
probably came here from Spencer, where he had first settled. His first 
business was in a log building on the north side of the Cascadilla, near 
the intersection of the present Linn and University avenue. He soon 
afterwards removed his stock to a frame building on the corner of 
Seneca and Aurora streets. His first goods came by way of the Mo- 
hawk Valley from Albany, and by Wood Creek, Oneida Lake, up the 
Seneca River and Cayuga Lake. He received little cash in his early 
operations, but his profits were large. The late H. C. Goodwin^ wrote 
in 1853: 

» H. C. Goodwin, son of Goodwin, of Lansing (from wliom Goodwin's Point 

was named), published a little pamphlet in 1853 entitled " Ithaca as it was and Ithaca 
as it is." It is now very rare, the copy in hand being owned by Horace M. Hibbard. 


York rum cost twenty-six cents a gallon and sold for $1.25. Muscovado sugar cost 
nine cents a pound and commanded eighteen and three-fourths cents. At this time 
(1801-5) large quantities of maple sugar were made by the back settlers, so that one 
hogshead of muscovado sui^plied tlie retail trade for one year. At the same time 
loaf sugar was worth thirty-one cents. Salt commanded four dollars a barrel. Nails 
found a ready market at twenty-five cents a pound, and leather was not dull at 
thirty-eight cents. His wheat he forwarded by land carriage to Owcgo, then down 
the Susquehanna on arks to Baltimore, realizing fifty-six cents on the bushel. In 
1807 he shipped some 21,000 bushels, and in 1808, '09 and '10 an average of 4,000 
bushels. His cattle were driven to Philadelphia, where he received a profit of five 
dollars a head. Good cows were then worth $16 a head, oxen $50, and three year 
old steers about $18. Horses were worth from $75 to $80. There were no oats, 
buckwheat or corn grown for sale, and butter had not at this time been introduced 
into the market. The expense of conveying goods through this devious and singu- 
larly winding course (just described) was two dollars a hundred; or, if conveyed 
hither from New York with teams by way Catskill, the charges were four dollars per 
hundred pounds. 

The late Josiah B. Williams, who came to this county in 1825, was 
early engaged in the transportation business over the route first'alluded 
to. He often narrated to the writer his experiences on his trips, and 
vividly portrayed the arduous toil and extreme discomforts accompany- 
ing that occupation, wliich he followed for several years. 

The first death in town occurred in either 1790 or 1791, the precise 
date being unknown. It was that of Rachel Allen, who was either 
seventeen or eighteen years old, the daughter of a man who was then 
passing through Ithaca. She was buried on the hillside, where the 
cemetery was afterwards located. 

Abram Markle came to Ithaca soon after the settlement, and in 1800 
built the first frame house in the place. There was then a carpenter 
here named Delano, who had for an apprentice Luther Gere (who 
afterwards rose to inflttence and wealth), and they built the house. It 
was situated, and stood until recent years, just north of the Cascadilla, 
on the west side of the street, the second building from the mill. Mr. 
King says that probably Mr. Markle brought up a small store of goods, 
but could scarcely be considered a regtilar merchant. 

Archer Green was in Ithaca before 1800, and it was probably in his 
log house, on the north side of the Cascadilla, that the first marriage 
was consummated, as before noted. Mr. Green was the first clerk of 
the county, and otherwise prominent in the community. 

Mr. Goodwin became a historical writer of some note, and died recently in Homer, 
N. Y. 


According to Mr. Goodwin there were in Ithaca in 180G about twelve 
houses, six being framed ; and from that time onward the place grew 
and prospered, as further detailed in subsequent pages. 

By the following personal notes it will be seen that those pioneers 
who have thus far been mentioned were called to fill town offices at an 
early day for the old town of Ulysses: 

John Yaple, fence viewer, 170G-97. 

Peter Dumond, overseer of highways, 1795 and 1798. 

Robert McDowell, overseer of the poor, 1795 ; assessor, overseer of 
highways, and school commissioner, 179G, holding the last named office 
several years; commissioner of highways and of "public lots" in 
1798; and justice of the peace in 1800. 

William Van Orman, assessor and fence viewer, 1795 ; commissioner 
of highways, fence viewer, and school trustee, 1796 ; and overseer of 
the poor, 1799. 

Nathaniel Davenport, overseer of the poor, 1795; commissioner of 
highways, 179{). He subsequently held many other positions of re- 
sponsibility, as did also his son, Henry Davenport, who, in the year 
1800, was recorded in a list of jurors as a " miller. " 

Abram Markle, town clerk, 1795, and both supervisor and town clerk 
for several years thereafter. He was justice of the peace in 1800. 

Henry Markle (farmer and innkeeper) was overseer of highways in 

Isaac Patchen, assessor, 1795; and overseer of the poor, 1797 and 

Abram Davenport, constable, 1797-98. 

Benjamin Pelton, school commissioner, 1796; assessor, commissioner 
and overseer of highways, and commissioner of public lots, 1798. 

Richard W. Pelton, constable and town clerk, 1798. 

Richard Pangborn, constable, 1796. 

Abram Johnson, assessor and commissioner of highways and public 
lots, 1798; overseer of highways, 1799; and inspector for senatorial 
election in Cayuga county in 1799, with Abram Markle, Jeremiah Jef- 
frey, and Joseph S. Sidney. 

Joseph vS. Sidney (miller), assessor, 1799, and school commissioner, 

Jonas Whiting (farmer), commissioner of highways, 1799; super- 
visor, 1800. 


John Smith (distiller), pound-master, 1799, and town clerk, 1800. 
He was probably the "JohnvSmith" named as "surveyor," in No- 
vember, 1800, to run out the public lots into parcels of 100 acres each. 

Archer Green, in 1801, was delegate to the convention called to con- 
sider the question of the division of Cayuga county. 

The town meetings of the town of Ulysses from 1795 to 1817 were 
held within the limits of the present town of Ithaca, viz. : In 1795, at 
the hoxise of Peter Hinepaw; in 179(), at the house of Nathaniel 
Davenport; in 1797, at the house of Jabez Hanmer; in 1798, at the 

house of ; in 1799, at the house of Abram Markle; from 1800 

to I.80;i inclusive, at the house of Nathaniel Davenport; from 1804 to 
1817, when Ithaca was set off, at the house of Moses Davenport, son of 

The important features of history, as related wholly to the town of 
Ithaca, have been given in earlier chapters of general matter, or will be 
given a little further on in the continued history of Ithaca as village 
and city. It is sufficient here to say that the agricultural districts in 
this town were rapidly taken up after the beginning of the present 
century by a class of men and women who were possessed of the requi- 
site energy and perseverance to establish comfortable homes amid new 
scenes, and the requisite morality and intelligence to gladly aid in 
founding early schools and churches, and to so rear their sons and 
daughters that they would continue, as they have done, the good work 
begun by their fathers and mothers. 

The following lists of town officials include the names of many of 
the early settlers and the later dwellers in the town, who were more or 
less conspicuous as private and as public citizens. The town of Ithaca 
was formed March 13, 1831, at the court house in Ithaca, and the fol- 
lowing officers elected: Supervisor, Nathan Herrick; town clerk, Isaac 
Beers; assessors, Caleb Davis, William P. Burdick, Richard Pew; col- 
lector, Ebenezer Vickery; overseers of poor, Jesse Merritt, Eliakim 
Dean; commissioners of highways, Moses Davenport, Joseph Pew, 
David Coddington ; constables (appointed), Ebenezer Vickery, Amasa 
Woodruff; commissioners of schools, John Whiton, John Johnson, An- 
di-ew D. W. Bruyn; inspectors of schools, Benjamin Pelton, Reuben 
Judd, Isaac Beers; trustees of gospel and school lot, Luther Gere, 
Charles Humphrey, William T. Southworth; pound-master, David 



The town was divided into thirty-seven road districts. The fii'st ses- 
sion of the town board, at which bills were presented, was held March 
'ZC), 1832, and the amount audited was $70.05. 

Following is a list of the supervisors from 1821 to the present time; 

1831-24. Nathan Herrick. 
182!). Andrew D, W. Bruyn. 
183(1. Ben Johnson. 
1827-34. Ira Tillotson. 

1835. Julins Ackley. 

1836. Ira Tillotson, until September 

Joseph Esty, appointed Septem- 

1837. Amos Hixson. 

1838. John James Speed, jr. 

1839. Jacob M. McCormick. 

1840. Jeremiah S. Beebe. 

1841. Horace Mack. 
1843. Amasa Dana. 
1843-44. Joseph S. Hixson. 
1845. Samuel Giles. 
1846-48. "William Andrus. 

1849. Frederick Deming. 

1850. Nathan T. WiUiaras. 

1851. Frederick Deming. 

1852. Jonathan B. Gosman. 
1853-54. Stephen B. Gushing. 

1855. Benjamin G. Ferris. 
1856-58. William S. Hoyt. 

1859. John Gauntlett. 

1860. Henry F. Hibbard, 

1861. John Gauntlett. 

1862. John L. Whiton. 

1863. Philip J. Partenheimer. 
1864-65. Alonzo B. Cornell., 

1866. Joseph M. Lyon. 

1867. William L. Bostwick. 
1808. David L. Burt. 
1869-71. Howard C. Williams. 
1872-78. Charles W. Bates. 

1873-77. David L. Burt, elected Novem- 
1878-79. Pierce Pearson. 
1880-81. Alexander Frear. 
1882-86. Richard A. Crozier. 
1887-88. George W. Frost. 
1889-90. Nicholas Pearson. 
1891-92. Charles M. Titus. 

1893. Nicholas Pearson. 

1894. A. O. Hart. 


1889. R. A. Crozier. 

1889. Horace M. Hibbard. 

1890. A. G. Genung. 

1890. R. Wolf. 

1891. R. A. Crozier. 

1891. R. Wolf. 

1892. A. G. Genung. 

1893. George W. Frost. 

1893. E. S. Carpenter. 

1893. L. G. Todd. 

1893. T. S. Thompson. 

1893. J. E. Van Natta. 

1894. C. F. Hottes. 
1894. L. G. Todd. 
1894. T. S. Thompson. 
1894. W. P. Harrington. 

Following are the principal town officers for the years 18!)4: Amos 
O. Hart, supervisor. Forest Home; Hugh T. Burtt, town clerk, Ithaca; 
I^yle Nelson, collector, Ithaca; Lockwood F. Colegrove, justice of the 
peace, Ithaca; Alfred Hasbrouck, jtistice of the peace, Ithaca; Edgar 
Masters, constable, Ithaca; Mathew Sharp, constable, Ithaca; Charles 
Brown, constable, Ithaca; William Van Order, constable, Ithaca; 
Charles Boyer, constable, Ithaca. 



Statisticai,. — The bills for county expenses audited by the Board of 
Supervisors of 1893, and allowed, including the supervisors' service 
bill, amounted to $12,145.61. The gross amount of the town audits as 
allowed was $25,807.91. The whole amount expended for the care of 
the poor of the county for the year was $4,008.67. The total disburse- 
ments by the county treasurer were $107,355.34. Other statistical mat- 
ters are noticed in the succeeding town histories. 






Ithaca, town — Elmira, Cortland and Northern R. R. Co 

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Co. 

Lehigh Valley R. R. Co 

Lehigh Valley R. R. Co., Auburn Branch. _ 

Western Union Telegraph Company 

American Telegraph and Telephone Company . _ 

Ithaca Water Works Company 

The Brush-Swan Electric Light Company. 

I iHACA, CITY — Alpha Psi Society 

Alpha Delta Phi Society _ 

Cornell Athletic Association 

Delta Upsilon Society _ _. 

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western R. R. Co. 

Elmira, Cortland and Northern R. R. Co 

Geneva, Ithaca and Sayre R. R. Co 

Geneva, Ithaca and Sayre R. R. Co., Cayuga Division 

Cayuga Lake Transportation Co 

Ithaca Calendar Clock Company 

Ithaca Gas Light Company __ _ 

Ithaca Gun Company 

Ithaca Opera Company __ 

Ithaca Water Works Company _ 

Ithaca Street Railway Company 

Ithaca Savings Bank . . . 

Ithaca Board of Trade 

Kappa Alpha Association 

New York and Pennsylvania Telegraph and Telephone Co, 

Psi Upsilon Association 

Phi Kappa Psi Society 

The Brush-Swan Electric Light Co. 

Theta Delta Chi Society ... 

The Autophone Company 

The American Telephone and Telegraph Co 

Tompkins County National Bank 

Town and Gown Society 

United Glass Works Company 

Western Union Telegraph Company 

Zeta Psi Society 





































































Ithaca Village, 

We left our account of early Ithaca when, in 180(;, it had about a 
dozen houses; but it had enjoyed a post-office then for two years and 
doubtless felt itself considerable of a settlement. One of the half dozen 
frame structures stood, according to Mr. King, on the site of the vil- 
lage hall, and another where the old Tompkins House stood, and there 
a Mr. Vrooman kept a public house which he called the Ithaca Hotel. 
Another was on the southeast corner of Aurora and Seneca streets, 
and in it Luther Gere afterwards kept a tavern. It was in the year 
just mentioned that the little village received its name, from Simeon 
De Witt, after the ancient city of Ithaca in the Ionian Sea. 

Thei'e were elements of growth apparent in and around Ithaca even 
at that early day, its location at the head of Cayuga Lake being one of 
them. In 1808 the turnpike to Owego was laid out and its improve- 
ment begun, and three years later the road to Geneva was constructed. 
These and the other early highways contributed to the prosperity of 
the place. The first religious society, the Presbyterian, had existed 
since 1805, and it is pleasant to record the fact that in ]80(i the first 
library was established by the purchase of about f;i()0 in books, which 
subsequently became the property of the "Ithaca L5^ceum," and still 
later of the " Minerva Society," which was connected with the acad- 

By the close of the first decade of the century, Ithaca was looked 
upon as one of the niost thriving and promising villages in the State. 

This little village was the hope and pride of Simeon De Witt, who 
intended it for his future home, and who may appropriately be consid- 
ered its founder. Before he gave it its name it had been variously 
called "The Flats," or "The City," or "Sodom," according to the 
choice of different commentators. Mr. De Witt, as is well known, was 
a conspicuous figure in the early annals of the State. ^ 

• To his memory Mr. King has paid the following tribute: 

" In 1778 he was appointed assistant geographer in the army of tlic Revohition ; 
and in 1780, on tlie death of Rol)ert Er.skine, was appointed chief geMgrapher. In 
1790 General Washington proffered to him the oHice of surveyor-i^cneral to the 
United States, whieh, 'from the force of eircnmstances,' he declined. In 17H4 he 
was appointed surveyor-general of this State, succeeding therein Gen. Philip Schuy- 
ler; and in 1798 became Regent of the University. Both of these offices he held to 
the time of his death, in December, 18!i4, through all the political revolutions and 
changes that occurred. In 1839 he was chosen Chancellor of the University, and 

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He held among other high positions the office of surveyor-general of 
the State from the year 1794 to the date of his death, December 3, 1834. 
He became early possessed of a large tract of land covering a part of 
the village site, which he improved and sold off at various times. 

Lot No. 93 of Ulysses, which became the site of a part of Ithaca vil- 
lage and Cornell University, was drawn by Benjamin Gilbert, a lieu- 
tenant. Lot 88, locally called " Renwick, " was drawn by Andrew 
Moodj', a captain of cavalry ; and lot 81 by Major-General Alexander 
McDougall. Derrick Schuyler, an ensign in the Second' Regiment, 
drew lots 57 and 78, upon the latter of which his brother, John H. 
vSchuyler, settled in 1811; it is on the Hector road on West Hill. John 
H. vSchuyler was the father of George W. and Philip C. Schuyler. 

The following is from Sackett's Minutes of the Military Townships, 
in relation to lot 94, which formed that part of Ithaca bounded by Tioga 
street on the west, Eddy street on the east, and north and south by the 
north and south city lines; 

Ulysses 94. 

Drawn by Hendrick Loux, private in the 1st N. Y. Regiment. 
Claimed by Jeremiah Van Rensselaer. 

(1) Patent to Hendrick Loux dated July 6, 1790, for 600 acres. 

(2) Deed from Hendrick Loux, the patentee, to Jeremiah Van Rensselaer dated 
January 36, 1793. Deposited, acknowledged, entered and recorded in the secj;'etary's 

Hendrick Loux, on oath, says that he was a private soldier in the army and be- 
longed to the First Regiment, commanded by Col. Goose Van Schaick till the war 
was over, and that he sold his land to Jeremiah Van Rensselaer and never sold it 
to John De Witt or any other person, and never gave John De Witt any deed. 

Awarded 600 acres to Jeremiah Van Rensselaer. 

was also for several years canal commissioner. The duties of every office that he 
held were discharged faithfully and ably. These facts have made him known to the 
country, and have given celebrity to his name. 

" In private intercourse he was affable and amiable, just in all his dealings, and 
beloved in all his associations. One who knew him well has said that he was ' a 
scholar, a patriot and a Christian.' His relations to this village [Ithaca] give us 
right to claim more than a general distinction through him. He was founder, 
sponser and friend of Ithaca. He died here, and the place where his body reposes is 
known to all of us. . . He has monument and memorial in the flourishing and 

beautiful village that his grave overlooks, and it will testify of him when you and I 
and generations yet unborn shall have passed away.'' 

The remains of Mr. De Witt were removed some forty years ago to Albany and 



This tract, as well as others of the early subdivisions, is clearly shown 
on the accompanying maps. 

The plot of the village was formed almost wholly by streets follow- 
ing nearly the cardinal points, and intersecting very nearly at right 
angles. This plot contained certain portions designated then, or sub- 
sequently, as parks, of which De Witt Park is most central. Mr. De 
Witt encouraged Settlement by the liberal terms offered in the sale of 
his lands. It was his long cherished desire to build a residence on the 
east hill overlooking the village; but he died before this was accom- 
plished, and was buried near the spot, on the south bank of the Cas- 
cadilla, where a few pines still stand, through whose heavy fronds the 
wind makes ceaseless requiem. .His grave was on the rear of the lot 
the front of which on Buffalo street is now occupied by residences of 
C. H. White and Henry Stewart. 

It is said that beneath these pines he made his first encampment 
while prosecuting the survey (about the year r7!)0-n7) for his map of 
the State. His remains lay long unhonored by a distinctive monument, 
and were finally removed from Ithaca to Albany. 

The present corporation of Ithaca is composed of Lot '.)4, of the mil- 
itary tract, and the Abraham Bloodgood location. 

Lot 94 of the military tract was allotted to a soldier of the Revolu- 
tion, by name Hendrick Loux, by whom it was conveyed to a Mr. 
Van Rensselaer, who conveyed to "Robert McDowell of Mohawk." 
McDowell conveyed the north part, 170 acres, to Benjamin Pelton in 
1797, or thereabouts. Mr. Pelton sold his portion to Phineas Bennett. 
The southern portion, lying chiefly on the South Hill and south of the 
Six Mile Creek, became the property of the Peltons. The middle por- 
tion, except about fourteen acres, was purchased by Simeon De. Witt. 

Of the fourteen acres, ten were purchased by Gen. John Smith, and 
embraced nearly all the lands on the flats lying east of the old Owego 
Turnpike (Aurora street) and south of the Jericho Turnpike, as first laid 
out; and four acres became tlie property of John McDowell, a son, and 
Richard W. Pelton, and Nicoll Halsey, son-in-law of Robert McDowell. 
The four acres embraced the block on which now stands the Ithaca 
Hotel, and the small piece which has since become South Tioga street. 
The portion of State street on the north of the four acres was then vil- 
lage lot 32, the street not then existing. April G, 1808, this four acres 
was conveyed by the three owners to Luther Gere and John M. Pear- 
son for $100; and July 31, 1810, Luther Gere conveyed to Aurelia, 


widow of John M. Pearson, one and one-half acres from the west side 
thereof. Subsequently said Aurelia (then the wife of Caleb B. Drake, 
esq. ) conveyed what is now South Tioga street, to Simeon De Witt, 
who opened it to the public, and conveyed to Aurelia, in payment 
thereof, village lot 03 next west. Lot 93 is bounded on the west by the 
west line of Tioga street in the village of Ithaca. 

The Abraham Bloodgood tract lies west of the west line of Tioga 
street, and contains 1,400 acres, for which a certificate of location was 
issued to him November 1, 178!). The title passed to Gen. Simeon De 
Witt, who afterwards conveyed to Francis A. Bloodgood the 400 acres 
which lies south of the central line of Clinton street, and of that line 
continued. A small portion of this was sold to actual settlers by Mr. 
Bloodgood ; the remainder was divided into lots, some of which passed 
to non-resident capitalists. The title was finally concentrated in 
Messrs. John McGraw and Charles M. Titus, who purchased the prop- 
erty in 18G8. 

In a letter dated at Albany, February 18, 1810, Mr. De Witt wrote 
as follows: 

The place to which I purpose to go, when I have no business here, is a village of 
at least thirty houses; and fronts a plain of the richest lowlands. If I should live 
twenty years longer, I am confident I should see Ithaca as important a place as Utica 
is now. Its advantages and situation cannot fail of giving it a rapid growth and 
making it one of the first inland places of trade. There is now no place of its size in 
the country where there is such a stir of business. The principal inn — a considerable 
two-story house — besides another respectable tavern, was found quite insufficient for 
the business. When Colonel Varick and I arrived there, breakfast had been served 
for thirty people before we got ours. The landlord (Vrooman) — a very respectable 

man has last season built a large three-story house for a tavern. ^ I mention these 

things to show that what I have contemplated for my future residence is not a dreary, 
solitary country situation. 

A few months later, May 10, 1810, and after- another visit to Ithaca, 
Mr. De Witt wrote as follows of the place: 

I find this village considerably increased since I was here before. I have counted 
thirty-eight dwelling-houses, among which are one very large, elegant, three-story 
house for a hotel, and five of two stories; the rest of one story— ail generally neat 
frame buildings. Besi.les these there is a school house and buildings for merchants' 
stores and shops for carpenters, cabinet-makers, blacksmiths, coopers, tanners; and 
we have besides shoemakers, tailors, two lawyers, one doctor, watch-cleaner, turner, 
miller, hatters, etc., etc. 

> This became the Ithaca Hotel, and stood on the site of the present house of that 


Governor De Witt Clinton also evinced an intelligent interest in the 
village and believed that it was to become an important municipality. 
In his personal journal of 1810 he wrote as follows: 

The price of a barrel of salt at Ithaca is twenty shillings; conveyance to Owego 
by land, six shillings ; from Owego to Baltimore, by water, eight shillings. Allow- 
ing a profit of six shillings on a barrel, salt can be sent from here to Baltimore for 
one dollar per bushel. Packing-salt sold there last spring for six shillings. 

Salt is taken down the country from this place by water as far as Northumberland, 
Pennsylvania, 150 miles from Owego. It is 130 miles from here to the head-waters 
of the Alleghany. There is no road but a sleigh-road, in winter, by which salt is 
conveyed in small quantities; 3,500 barrels will be distributed from Ithaca this sea- 

Flour will be sent from this place to Montreal, via Oswego, or to Baltimore, via 
Owego. There is no great difference in the expense of transportation. It will prob- 
ably seek Montreal as the most certain market. 

A boat carrying from 100 to 140 barrels will go to and return from Schenectady in 
six weeks. An ark carrying 250 barrels costs $75 at Owego, It can go down the 
river to Baltimore in eight, ten or twelve days, and when there it will sell for half 
the original price. The owner, after vending his produce, returns home by land 
with his money, or goes to New York by water, where, as at Albany, he lays out his 
money in goods. The rapids of the Susquehanna are fatal to ascending navigation. 

Cattle are sent in droves to Philadelphia. Upwards of 200 barrels of beef and pork 
were sent fnjm this place last spring, by arks, to Baltimore, from Owego, by Buel 
and (lere, and sold to advantage. 

The situation of this place, at the head of Cayuga Lake, and a short distance from 
the descending waters to the Atlantic, and about 120 miles to the descending waters 
to the Mississippi, must render it a place of great importance. 

And again he wrote as follows of the operations here of Luther Gere: 

Mr. Gere has finished for $2,300 in stock of the Ithaca and Owego Turnpike Com- 
pany, three miles of that turnpike, from the 10th of April to the 10th of July, with 
eight men, four yoke of oxen and two teams of horses. Scrapers are a powerful 
engine in making roads. 

lie is also building an elegant frame hotel, three stories high, and 50 by 40 feet, 
with suitable outbuildings and garden. The carpenter's work was contracted for 
at $1,500; the whole will not cost more than $0,000. Gere is a very entei-prising 
man. ' 

These extracts from the notes of men of good judgment, made from 
personal observation and knowledge, and at the period now under con- 

' Mr. (Jere was for many years one of the leading and enterprising men of this county. 
He owned over 1,400 acres of farm lands on West and South Hills, his tr^ct on West 
Hill extending from the west line of Ithaca city to the Enfield town line. At one 
time he had 1,200 sheep on his land. He was president of the old Ithaca Bank, and 
dealt largely in lumber, the latter business finally causing his failure. 


sideration, shed the clearest possible light upon the conditions and 
prospects of Ithaca village during its early years ; but it must be ad- 
mitted that midway in its existence it passed through a period of 
considerable length during wliich it scarcely seemed to justify the pre- 
dictions of the prophets from whom we have quoted, and when, more- 
over, its slow rate of progress and development did not presage the 
rapid growth of the past ten years. In the early years the merchants, 
as we have seen, made liberal profits and were perforce given a large 
patronage ; the exports from the immediate locality were comparatively 
large, consisting of stock, grain, potash, lumber, tar, i etc., and the 
centering here of two important turnpikes caused transportation 
through the place of large quantities of the products of other localities, 
as well as cheapened the carriage on goods brought hither. The valu- 
able plaster of Cayuga county was in great demand early in the war 
period of 1812-15, on account of the decline of foreign commerce and 
stoppage of the former Nova Scotia supply, and immense quantities 
were brought to Ithaca and sent on southward. It is recorded that 
800 teams passed on the turnpike in a day on some occasions, and of 
course they all left their tribute in Ithaca. Coal, iron and merchandise 
were brought back by these teams on their return trips. The magni- 
tude of this business was the moving cause of the later construction of 
the Ithaca and Owego Railroad. Travel was also large in the old stage 
coaches which have been described in Chapter VII, and many old citi- 
zens can remember with what eagerness the far-off sound of the stage 
horn was daily awaited by the loungers at " Grant's Coffee- House," the 
" Hotel," or the "Columbian Inn," or, earlier still, at "Gere's." At 
these famous inns did the weary travelers alight from the old-fashioned 
thorough-brace coach for a thorough bracing of the "inner man," at 
bar and board, — two days, only, from Newburg or Catskill! 

We quote the following from the American Journal of December 15, 

Through the politeness of a gentleman by the Newburgh Line from New York, we 
received on Saturday morning, a. copy of the President's message, delivered on 
Tuesday, at 12 o'clock. It was received in New York in eighteen hours and a half 
from Washington — a distance of 340 miles ; was there republished ; and (allowing for 
the time of reprinting and delay in New York) was about three days from Washing- 
ton City to this place — a distance oifour hundred and eighty miles, — a rapidity of 
communication seldom surpassed in any country. 

' It is a fact that may be a surprise to later generations, that several hundred bar- 
rels of tar were made here from the pine forests that covered much of the land. 

Village of itiiaca. n& 

But what contributed more, perhaps, than anything else to the pros- 
perity and prospective importance of Ithaca was the construction of the 
Erie Canal (begun in 1817 and finished in 1835). This great waterway 
gave direct and easy communication with the seaboard and limitless 
markets. Previous to that event the boats navigating the waterway 
between Ithaca and Schenectady were small, and propelled much of 
the distance with poles in the face of numerous obstacles. With the 
building of the large canal boats (though not at first nearly so large as 
now) were introduced new and more gratifying conditions and led to 
th^ remarkable development of the lake traffic, which became a source 
of large business interests and incoming wealth before the opening of 

The enthusiasm that prevailed over the completion of the canal is 
indicated by the following letter written from Ithaca to the Columbian, 
a newspaper of New York city, in vSeptember, 1830 : 

Ithaca, September 6. 


The great advantage to this part of the country from the Grand Canal in the 
transportation of goods and produce is forcibly illustrated by the following fact: 

Capt. W. R. Collins, of this village performed the passage from Utica to Monte- 
zuma (96 miles) with his boat drawn all the way by one horse, in three days, with a 
freight of 15 tons. From Montezuma to this place is a passage of one day or more 
according to the wind up the lake. Before the construction ot the canal, six tons 
were a load for a boat at this season ; and to transport that burden from Utica to 
this village would require from eight to twelve days and the labor of five hands at 

Considerable has been written and more said about the condition of 
society in early years. A so-called "Moral Society" (the name of 
which would apparently indicate an exceptional degree of morality in 
its members) was organized at an early day and appears to have car- 
ried its ideas of punishing delinquents and hunting them down with a 
rather high hand. It is doubtful if any other locality ever produced a 
counterpart of this alleged organization. It was composed of leading 
business men, and its ranks were recruited from all classes of society. 
Uncle Ben Drake was the head, and he was designated ' ' Old Tecum- 
seh. " From time to time, as occasion moved him, he issued his 
" proclamations," had them printed in " Captain Cudgel's " (James M. 
Miller's) Castigator, a ten by eighteen-inch folio, and every member of 



the society responded; for no excuse was ever countenanced, or if 
evasion was attempted, a heavy fine was levied upon the offender and 
its collection enforced. Tecumseh's proclamations were promulgated 
whenever a show of any kind struck the town. If the proprietor of 

the exhibition was wise he per- 
fected an arrangement with the 
society and paid five dollars into 
the treasury of the organization. 
Then Tecumseh recommended his 
fellow members to attend, and they 
came in such numbers that at times 
"standing room" only was ob- 
tainable. Entrance fees were paid 
by all at the door and no disorder 
was allowed, the society for the 
time being acting as a most efficient 
police; but woe to the exhibitor 
who did not recognize the society's 
claims and scouted its authority. 
One audacious fellow bid defiance 
to Tecumseh and proceeded with 
his. show of wax figures, a per- 
forming monkey and other attrac- 
tions. The ball room of the old 
Ithaca Hotel, corner of Aurora 
and State streets, was secured by 
this showman, who during the day 
impackcd and set up Napoleon 
Bonaparte, Benedict Arnold, John 
Hancock, Daniel Lambert, Gibbs, the pirate, and other notables. The 
proprietor acted as ticket taker at the door, foot of the stairs, receiving 
for admission some few genuine coins, but an unusually large amount 
of broken bank and counterfeit paper currency. When he mounted to 
the ball room he found an audience of hundreds, who had saved him 
the trouble of opening the door, by placing a ladder at a window and 
entering without the formality of expending a farthing. Soon a fight 
broke out, the wax figures were stripped and crushed, the proprietor 
hustled down stairs, and the terrified monkey escaped over the roof of 
an adjoining building. In the morning Tecumseh started on a himting 



tour with pun on shoulder and returned in an hour dragging the mon- 
key he had found in a tree in Hill's garden, on the corner of Green and 
Cayuga streets. He averred it was a dangerous wild beast of a new 
species, and he had shot it for his own safety and the safety of the 
people. The showman was furnished with means to pack up his shat- 
tered figures, and mourning the loss of his monkey, he left town never 
to return. When Drake died the society dissolved. 

The proclamation of Tecuinseh relative to tliis event is worth preservation and 
ran as follows; " His illustrious Eminence, the Grand President of the Moral Society 
of the profound city of Ithaca and the surrounding territory; to all subordinate in- 
stitutions, and to all worthy associates, greeting; Whereas, a couple of Itinerants 
have presumed to wander up and down within our peaceful dominions, exhibiting a 
miserable congregation of Wax Figui-es, and making an abominable attempt at 
musical performances, on what we have by due inspection ascertained to be a leather 
Organ, which latter is particularly obnoxious to our refined nervous sensibility; and, 
Whereas, they have affected to hold our authority in contempt ; these are, therefore, 
to command you, wherever you may be, either in Auburn, Owego, or elsewhere, to 
see that the laws and ordinances of our sublime institution are in due style enforced 
with respect to this vagrant establishment, and especially toward the aforesaid in- 
contestibly vituperable engine. All marshals, sheriffs, constables, coroners, and all 
other executive officers are categorically ordered to be aiding and assisting in enforc- 
ing this salutary regulation; and all judges, justices of the peace, and other judicial 
officers of any name, denomination or description whatever, or by whatever term 
they may be ycleped, are commanded, under the strictest penalties and pains, to 
refrain from licensing or permitting the aforesaid performance, or in any way coun- 
tenancing the same. You. are at all times to regard our homologous instructions in 
the light of express commands; and for so doing these presents shall be your suf- 
ficient warrant and authority. 

" In witness whereof, we have caused our great seal to be hereunto appended on 
this 10th day of the first month of the twentieth j'ear of our illustrious institution. 

" Tecumseh.'' 

This somewhat remarkable document was adorned with a ghastly 
human profile. 

The following proclamation succeeded the above, and clearly relates 
to the same showman, as well as to others : 


His illustrious eminence, the grand president of the Moral Society, of the profound 
city of Ithaca and the surrounding territories ; to all subordinate institutions, and all 
worthy associates. Greeting; Whereas, by our proclamation under our great seal, 
bearing date the 10th day of the present month, we have commanded you, wherever 
you might be, to see that our laws and ordinances were duly enforced, with respect 
to certain itinerant exhibitions of wax figures, and a vituperable engine, alias a. 


leather organ, and have commanded all persons in authority, whether judicial or 
executive, to refrain from licensing, permitting or countenancing the said itinerants, 
under the severest pains and penalties ; and, Whereas, it hath been satisfactorily- 
shewn to us, that the said itinerants were induced to treat our authority with dis- 
regard, partly through ignorance of our laws and ordinances, but more especially by 
the wicked insinuations and abominably false and malicious representations of a cer- 
tain loquacious and limping inspector of beef and pork, and other disaffected per- 
sons; and that they have upon just and proper representations, promptly and cheer- 
fully conformed to the requirements of our ancient and honorable institution ; and, 
Whereas, it appears also, upon more scrutinizing inspection, that the said engine is 
not made of leather, but composed of the proper materials ; now, therefore, these are 
to signify that it is our sovereign and incontestable will and pleasure, that the 
restraints imposed by our said proclamation be, and the same are hereby removed ; 
and all subordinate institutions and worthy members, all judicial and executive 
officers, are enjoined and commanded to license and permit, countenance and pro- 
tect the said itinerants in their lawful and necessary functions. . and we do 
also order and decree, that the aforesaid audacious, mendacious and mutilated in- 
spector, be put and placed without the protection of our laws, and that all distillers, 
grocers and publicans be forbidden, under any pretext whatever, to harbor or enter- 
tain him ; and that all decent persons of any age, color or size, be strictly and abso- 
lutely enjoined not to have any commerce, dealing, acquaintance, discourse, 
communication or intercom-se, or in any wise to cohabit with him. 
In testimony, whereof, etc. 


The doings of Drake and his society were not confined to traveling- 
showmen ; for they assumed the right, and they certainly had the 
power, to duck an offending citizen in the Inlet ; to conduct a trial on 
a chronic loafer and punish him by some peculiar method ; to capture 
an intoxicated wayfarer from an adjoining town and shut him in some 
citizen's hog or cattle pen, there to pass the night. It has been as- 
sumed that the condition of society in early Ithaca was a degree less 
civilized than in other similar comraunitiea ; but it is scarcely probable 
that such was the case. The fact is, the pioneers in such settlements 
as Ithaca always numbered among them many rough characters, among 
whom the license for acts that would hardly be tolerated in refined 
communities of to-day was quite free. 

In the language of Mr. King, 

The first settlers of a new country are more or less rude and unrefined in their 
habits and manners, and many acts are excusable among them which could not be 
tolerated in larger communities. A frequent reason is the absence of female society, 
and a universal one is the want of those sources and means of enjoyment which a 
more dense population and more extended association affords. Then, too, new 
society is composed of a large proportion of young men, whom an enterprising spirit 
and buoyant hope have led to adventure for the smiles of fortune. Not impelled by 


family cares and dutie;?, nor attracted by the charms of domestic happiness, they 
seek relaxation and pleasure in pastimes wliich the more staid and sober perhaps too 
severely condemn. I have been told that in 1800 there were but two or three mar- 
riageable young ladies in Ithaca; while there were forty young men. Then again, 
althougli they had their ministerial and peace officers, yet there were many pecca- 
dillos and annoyances wliich legal process could not reach, and which were not re- 
strained and suppressed by the mere force of public sentiment. These circumstances 
and considerations operating and moving thereto, there was formed at a very early 
period what was called ' The Moral Society.' This society continued in existence for 
fifteen or twenty years. But the population increased steadily and rapidl)', and new 
and better influences being introduced, tastes becoming more elevated and refined, 
and the sense of justice more rational and proper, it gradually became less and less 
]iopular until it finally dissolved. 

And now let ii.s note the arrival of others who came to Ithaca in the 
first citiartcr of this century. It is manifestly impossible to speak of 
all, but it is hoped that those who left their mark in the community 
and becaine in any way conspicuous in public life or through their 
business relations will find somewhere in these pages the recognition 
they deserve. 

David Woodcock came to Ithaca before 1810 and became eminent in 
p(jlitical life and at the bar. His career is further noticed in Chapter 
X. He purchased lots on Owego (now State) street just west of 
Tioga and running through to Seneca street. One of his daughters 
married Benjamin G. Ferris, and another Stephen B. Gushing, both of 
wliom were early lawyers of note. Mr. Woodcock died in 1835. 

Caleb B. Drake became a resident of Ithaca about 1805, coming froin 
Spencer. He bought of Luther Gere sixty-six feet on Owego street 
(now the southeast corner of Tioga and State streets), where he lived. 
He was justice of the peace for the town of Ulysses as early as 1819, 
and often held that otTfice in later years. He was also an efficient 
police justice of the village. He reared a large family, and died aboitt 

Joseph Burritt carpe to Ithaca in 181(>, from Connecticut, bringing 
his wife and his jeweler's tools. The partnership of Burdick & Burritt 
was formed not long afterwards, and they opened a shop on the north 
side of .State street. For moi'e than fifty years Mr. Burritt was identi- 
fied with the business interests of the place, and died in the enjoyment 
of the respect of the community. 

Isaac Beers, coming to Ithaca in 1809, became one of the leading 
business men of the place, and erected a handsome block on State 


Jesse Grant came here in 1811, bringing with him his son, Chauncey 
L., who was destined to enjoy a long life of honorable business activity 
and to become thoroughly identified with public affairs, as will be noted 
further on. 

Jeremiah S. Beebe settled in Ithaca in 1817, as agent for Stephen B. 
Munn, of New York city, a large land owner on the Watkins & Flint 
purchase, including thousands of acres in what is now Newfield. Mr. 
Beebe purchased the store of goods of David Quigg and for years car- 
ried on a vigorous and successful trade at what was termed " the west 
end," his most active opponent at the " east end " being William Les- 
ley, also long a successful merchant. Mr. Beebe was later connected 
with the milling and manufacturing industries, as will be described in 
later pages, 

David Booth Beers located in the village in 1817, and lived for a time 
at the old Tompkins House while erecting his dwelling. November 4, 
1817, he purchased from John A. Collier the ground on the northwest 
corner of Aurora and State streets, and there with Nathan Herrick as 
partner conducted a successful mercantile business. Mr. Beers died 
an untimely death December 23, 1819. 

vStephen Mack was the pioneer prhiter of Tioga county, and died 
there in 1814. Very soon afterwards his three sons, Stephen, Ebenezer 
and Horace came to Ithaca. Stephen was a lawyer of good ability and 
honorable methods. He died January 7, 1857. Ebenezer learned the 
printers art, was for a short time a partner in the publication of the 
Owego Gazette, but reached Ithaca in 1810, where he soon became 
conspicuous in the press of Tompkins county. He united the business 
of bookselling and publishing with printing, and later also that of 
paper making. He held various political offices, and died in August, 
1849. One of his daughters became the wife of Lafayette L. Treman. 
Horace Mack came to Ithaca in 1817, and was for many years a suc- 
cessful merchant, bank director, office holder, and identified with 
various enterprises tending to the development of the place. He died 
in ISSS. 

Charles Humphrey settled in Ithaca prior to 1830. He was a man 
of exceptional ability and became conspicuous in i)ublic life; was twice 
president of the village, member of assembly and of congress, and was 
otherwise honored by his fellow citizens. William R. Humphrey is a 
son of his, 


Wait T. Huntington, wliose name will be often found in connection 
with early local public affairs, settled in the village in 1818, and 
became partner in mercantile business with William R. Collins (an- 
other thorough-going business man of the place), carried on brewing 
and other business interests, and was in every way a valuable citizen. 

Joshua vS. Lee was an early druggist and a public spirited citizen ; 
and George McCormick, Vincent Conrad, Charles E. Hardy and others 
were conspicuous in business and public life, in the first quarter of the 
century and later. These and many other well known names will be 
found in connection with accounts of the various industries of that period. 

Let us now review the business situation in Ithaca at about the 
year 1820-21, for by that means we shall be able to arrive at an in- 
telligent estimate of the importance of the place in an industrial sense. 

The lawyers who were then looking for business here were L. 
Tooker, ■ Johnson & Humphrey, Wm. Linn, Stephen Mack and A. 
Varick. In the columns of the American Journal Amos Lay proposed 
to publish a map of New York and the greater part of Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont and Upper Canada ; 
scale, seven miles to the inch; price $10. Mack & Searing were to 
"receive subscriptions for it. 

David Ayres advertised for sale 340 acres of land, four miles north- 
west of " the famed village of Ithaca." 

Dr. C. P. Hearmans announced that he was to stay here ; and George 
P. Frost wanted those having deeds left with Archer Green, clerk, to 
get them. 

Mack & Searing announced a dissolution of their partnership, Mr. 
Mack continuing the business; and John Dumond (the original John) 
was a bankrupt, as stated in the paper. 

Ed. Preswick was dressing cloth at the Phenix Mills, Forest Home. 

Lyman Cobb, author of one of the first spelling books, advertised 
that he had a horse stolen; and Hiram Smith the same; while A. J. 
Miller had lost a cow. 

Mrs. Ayres was carrying on millinery, and Lawrence & Humphrey 
built carriages just east of the Ithaca Hotel. 

J. F. Thompson was in the hardware trade, and David Fields was 
tailoring next to the county clerk's office. 

Jesse Merritt informed the public that he would pay the highest 
price for butter and cheese, and Simeon De Witt offered for sale farms, 
village lots, and his distillery and mill. 



Miles Seymour was a blacksmith, located east of the hotel, and How- 
ard & Lyons were bookbinders. 

David Ayres announced that he was anxious for his debtors to "pay 
up," and he would take produce; and E. Thayer also wanted his pay for 
shoes or groceries. "If debtors pay in lumber, it must be within 
twenty days." 

William Dummer advertised the removal of his barber shop to a 
room under Ackley & Hibbard's store ; he had for sale the newly in- 
vented oil for blacking. 

Julius Ackley was ready to buy sheared and pulled wool and sold 
hats. A month earlier Ackley & Hibbard were together in the hat 
trade. David Ayres advertised a general store in the Ithaca Chronicle 
in vScptember, and Joseph Hurritt a jewelry store. (Asi.s well known, the 
latter continued in business here until recent times). 

George Henning had a hat store, and Peleg Cheesebrough a tailor 
shop on North Aurora street. 

Benjamin Drake was a merchant, and Sam J. Blythe announced his 
wool carding business on North Aurora street. 

Other advertisers in the Chronicle of the date under consideration 
were Mrs. Torrey, milliner. James Curry had a horse stolen. Rev. 
Lawrence Kean was to open a school. Spencer & Stockton sold tickets 
in the New York Literature Lottery. Lyman Cobb, before mentioned, 
published the copyright of " a just standard for pronouncing the Eng- 
lish Language. " Luther Gere had 500 acres of land on lot 2G, Dry- 
den, with mill sites on Fall Creek tract for sale; also 110 acres on lot 
98, Ulysses. He also sold groceries, dry goods, crockery, etc. Abner 
W. Howland had a chair factory at Fall Creek. 

In the Chronicle was printed a bank note table in wliich New York 
bank notes were at par; Albany, Troy, Schenectady, Lansingburg and 
Newburg, " if last signed in red," one-half per cent, discount. Jacob 
Barker's bank, 86 to 87 per cent, discount. Bank of Niagara, the same, 

We will close this review by quoting the substance of a call for a 
meeting which appeared in the Chronicle of September 8, 1821. The 
meeting was for the purpose of consulting on the subject of roads and 
bridges. J. F. Thompson announced that John Smith (aided by a 
vionkey-faced pettifogger of this village), having circulated a report 
seriously affecting his (Thompson's) reputation, and wilfully and 
maliciously false, must permit me to honor him with the iippellation of 
a liar! Thompson was ready to meet Smith before a court of justice. 


From a letter written by W. T. Eddy, in 1876, we quote the follow- 
ing note, which is worthy of preservation : 

Suppose we stop and count the aged persons that were in Ithaca and old enough to 
have families when the village was incorporated in 1821. Joseph Burritt is the only- 
male living ; as for the then mothers we have Mrs. Eddy, the relict of Otis Eddy ; 
Mrs. Bruyn, relict of A. D. W. Bruyn ; Mrs. Ackley, relict of Julius Ackley ; Mrs. 
Allen, relict of Moses Monell; Mrs. Drake, relict of Caleb B. Drake; Mrs. Hillick, 
relict of Humphrey Hillick ; Mrs. Hill, relict of Samuel Hill ; Mrs. Coon, relict of 
Levi Coon; Mrs. Johnson, relict of Ben Johnson. 

These are nearly or quite all passed awa)' since the date under con- 
sideration (1876). 

Some interesting- reminiscences of this locality in 1820-21 have been 
preserved in writings by Anson Spencer, who came to Ithaca at that 
time to learn the printing business with his brother, D. D. Spencer. 
In the first year or two of his apprenticeship Anson acted as newsboy, 
or post rider, as they were called then. His route was through Enfield 
to Burdette in Hector; thence down the lake to "Peach Orchard" 
(North Hector); thence across "Hector's Back Bone" to Reynolds- 
ville; thence by way of "Slab Harbor ' (Waterburgh) to " Shin Hol- 
low (Trumansburgh); thence home on the turnpike, through "Har- 
low's Corners " (Jacksonville). Other similar routes were established 
for the delivery of papers and mail. He traveled in a one-horse 
wagon and usually carried a small mail. If the roads were bad he went 
on horseback. At that time there were four public houses ; the Hotel 
was kept by Timothy Edwards, and a Mr. Dwight kept a public house 
in an old white building which was removed to make the site of the 
Wilgus Block ; the other public houses were Grant's Coffee House and 
the Columbian Inn. A store was kept on Aurora street by Benjamin 
& Drake ; on State street by Augustus Perkins, Luther Gere, Nichols 
& Luce, and by David Quigg. Joseph Burritt had a jewelry store on 
Aurora street ; William Lesley a grocery on State street. There were 
no stores below Tioga street. David Woodcock occupied a story and 
a half house on the corner of State and Tioga streets, and just below 
was his office (Woodcock & Bruyn). Next below that was the resi- 
dence of Dr. Ingersoll, and next below a small building occupied by 
Timothy Titus as a residence and a wagon shop. Next below Titus 
had a residence and a millinery shop, and then came the residence of 
Mrs. Crane, and then Grant's Coffee House. On the opposite side of 
the street, commencing with the hotel, the first building west was an 
old red storehouse, afterwards used by Mr. Esty as a tannery ; Peleg 


Chesbrough had a tailor shop next, and then came Linn's office; then 
the old Chronicle office. Below this was the hat store of Ackley & 
Hibbard, with a large sign of a painted military hat and lettered: 
"Under this we prosper." In the same building was the printing 
office of Ebenezer Mack, with a barber shop in the basement by Will- 
iam Dummer. Next was the office of C. B. Drake, and on the corner 
below was his residence. On the opposite corner was the public house 
of Dwight, with a low building, in which was the post-office. Below 
this was the dwelling of Dr. Miller, and next the house of Isaac Beers. 
Next below were the stables of the Coffee-House. This comprised 
about all there was of State street in 1821. 

Among the noted men of that time were Nicholas Townley, sheriff ; 
Col. John Johnson, county clerk; Miles Finch, his deputy; Arthur S. 
Johnson, justice of the peace. Major Comfort Butler had charge of 
the De Witt farm, as it was called, occupying all the territory north of 
Mill street to Fall Creek. Major Renwick was postmaster, with Sam- 
uel Gardner as deputy. Deacon Henry Leonard operated the old 
Yellow Mill, with a distillery in connection. Phineas Bennett was run- 
ning the mill on the site of the Halsey Mill, and Archer Green owned 
a mill below the bridge, on the site of the later hotel barns. Miles 
Seymour and John HoUister were blacksmiths, the latter on the site of 
the Treman, King & Co.'s stores. Dr. Miller had a drug store in con- 
nection with his practice. 

In writing of this same period W T. Eddy states that the first 
menagerie he ever saw in Ithaca was a lone lion in a cage, exhibited 
in the stable yard of the Ithaca Hotel; and the second was a solitary 
elephant and a monkey in 1833. George Henning started a hat factory 
in 1826; hats were then made of wool and real beaver. In 1826 John 
Hawkins and J. S. Tichenor were apprentices in this business with Mr. 
Ackley, and afterwards began in partnership on their own account. 
In 1818 Mr. Eddy and Thomas Matthewson built the first paper mill 
in Tompkins county; they were partners. The mill was on Fall Creek, 
and in 1820 Mr. Eddy sold his interest to Chester Walbridge, who 
sold in 1822 to James Trench. The property soon passed to Mack & 

In 1820 a severe hail storm passed over the village, which broke be- 
tween four and five thousand panes of glass ; the Presbyterian church 
had 245 panes broken, and the Methodist chapel on Aurora street 240. 
Crops and vegetation were destroyed, and there was a panic among the 
children in the school. Abner W. Howland had the first chair factory 


in the place, and Howard & Lyons were the first bookbinders. Mr. 
Eddy built a brick building in 1820 for Joseph Benjamin, on the corner 
of State and Aurora streets, which was the first of the kind in Ithaca, 
excepting- one immediately east of it which had a brick front and stone 
walls in rear. In writing of the "Flats, "as they were termed, and 
their improvement, Mr. Jiddy said: 

At first these flats were difficult to improve. As the improvements have been 
going on the center of business has changed several times. The corners made by 
Aurora and Seneca streets were once headquarters. Luther Gere built a tavern on 
the southeast corner of these streets before he built the Ithaca Hotel. At that time 
State street did not go east of Aurora street, and some of the old inhabitants have 
told me of catching suckers in the Six Mile Creek at the east end of the building on 
the corner opposite and east of the first named hotel. The first settlers avoided the 
streams and swamp holes, so when they came from the east into the valley they 
made the road to turn north as soon as it came on the flats, close to the hill, and 
came into the east end of Seneca street, and for a time that was the principal jjlace 
of businesss. There was also a tavern on the corner where the Tompkins House 
now stands, and the old "Bee Hive," which was on the corner of Buffalo and Aurora 
streets, remembered by many, was once a store. After the hotel was built, State 
street was finished east up to the foot of the hill. Then, and for a long time, the 
corners made by State and Aurora streets were the center of business. There was a 
store on each corner, except that where the hotel stood. In 1820 J. S. Beebe moved 
his store from opposite the hotel down to the corner of Cayuga and State streets. 
For a long time there was opposition and competition between what might be called 
the two centers of business in Ithaca. 

After Ithaca became the county seat there was put up on each of the 
roads going out of the village a post about six feet high with a white 
board nailed across it and on it was painted in black letters, "Gaol 
Limits. " These denoted the limits outside of which debtors who had 
been confined in jail could not pass. After having been vouched for 
by a re.sponsible friend, these prisoners could have the privilege of 
working in the village for their daily bread, and the posts stood until 
the law of imprisonment for debt was abolished. 

The reader of the foregoing personal notes regarding many of the 
representative men of Ithaca in past years will find many more men- 
tioned in another department of this volume who have in various ways 
contributed to the growth and well being of the place. Of the former 
merchants of Ithaca, Lewis H. Culver long occupied a conspicuous 
position. He was born in what is now Covert, Seneca county, August 
15, 1808; learned the tanner's trade at Halseyville, in Ulysses, but 
abandoned it after four years on account of his health. With f 100 
capital he began the grocery business in Ithaca, and from that time on 
to 1842 his business increased rapidly. Previous to 1842 Mr. Culver 


admitted William Halsey and Charles V. Stuart as partners, the firm 
being Culver, Halsey & Co. On the 28th of July, 1842, the store and 
all buildings west to Tioga street were burned. The firm was after- 
wards dissolved, the brick building now occupied by the Bool Company 
being erected meanwhile. Mr. Culver afterwards formed a partner- 
ship with Charles W. Bates. Bates died and Mr. Culver associated 
himself with his sons, Lewis and Thomas. This firm afterwards dis- 
solved, and at the time of Mr. Culver's death he was sole proprietor. 
Mr. Culver died July 18, 187G. 

Josiah B. Williams, whose name has already been mentioned, was 
for many years one of the prominent business men of Ithaca. He was 
born in Middletown, Conn., in December, 1810. In 1825, when the 
Erie Canal was about to open Western New York to the advantages of 
eastern commerce, he left his eastern home with two brothers to take 
up his residence in this county. Upon the opening of canal navigation 
he took an active interest in devising plans and constructing boats suit- 
able for lake and canal navigation, as well as to other internal improve- 
ments — the enlargement of the canal, the construction of roads, bridges, 
mill, manufactories, churches and schools ; in the construction of rail- 
roads and establishing of telegraph lines. In these varied interests 
the brothers worked together until the death of the two elder brothers, 
one of which occurred in 1840 and the other in 1849, after which Mr. 
Williams continued alone. He early gave attention to the principles 
of banking, and in 1838 organized a bank in Ithaca. He was one of 
the incorporators and a trustee of Cornell University; was a member 
of the State Senate in 1851-56. He was also very efficient in the pro- 
motion of the cause of the Union during the War of the Rebellion. 
His death took place on September 20, 1883. 

John Rumsey, son of James, was a prominent business man of Ithaca 
many years. His father's family were early settlers in Enfield. In 
1844 John Rumsey came to Ithaca and entered the hardware store of 
L. & L. L. Treman as clerk ; there and with E. G. Pelton he passed 
about ten years. In 1858 he purchased the store and interest of E. G. 
Pelton and continued the hardware trade with gratifying success until 
his death on March 22, 1882. The business has since been carried 
on by his son, Charles J. Rumsey. John Rumsey occupied several 
positions which showed that he possessed the confidence of his fellow 

This list might be continued indefinitely with notes of deceased and 
living men who have been in active and successful business in Ithaca, 



but want of space renders sucli a course impossible, and the reader is 
therefore referred to Part II for further personal records. 

Village iNcoRroRAxioN. — On the 29th of November, 1820, a notice 
appeared in the American Journal under date of November 22, that an 
application would be made to the Legislature at the ensuing session, 
for an act to incorporate the village of Ithaca. The notice was signed 
by Joseph Benjamin, David Woodcock, Edward Edwards, Benjamin 
Drake, Isaac Beers, Henry Ackley, Ben Johnson, Jesse Merrill, Charles 
Humphrey, Daniel Bates, Ebenezer Mack, Ira Tillotson, Benjamin 
Pelton, Luther Gere, and Jeremiah S. Beebe. 

The incorporating act passed April 2, 1821 (seventeen days after the 
formation of the town from Ulysses), and the territory of the corpora- 
tion was bounded as follows : Beginning at a point sixty rods east of 
the intersection of the south side of Owego street with the west side of 
Aurora street ; thence south fifty rods ; thence west one mile ; thence 
north two hundred rods ; thence east one mile ; thence one hundred 
and fifty rods to the place of beginning. 

The survey was made by Wait T. Huntington, who found almost 
imsuperable difficulty in getting through the miry jungle in the vicin- 
ity of the present fair ground. * The accompanying maps of the village 
show the boundaries of the first corporation. The act provided for the 
election of "five discreet freeholders," resident in the village, to be 
trustees ; empowered them to erect public buildings ; to raise not more 
than $500 the first year, nor more than $400 for any one year there- 
after for erecting public buildings (engine houses, markets, etc.), 
procuring fire engine and other utensils, repairs or improvements, and 
for making reasonable compensation to the officers of the corporation, 
etc. The act also made Cayuga Inlet a public highway ; provided for 

' It is true that all the territory in that vicinity was formerly almost an impenetra- 
ble jungle of bushes and logs, with here and there a few large trees — a tract which 
has since been reclaimed by the enterprise of public spirited citizens. Two young 
men, one of whom is now a gray haired citizen of the city, planned a raid into that 
jungle along in the fifties to shoot a great family of crows that had long flown in there 
at nightfall to roost. Armed with two heavily loaded .shot guns, their trousers in 
their boots, they started a little before dusk and waded, and crawled and floundered 
through tlie jungle to the crow roost, and there patiently awaited the coming of 
darkness and the family. And the crows came. When the tree was black with them 
and the darkness combined the two hunters blazed away. They heard more or less 
rustling through the trees and bushes, but it was then too dark to hunt for game 
among the bushes, and they toiled homeward. Visiting the spot next morning they 
earned the laurel for the greatest shots ever made, probably, at crows. They picked 
up twenty-three of the dead birds. 


the appointment by the village president of a company of firemen not 
exceeding- thirty in number, and the usual other pi-ovisions for village 
government, collection of taxes, etc. (See session laws, J 821). 

The first Board of Trustees under the charter were as follows : Daniel 
Bates, president; William R. Collins, Andrew D. W. Bruyn, Julius 
Ackley, George Blythe. The other officers were Nathan Herrick, 
Henry Ackley, Isaac Beers, assessors; Charles W. Connor, Miles Sey- 
mour, Jesse (irant, fire wardens; Charles W. Connor, treasurer; 
Augustus P. Searing, clerk. The officers appointed were Thomas 
Downing, collector ; Phineas Bennett,' pathmaster ; David Curtis, 

Some of the early ordinances of the trustees are worthy of notice, 
and are often amusing to the younger generation. On the 31st day of 
May, 1831, it was enacted that after the 15th of June "no hog, shoat 
"r pis', o^ other swine" (italics our own), should run at large in the 
streets, nor " on the open space of ground south of the court house 
and meeting house, commonly called the public square." The penalty 
for violation of this ordinance was fifty cents. To this penalty was 
added a fee to the jjoundmaster, and if an animal taken up was sold, 
"any surplus unclaimed by the owner" should be paid to the over- 
seers " of the town of Ithaca." 

A penalty of one dollar was attached to the encumbrance of a street 
"with an)' carriage, plaister, salt, stone, brick, casks, barrels, mill- 
stones, grindstones, sand, lime, firewood, timber, boards, planks, 
staves, shingles, or any other thing." A comprehensive list, surely, 
and apparently wholly covered by the final word "any other thing. " 
Our early law makers were prodigal of words. 

The discharge within the village limits of "any fire arm, or setting 
off of any rocket, cracker, squib, or fireworks " cost the offender three 
dollars, and to fly a kite or play ball " in either of the two main streets 
commonly called Owego avenue and Aurora street," involved a penalty 
of one dollar. But perhaps the most astonishing provision was that 
prohibiting driving " faster than a trot, or to run horses in the streets or 
roads, or on the public square, under a penalty of three dollars. " It 
might be interesting to learn what were the receipts for penalties under 
such regulations. 

An ordinance of June, 1822, was adopted requiring the owner or 
occupant of a lot " to sweep, collect and remove all filth and rubbish 
as far as the center of the street opposite said lot, on the second and 
fourth Saturdays of each month of the year, except December, January, 


February and March." A wise regulation and one that is to this day 
in operation with good results in some villages of this State with popu- 
lations among the thousands, one of them being, we believe, Johns- 
town, Fulton county. 

In September, 1821, two hundred dollars were voted, a part of it to 
be paid for ringing the bell, and the remainder for " bringing water 
into the village to extinguish fires." A public well was dug in that 
autumn, but it was not sufficient, and in September, 1822, a contract 
was made with Messrs. Bennett to construct an aqueduct from Six 
Mile Creek, " near their mills," to the corners of Owego, Aurora and 
Tioga streets. In the same month a further sum of one hundred and 
fifty dollars was voted to extend the aqueduct to Cayuga street. It 
was a wooden tube about a foot square, laid under ground, with pen- 
stocks and tubs at street corners. This was the inception of public 
water supply in Ithaca. The fire ordinances then required each build- 
ing to be supplied with leather buckets and a ladder. 

A public meeting was held in the court house July 24, 1824, at which 
the trustees were given authority to build and control a public market. 
In pursuance of this action a building 30 by 40 feet in size was erected 
at the junction of Tioga with Green street, under supervision of Lucius 
Wells and Nathan Herrick. It was finished on the 25tli of August and 
the stalls were sold for the first year as follows: No. 1, Jacob Wood, 
$10.75; No. 2, Job Beckwith, $19.00; No. 3, Eutychus Champlin, 
$13.81; No. 4, Jack Lewis, $14.26; No. 6, David Curtis, $14.25; No. 
7, Eutychus Champlin, 13.75; No. 8, Samuel Hill, $12.25; total, 
$104. OG. Every day excepting Sunday was "appointed a public 
market day," and after 10 a. m. any stalls not let were used by others 
with provisions, etc., to sell. A little later a market was erected on 
what is now the northeast corner of Mill and Tioga streets. 

On the Gth day of April, 1824, a record appears of the first action of 
the village trustees relative to a burial ground, when $100 was voted 
" for clearing and fencing " the lot. This cemetery was used by the 
first settlers, probably by consent of Mr. De Witt. On the 2Gth of 
April, 1820, a law was passed by the Legislature amending the village 
charter and changing the boundaries of the village as follows : Begin- 
ning at the northeast corner of lot No. 94 (Ulysses, now in the town of 
Ithaca), and thence west to the northwest corner of said lot; thence 
south to the northeast corner of De Witt's Location ; thence west to 
the west line of said Location ; thence south along the west line of said 



Location to tlie southwest corner of the same; thence due east to the 
east line of lot No. 94: ; thence north along the east line of said lot to 
the place of beginning. Two additional pieces of land have been 
made, and these additions with the original make the present ceme- 

On the (!th day of June, 182o, the trustees resolved to purchase a fire 
engine, the first in the village. It was obtained in New York at a cost 
of $300. The following persons were then appointed firemen : 

Oris Edd)', Charles Humphrey, John Johnson, Jidius Ackley, Henry 
Hibbard, Samuel L. Sheldon, Robert J. Renwick, Joshua S. Lee, 
Nathan Cook, Henry K. Stockton, John Tillotson, Ebenezer Thayer, 
vSamuel Reynolds, Ira Patterson, Lucius Wells, Horace Mack, Newton 
(iunn, Jonas Holman, Edward L. Porter, Edivard Davidson, Amasa 
Woodruff, Samuel Bnchannan, Ephraim Porter, James Chapman. 

On the 1st of July of the same year the following fourteen persons 
were added to the company, the eight whose names are in italic in the 
above paragraph being at the same time relieved from duty: 

Joseph Esty, Willard W. Taber, George P. Frost, Frederick Doming, 
Charles Hinckley, Henry S. Walbridge, Henr)- H. Moore, Daniel 
Pratt., Joseph Burritt, Stephen B. Munn, jr., Henry W. Hinckley, 
Gifford Ti-acy, Jacob Wood and Andrew J. Miller. Not one of this 
entire company is now living. 

May 12, 1838, a fire company was formed by the appointment of the 
following persons to be firemen attached thereto: Sylvester Munger, 
J. Newton Perkins, Sylvester Hunt, George HoUister, Adolphus Col- 
burn, John R. Kelly, John M. Cantine, Benjamin G. Ferris, Hunt 
Pomeroy, William D. Kelly, Elias Colburn, Uri Y. Hazard, Ithiel Pot- 
ter, Elbert Cane, Daniel Young, Ira Bower, Isaiah Hunt, R. A. Clark, 
Anson Spencer, Urban Dunning, James Wynans, Elisha H. Thomas, 
Charles Cooley, David Elliott, George McCormick, David Ayres, Jacob 
Yaples, John Colston, Stephen Tourtellot, James W. Sowles. This 
company took the old engine, and was thenceforward known as " Red 
Rover Company, No. 1." The original company took the new engine 
purchased at that time, and became " Rescue," No. 2. 

At a meeting of the trustees, held January ;il, ISIil, it was resolved 
that Benjamin Drake be authorized to raise a fire company of sixteen 
men to take charge of fire-hooks, ladders, axes, etc., to be known as 
" Fire Company, No, 3." 


' f n' j. 1 5 


,, 1 ' I,'. •;« 





111. rW-^ii^ - " f-" — '"-^^- '^ 


The following persons were reported February 4, 1831, and consti- 
tuted the company ; Benjamin Drake, Erasmus Ballard, David Wood- 
cock, Hart Lee, George P. Frost, Peter De Riemer, Oristes S. Hunt- 
ington, William Hoyt, John Chatterton, Jonathan Shepard, Ira 
Tillotson, Daniel T. Tillotson, John Hollister, William Cooper, Asaph 
Colburn, Isaac B. Gere. 

On the ICth of April, 1834, the village charter was again amended 
relative to the prompt and proper filing of assessment rolls; prohibiting 
the erection of wooden structures within 100 feet of Owego street, 
between Aurora and Cayuga streets, with some other minor changes. 
'Phis was the first step towards establishing fire limits. 

Again in May, 1837, further charter amendments gave the trustees 
power to raise $1,000 for building and repairing bridges in the village; 
$800 for contingent expenses, and $000 for lighting the streets. Pro- 
vision was also made for more thorough assessment of taxes on prop- 

In the years 1834-5 Ithaca was visited by an intelligent man who was 
apparently a devoted apostle of the pen, with a desire to give to new 
scenes visited by him names to suit his own fancy. This was vSolomon 
Sf)nthwick, and he wrote a series of sketches of Ttliaca and its surround- 
ings, which were gathered into a small pamphlet and thus preserved. 
The pamphlet is now very rare, and we quote from its pages to show 
the conditions at the time under consideration. After paying a high 
tribute to Simeon De Witt, and giving an elaborate description of the 
natural scenery in the vicinity, Mr. Southwick briefly noticed the ex- 
isting five churches in the village, the academy, then under direction 
of William A. Irving, and the three newspapers, proceeds to describe 
the business interests of the place as follows: 

Mkchanical Establishmknts. — There are at least thirty-six of these, and from a. 
statement published under sanction of the meeting of the mechanics of Ithaca, in 
July last, of which Ira Tillotson was chairman, it appears that the number of me- 
chanics was then as follows: 

Tanners, 13 ; boot and shoemakers, 31 ; tailors, 13 ; carpenters and joiners, 46 ; 
blacksmiths, 3(1; harness makers, 13; coach and wagon makers, 17; silversmiths, 11 ; 
gunsmiths, 5; copper and tin smiths, 13; machinists, 10; furnace men, 9; hatters, 
14; millers, 7; cabinetmakers, 14; turners, ii; coopers, 10; chairmakers, (i; printers, 
13; painters, 14; bakers, 7; bookbinders, 4; papermakers, 7; manufacturers, 30; 
brewers, 4 ; plowmakers, 4 ; stone-cutters, 6 ; buhr stonemakers, 3 ; weavers, 5 ; rope- 
makers, 1 ; millwrights, 3 ; patternmakers, 3 ; boatbuilders, 6 ; lastmakers, 3 ; soap 
and candle makers, 3 ; masons, 20 ; milhners, 5. 


It will be noted that many of these trades have since been crowded 
out of the place and several of them out of existence by the great 
industrial changes caused by the introduction of machiner5^ 

Continuing, Mr. Southwick notes the following details of various 

Tkadin'g EsTABi.isiiMiiNi's. — Boolcstoves, 3 ; dry goods merchants, 3;! ; hardware, 2; 
jewelers, 8; druggists, 3; grocers, Ifi; total, 49, all now doing business successfully; 
and there is a prospect of an addition to the above number this fall (I8H4). 

MiLi.iNKRY Es•l■Alil.lSlI^^iN•]■s. — There are five of these, two of which do business to 
the amount of about $+,0(K) each. 

Paper Mim.. — The one within the village is that of Mack, Andrus & Woodruff; it 
is situated at the foot of the tunnel stream on Fall Creek. The amount of paper 
manufactured annually is $30,000. The same gentlemen employ in their printing 
ofHce, bookbindery and bookstore, twenty-three hands. 

Olympic 1 Falls Fj.ourlsk; Mu.l. — J. S. Beebe, proprietor. This mil! has two run 
of stone; employs from two to five hands, and can turn out from eighty to ninetv 
barrels of flours daily. It is conducted by Ezra Cornell, and ground last year 

40,000 bushels of wheat. 

Plaistkk Mill. — Situated the same place. J. S. Beebe, proprietor. Turned out 
800 tons of plaister last year. 

Maciiink Shop. — Situated at the same ])lace. Building owned by J. S. Beebe. 
Proprietor of the business, Lucas Levcnsworth. Tlie prnicipal articles manufac- 
tured here are jjails, tubs, keelers, measures, etc., of which, in the aggregate, from 
30,000 to 80,000 articles are turned out yearly. This establishment employs twelve 

CuAUi Factory. — At the machine shop, at the foot of the Olympic Falls, 3,000 
chairs are manufactured yearly by Barnaby & Hedges. 

IriiACA Furnace. — Dennis &. Vail, proprietors, situated at the foot of the tunnel 
stream, at the Olympic Falls. This is an extensive establishment where all kinds of 
castings but hollow ware are turned out; especially all kinds of mill gearing, rail- 
road castings and finished ware. About 175 tons of iron fused in a year, and a large 
quantity of wrought iron used up in finishing. It has been in operation six years. 
[This last statement would give the year of the founding of the furnace as 1838.] 

There is another furnace near this which melts about seventy-five tons yearly. 

Plow Manufactory. — Silas Mead, at the same location, manufactures yearly about 
200 plows. 

Woolen Factory. — S. J. Blythe, proprietor. This factory dresses from 500 to 700 
pieces of cloth annually, from eight to fourteen yards per piece; and cards from 12,- 
000 to 14,000 pounds of wool yearly. 

The woolen factory of James Raymond is of the same description as that of Mr. 
Blythe, and does business in its various branches to a large amount. 

> The name "Olympic" applied to the falls was one of Mr. Southwick's inven- 
tions, and does not seem to have been adhered to. 


Ithaca Iron Foundry and Stkam Enuink Manukactorv. — Proprietors, Cook & 
Conrad. Does pretty much the same kind of business as the Ithaca Furnace of 
Dennis & Vail, and turns out in the aggregate a large amount of work annually. 

Saw Mill Dog Factory. — Hardy & Rich, proprietors. This dog is a patented 
article; sells at $150 a set. Total business, $7,r)0() annually. Lumber sawed with 
this dog brought fifty cents extra per 1,000 feet. 

Mr. Soiithwick then gives a lengthy description of Bennett's patent 
steam engine, of whicli suCficient is said, perhaps, in a description of 
the "smoke boat" of Mr. Bennett in Chapter VII. j\lr. Southwick, 
like many others, appears to have been most enthusiastic over the 
engine, for he sa3's, " that it will save nine-tenths of the fuel now em- 
ployed, we are well convinced." It was also to " immortalize its in- 
genious and persevering inventor," and "redound to the honor of 
Ithaca as the seat of the invention." It of course did neither. 

Of the hotels Mr. vSouthwick wrote as follows: 

HoTKLs, OR PunLic Housus. — Of these there are a number in Ithaca, such as the 
Clinton House, the Ithaca Hotel, and the Tompkins House, etc., an<l witliout intend- 
ing lo disparage any of the otlicrs, tliere is a suriiciciit reason for taking a particular 
notice of the Clinton House. . , The proprietors of this house are Jeremiah S. 

Heebe, Henry Ackley and Henry Hibbai'd. It is a noljle structure and cost from 
.$3.1,000 to $;iO,000. 

The Clinton House is kept at present by Mr. Thaddeus Spencer, u very obliging 
landlord, and is well furnished and well provided with the best of furniture and the 
choicest viands. 

Concerning the exports and imports of the place, Mr. Southwick 
says : 

In 1828 the exports and imports were 18,74y tons. On this basis a prospective cal- 
culation was made that in 18;i7 the tonnage of exports and imports would amount to 
.')(), 047. The amount of tolls in IHaH were .'iy7,()2,').70; and tile calculation for lH;i7, 
ijil 18,810.04. From this estimate coal was enUrely omitted. 

He says further: 

On the 1st of January, 18!i4, it appears from the repent of the Committee on the 
Commerce of Tompkms County, the exports, as estimated by the market value, 
amounted to $1,316,873.75; the imports to $981,300, exclusive of staves, heading, 
white wood, cherry and oak lumber, and many other articles not there stated; total, 
1S>3, 197,873, of which at least $1,018,404 ischumed as belonging to the trade of Ithaca. 
This report is signed by seven of the most respectable merchants anil traders, and is 
no doubt strictly true. 

LuMHiiK and SiiiNGLKS. — We have been furnished by a respectable Lumber Mer- 
chant with a statement of the lumber and shingles exported from Ithaca during tlie 
present year (1835), from which it appears that the quantity of lumber shipped by 
thirteen dealers, exclusive of a few small shipments, was 13,040,000 feet, worth in 



market $270,0(10. The shipment of shingles by tlie same dealers was SW.OOO bunches, 
worth in market $01,750. 

Who shall sa)^ that it was not a promisiiijr period for Ithaca? The 
whole number of families in the town was then 925, and the number of 
inhabitants O.IOl: males, :),070; females, ,'5,022. Number of voters, 
1,084. Grist mills in the town, 0; valuation of raw material used and 
manufactured therein, $127,200; valuation after manufacture, $152,- 
350.00. Number of saw mills, i:5; valuation of raw material, $G,905.- 


00; after manufacture, !|1.'),810.00. Number of fulling mills, 4; valu- 
ation of raw material, |8,000.00; after manufacture, $11,700.00. 
Number of carding mills, 4; valuation of raw material, $3,700.00; 
after manufacture, $4,200.00. Number of cotton factories, 1; valua- 
tion of raw material, $15,293.00; after manufacture, $22,000.00. 
Number of woolen factories, 1; valuation of raw material, $1,000.00; 
after manufacture, $3,000.00. Number of ironworks, 3; valuation of 
raw material, $12,500.00; after manufacture, $25,000.00. Number of 
ashcrics, 1; raw material, $500; after manufacture, $700. Number of 
rope factories, 2; material, $550; after manufacture, $1,050. One 
paper mill; raw material, $13,000; after manufacture, $25,000. Four 
tanneries; valuation of raw material, $21,600; after manufacture, 


The villaye corporation then contained 3,923 inhabitants, an increase 
of 831 in the precedinjr five years. In summing up the future prospects 
of the village, Mr. Southwick quotes from the language used by Charles 
Humphrey before the State Legislature in 1834, as follows: 

The village of Ithaca i.s compactly built, mostly inhabited by respectable and thriv- 
ing mechanics, and almost all the various a: tides required by the surrounding 
country are here manufactured. It has several handsome public buildings. As an 
evidence of its comparative importance I can state that on some days of each week 
fifteen mails are opened and closed, five daily stages arrive and depart, besides 
several three time.s, twice, and once u. week ; a steamboat also traverses the lake 

Tlie prosperity which seems to have been enjoyed in Ithaca from 
1830 to 1835, as partly indicated by the foregoing few pages, was des- 
tined to meet with a severe check. . Something has already been writ- 
ten of the disastrous panic of 1837, the effects of which were especially 
severe in Ithaca. The death of Gen. Simeon De Witt in 1834, the 
division of his property by Commissioners Ancel vSt. John, Richard 
Varick De Witt, and William A. Woodward, who mapped and put on 
the market the entire estate, fostered the spirit of speculation before 
unknown and never since experienced. The marsh, from the steam- 
boat landing to the head of the lake on both sides of the Inlet, was 
platted, and the 400 acres of the Bloodgood tract south of Clinton street 
was laid out in 50 by 100 feet lots. This last 400 acres had been pur- 
chased by ten persons, some of whom resided here and some in New 
York city, who paid $10,000 per share. The De Witt estate was di- 
vided into two equal parts. A syndicate of ten purchased one of these 
parts for $100,000. The other half was sold by Richard Varick De 
Witt, as executor, to Levi Hubbell, for $100,000, taking in payment a 
mortgage for the full amount. This mortgage was sold to the Bal- 
timore Life and Trust Company for $80,000. The company failed and 
under orders of the court, George F. Tallman became owner, and his 
deeds are now held by hundreds of citizens of Ithaca. 

Not only were house lots marked off all over the corporation limits, 
but farms outside were thus utilized. The Jacob M. MeCorniick farm, 
now owned by Solomon Bryant, on the Mitchell road, was maiii^cd and 
sold off in lots: the Jacob Bates farm, one and one-half miles on the 
Danby road, was on the market in the same shape; the Nathaniel 
Davenport farm, one and one-half miles from the village on the Tru- 
mansburgh road, the same, and many other large estates around the 



village were mapped and platted, in the eonfident belief that the lots 
would soon be sold for large price; and it must l)e acknowledjjed that 
there was, durint^- tlie ]iei.<iht of the fever, j>round for the largest of ex- 
pectations, if tlie receipt of enormous sums for land could be accepted 
as a safe guide. The ])ricc,-; asked were often startling. A half block 
near the Inlet, between Seneca and State streets, now occupied partiall}^ 
by the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Station, and 
partly by Fulton street, was owned by Henry Ackley, who refused 
$"iO,000 for his interest; and there were numerous .similar eases. 


The moving cause of this fever of real estate speculation, outside of 
the general operation of like causes elsewhere, was the supposed cer- 
tain construction of the vSodus Bay Canal between Cayuga Lake and 
Lake Ontario, which was to constitute a waterway of ship-carrying 
capacity which, with the Ithaca and Owego Railroad, reaching to the 
Susquehanna River at the latter, place, were to make Ithaca the great 
central city of the State. Real estate purchased one day was resold 
on the next often at double the former price, and then retransferred the 
succeeding day at an equally increased valuation. Some well known 
wealthy and conservative citizens insisted all through the earlier stages 
of this speculative era, that there was no basis for such a condition of 
the market ; but they finally became imbued with the enthusiasm of 
the hour, went in on the crest of the last wave and were left by its 



subsidence stripped of property and financially ruined. > Under execu- 
tion against some of the owners, the Bloodgood tract, before men- 
tioned, finally fell under the auctioneer's hammer. 

It was only natural that this great speculative movement in Ithaca 
should find sympathy in and extend to the outer towns bordering upon 
it; not to the extent prevalent in the village, but, nevertheless, in a 
marked degree. These outer towns suffered, but as the wave was less 
in height, so the end was less disastrous, although its effects remained 
for years. 

The years following 1837 were characterized by unusual business 
depression, which was supplemented and intensified by the disastrous 
failure of the Ithaca Woolen Mills at Fall Creek, stock in which had 
been pressed upon and was held by residents of nearly all, if not all, 
the tcwns of the county, and which proved utterly valueless. 

In 1 843 the general bankruptcy law was taken advantage of by many 
debtors, who, under its provisions, relieved themselves of immense 
liabilities. In years following very low prices for labor and real estate 
prevailed. In regard to labor, as an example, the Board of Trustees 
of the village of Ithaca, by resolution, fixed the pay of laborers for the 
corporation, in 1847, at (>2,% cents per day. 

Nothing interrupted the progress of Ithaca for many years after the 
period which we have just had under consideration, with the exception 
of the great flood of 1857, and the place seemed surely destined to ful- 
fill the most sanguine of the early prophecies. It was a stirring, active 
commimity, with few idle and unproductive inhabitants. Writing in 
1847, Mr. King said: "Situated in a fertile section of country, and 
possessing natural advantages for communication with the eastern 
markets, at an early day it promised the realization and results which 
we now behold." But from about 1847 to 1855 the growth of the place 
was slow, the cause for which, probably existed in the influence of vari- 
ous railroad lines which gave advantages, even though but little 

1 One of the cities that suffered most severely from the effects of this class of land 
speculalion in 18ii7-8 was Buffalo. There everybody caught the fevei", and to such 
an extent wiis the business carried on that it often became tragic in its results and 
sometimes decidedly humorous. It is related on e.\cellent authority that one prom- 
inent physician was drawn into thewhirpool and became so distracted with his pros, 
pective gains, that on one occasion, when asked by a very sick patient how a certain 
remedy was to be taken, replied: "One half down, and balance in two monthly 


superior, to other points. This influence, which is one of the most 
potent in deciding the destinies of particular localities, could not be 
estimated by the early inhabitants, nor very closely even by those of 
the later years. But during the six or eight years just preceding the 
last war another period of more rapid growth and greater prosperity 
seems to have begun. The population rose from 6,848 in. 1800, to 
10, 107 in 1870, and the increase in business and permanent improve- 
ments far exceeded those of the previous twelve or fourteen years. 

The great flood of 1857 passed into history as a remarkable one, both 
in destruction of property and loss of life, and is worthy of notice as 
the most disastrous of the several similar events that have visited 
Itliaca. Previous to the t7th of June of that year there had been con- 
stant yet moderate rains, which filled the streams to a somewhat im- 
usual degree. About 12 o'clock, noon, of the day last named a fearful 
thunder storm arose, an immense bank of low-lying clouds passed over 
the village and settled in the Six Mile Creek valley, where it i-emained 
for four hours, discharging terrible sheets of water. The stream in 
the valley in the town of Caroline swept away dams, the accumulating 
waters reaching Ithaca about seven o'clock in the evening. Halsey's 
mill dam, just east of the present electric car power house, succumbed 
to the pressure, and the timbers composing it crushed the plaster mill, 
swept out the foundations of the grist mill and carried two barns on 
the flood down against the stone arch bridge on Aurora street, where 
they were crushed like egg shells. This bridge' had a height of about 
twenty-two feet and a span of nearly thirty feet, with a race waterway 
on the north side of the main structure. Stoddard's tannery, above the 
bridge, on the north side of thd stream, was swept away, as was also 
the creek banks on South Tioga street near to the line of Green street. 
Before the stone bridge gave way, about eight o'clock, water flowed 
down State street, then planked before it was paved, floated off the 
planking, filled all the cellars in the main part of the village, swept 
down Aurora street, reaching the top of a picket fence corner of 
Buffalo and Aurora streets, and, spreading out, finally reached the 

In the barns above mentioned, Matthew Carpenter and Daniel . 
Reeves were engaged in attempting to save some horses. Reeves 
jumped to the bank when the building struck the bridge and thus es- 
caped; Carpenter was drowned. When the arch of the bridge col- 
lapsed, David Coon and Moses Reeves went down with the wreck. 


Coon was drowned, Reeves escaping by being swept into the swamps 
just east of the present fair ground. Putnam, the owner of the brew- 
ery, attempted to cross the Clinton street bridge, was caught by the 
flood, climbed a huge poplar tree which was washed out, and was 
drowned. The bodies of Carpenter and Putnam were recovered the 
next day and Coon's three days later. Every bridge pn the stream was 
swept away, and no communication was established across until the 
succeeding afternoon, when a rope and a small boat were utilized for 
the purpose. The volume of water was so great that all the north and 
west parts of the village were submerged until the succeeding Novem- 
ber. Stoddard's steam boiler was carried nearly a quarter of a mile 
down stream. A lai'ge stove used for drying wool floated about half a 
mile, and the 8-horse engine was dug out of the gravel forty rods below 
the old tannery. But the balance wheel, weighing 000 pounds, was 
never discovered. A stake standing in the bed of the creek was found 
to be a wagon tongue, the body and wheels of which were entirely 
submerged; the wagon was recovered by being dugout. The mone)' 
loss reached nearly $100,000. 

In March, 18()5, the melting of an immense body of snow swept out 
all the railroad bridges between Ithaca and Owego, and su.spended 
operations on the road for six weeks. 

Finally came the first gun of the great rebellion, and the nation was 
precipitated into a bloody war, which for five years was to command 
the energies and means of the whole country. Its immediate effects 
in Tompkins county have been described in Chapter IV, and all that 
remains to be said here concerning it is, that from the beginning to the 
close of the struggle Ithaca, as the headquarters for the county, was a 
center of military enthusiasm and activity. Public meetings followed 
each other rapidly, at which the most generous and patriotic action was 
taken for the good of the great cause, while the ranks of the several 
regiments raised in this vicinity were swelled by volunteers who were 
rewarded with liberal bounties. The inflation of the currency and the 
material demands of the war gave a powerful impetus to the business 
of the whole north. Every community felt it. Money was plenty, 
. and while i^ublic improvements in the village stagnated during that 
period, private enterprise was active, particularly towards the close of 
the contest, as will be noticed in the succeeding pages ; and when peace 
finally settled upon the country, the returning soldiers, with a facility 
of adaptation to circumstances that was marvelous, fell into the ranks 


of workers, and for several years the whole country rose upon a wave 
of prosperity. 

It will be interesting and valuable for comparison with the foregoing 
lists of business establishments, to note those that were in existence at 
the close of the war. The location of the various merchants and me- 
chanics is made quite clear to the reader of to-day, by giving the names 
of present occupants. It is believed the following list is complete with 
the exception of some very small concerns ; as far as possible the then 
existing establishments are located, with reference to the present oc- 
cupants of the various stores and shops, for the benefit of those who 
cannot remember as far back as I860 : 

Andrus, McChain & Co. , books, etc. (now Andrus & Church). 
•Seymour & Johnson, general store (Morrison corner). 
Schuyler & Curtis, drugs (now Schuyler Grant). 
John Kendall, dry goods (now store of T. Kenney). 
F. Brooks, hats and caps (now H. H. Angell). ' 

John Van Orman, boots and shoes (now Bernstein, clothing). 
F. A. Parlenheimer, boots and shoes (hotel next to Wolf's cigar store). 
J. C. Gauntlett, drugs (now West Bros., shoes). 
George E. Halsey, drugs (now White & Burdick). 
Burritt, Brooks & Co. jewelry (now A. B. Kennedy). 
L. Millspaugh, harness (now Kearney Brothers, clothing). 
, Teeter & Hern, groceries (now F. W. Phillips). 
Miss StiUwell, millinery (now Phillip Harris). 
F. Deming, furniture (now E. W. Wolcott). 
O. B. Curran, drugs (now Piatt & Colt). 
Jesse Baker, boots and shoes (now B. Mintz, clothing). 
Sawyer & Glenzer, at Inlet, same as now. 
Kenney, Byington & Co. (now L. Kenney). 
Sedgwick & Lewis, photographs (now McGillivray). 
Morrison, Hawkins & Co., dry goods (now Hawkins, Todd & Co.). 
H. J. Grant, tobacco (now A. H. Platts). 
Treman, King & Co., hardware (same as now). 
John Rumsey, hardware, etc. (now C. J. Rumsey & Co.). 
Stowell & Hazen, dry goods, etc. (now Rothschild Brothers). 
W. M. Culver, hats and caps (now Rappuzzi). 
John L. Whiton, bakery (now M. W. Quick). 
L. J. & A. C. Sanford (now Ithaca Hotel billiard room). 
A. F. Baldwin (now C. B. Brown). 

W. H. Kellogg & Co., tobacco, factory on north side of Seneca street, where the 
brick Wick house stands. 

H. F. Mowry, provisions, three doors west of the Tompkins County Bank. 

James M. Heggie, harness (now John Northrup). 

Ed. Stoddard, leather store (now George Simpson block north of Hotel). 



A. H. Fowler, dentist (over present post-office). 
Bartlett & Hoysradt, dentists (in Clinton Hall Block). 
George W. Apgar, books (now National Express Office). 
Northrop & Ingersoll, spring beds (now C. L. Stephens). 
Philip Stevens, market, same as now. 
Tolles & Seeley, photographs (now E. D. Evans). 


S. L. Vosburg, jeweler (now Ed. Jackson). 

Miss Ackley had a newsroom (now George Griffin) on Tioga street. 

J. S. Granger & Co., west store in Wilgus Block. 

Rowe & Gillett, carriages, where the Titus Block now is. 

E. M. Marshall, clothing (now E. J. Biirritt's). 

L. H. Culver, general store (now Bool'.s). 

Taylor & Heath, groceries (now Pinch's bookstore). 

Greenly, Burritt & Co., general store (now Slocum & Taber and J. S. Sturtevant). 

Democrat Office (now P. Wall). 

Albert Phillips, tailor (now Osburn, confectioner). 

Wilgus Brothers, dry goods (now Seaman Bros., clothing). 

George Covert, groceries (now (J. W. Frost). 

William J. Egbert, shoes (now D. H. Wanzer). 

J. W. Mosher then kept the Tompkins House. 

Miss McRoy, millinery (now A. B. Brooks). 

Barnard & McWhorter (now Blackman Brother.s). 

Titus & Bostwick (now Williams Brothers Iron Works). 

M. Wick, cigars (now B. Rich). 


H. F. Randolph, shoes (now T. Dobrin). 

Spence Spencer, news office (east part of present Treman, King & Co.'s store). 
Henry Hoffman, cigars (now Wolf, in same line). 
Uri Clark, jeweler (in part of Ha'^kin drug store). 
Hymes Brothers, clothing (now Collins & Johnson). 

George Gottheinier, clothing (now A. J. Calkins, harness). L. Sugarman had this 
store after Calkins, and also the next one east, in clothing trade. 
Dennis Mooney, groceries (now J. B. Todd), Aurora street. 
Miss Farnham, millinery (now shoe store). 
W. & D. Kittrick, shoe shop, first south of Hotel (now saloon). 
Brown & Roat, saloon (now Union Tea Co.). 
William Glenny, 84 Owego street (now T. Kenney). 
Baker, Bradley & Co. (now G. W. Slocura & Co.). 
Joseph Esty, leather (now E. S. Sisson). 
Henry Moores, barber (now R. A. Heggie). 
Charles Graham, clothing (now MoUer Brothers). 
George Franks, clothing (West Brothers). 
Edwin Sidney, shoes (now Stanley's). 
D. T. Tillotson, grocer (now Crozier & Feeley). 
C. F. Blood, clothing (now N. E. Drake). 

On the 30th of March, 18(!], an act was passed by the J^egislatiire 
consolidating the village laws. The principal provisions that need to 
be noticed were those in relation to the raising, grading and leveling 
of sidewalks, the cost of which was to be paid by the owners of abut- 
ting land ; the improvement of streets, and the construction of aque- 
ducts, reservoirs, etc., and what part, if any, of the cost should be paid 
from the highway fund; providing for the collection of assessments for 
local improvements; giving fire wardens admittance to premises for 
inspection and to enforce their orders relative to making such premises 
safe from fire. On the 32d of April, 1863, an act gave the trustees 
power to act as commis.sioners in the draining, diking and reclaiming 
swamp and marsh lands in the village, as their judgment might deem 
advisable, with power to appoint a surveyor; to assess damages to land 
and expenses incurred on citizens according to benefits received. Two 
years later Josiah B. Williams, T. P. St. John and Edward S. Esty 
were empowered to act as superintendents of such improvements of 
marsh lands as are noted above. In the appropriation bill of 1863 
$1,800 were devoted to the improvement of the Inlet, to be expended 
by the canal commissioners; and $1,600 in repayment for the building 
of two bridges over the Inlet. 

On the 31st of April, 1864, the boundaries of the village were ex- 
tended by act of Legislature, and the village divided into three wards. 


The boundaries of the wards were as follows: First Ward — All west 
of the middle of Albany and Second streets. 

Second Ward — All south of the middle of Seneca street, and east and 
south of the middle of Albany street. 

Third Ward — -All north of the middle of Seneca street and east and 
north of the middle of Albany street and Second street. 

Changes were made in the village officers, two trustees to be elected 
for each ward; one assessor; one or inore police constables; a col- 
lector; a chief engineer and two assistants; treasurer, clerk, street 
commissioners, pound master, cemetery keeper, and one fire warden in 
each ward. (See session laws, 1864.) 

On the 27th of March, 1871, the charter was again amended, relative 
to the eligibility of citizens to office ; meetings of trustees ; abatement 
of nuisances, health officials, parks, safety of buildings, actions for for- 
feiture under the street and sidewalk regulations before referred to ; 
powers of police constables; authorizing the board to raise not to. ex- 
ceed $30,000 to pay all the annual expenses of the corporation. On 
the ist of April of that year the fire department was incorporated, as 
hereafter described. In 1847 the system of graded schools was estab- 
lished, as will be described a little further on. 

The past twenty years of the history of Ithaca liave developed the 
most encouraging prospects. This is especially true of the past dec- 
ade. Very much of this gratifying condition must undoubtedly be 
credited to the influence of the great institution of learning which the 
munificent liberality of citizens of the place and of other localities 
established here in 1868, a full history of which is given in this work. 
Cornell University has made the name of Ithaca familiar throughout 
the world, and now brings annually to its doors nearly two thousand 
students, and pours into its lap a steady stream of wealth. Under this 
influence and the enterprise of her citizens the village and city have in 
recent years made rapid advancement. Public improvements of a 
metropolitan character have been introduced in the form of electric 
lights, electric railways, paving, etc. , and there is every indication of 
continued prosperity. 

With these various advantages came the desire for a city government, 
which assumed tangible shape as early as 1882, when a new charter 
was drawn by Messrs. Almy and Bouton, by request of the Board of 
Trustees. The charter was a carefully prepared d(jcument and vastly 
better than the one that had been in existence ; but much opposition to 


it developed in various quarters. vSoon afterward an attempt was 
made to merge the differing ideas into a new charter, but that attempt 
also proved futile. In the third effort the representative men of the 
place, acting in harmony and above all personal feelings, and in pur- 
suance of an appointment l)y the Hoard of Trustees, prepared the docu- 
naent wliich, with sonic change, became tlie city charter. The com- 
mittee into whose hands this important duty was placed was appointed 
March 16, 1887, and constituted as follows: E. S. Esty, D. B. Stewart, 
Elias Treman, H. A. .St. John, H. B. Lord, F. C. Cornell, A. H. 
Platts, E; K. Johnson, R. B. Williams, C. M. Titus, C. B. Brown, 
H. M. Hibbard, C. E. Crandall, D. H. Wauzer, J. D. Bennett, Isaiah 

This committee was composed of an equal number of Republicans 
and Democrats. They met and organized and divided tlie work among 
sub-committees from their number, and began work. It was a labor 
involving considerable time, and the community became very 'im- 
patient; but the committee determined to do their work thorouglily, 
and left nothing undone to bring about the best possible results. After 
the substantial completion of the task it was discovered that there was 
no person on the committee who was a inember of the bar. The com- 
mittee therefore called in the aid of Judge Boardman, Samuel D. 
Halliday and Perry G. Ellsworth, who revised the document and made 
various valuable suggestions. After this the committee passed the 
charter through the hands of Prof. C. A. Collin, of the law department 
of the university for his revision. He gave it ample consideration and 
made numerous suggestions for changes, which were adopted and in- 
corporated. The charter was then submitted to the Board of Trustees, 
and it was unanimously adopted. 

The charter was then placed in the hands Hon. F. J. Enz, repre- 
sentative in the Legislature, who promptly secured its passage, without 
a dissenting voice; through the Lower House, and the Hon, W. L. Sweet 
was equally efficient in the Senate. 

When it reached the executive department it was found that there 
was a conflict with a general law relative to excise. The suggestion of 
the governor in that respect was cheerfully approved; but his objection 
to the election of aldermen on a general ticket caused some disappoint- 
ment and regret. Still the governor insisted that the rights of the 
minority and democratic usage required the amendment of that pro- 
vision ; and in order to secure his approval of the charter the aldermen 



are to be elected from the wards as has been the custom heretofore in 
electing trustees. The charter became a law on the 2d of May, 1887. 

The charter is a remarkable one from the fact that it places in the 
hands of the mayor the appointing power, in which he is superior to 
the council. In this respect it is believed that the Ithaca charter stands 
alone in this State, and the results have shown the wisdom of those 
who drew it. 

The new charter divided the city into four wards with the following 
boundaries: First Ward, all west of the center of Corn street; Second 
Ward, all east of the center of Corn street, and south of the center of 
State street; Third Ward, all east of the center of Corn and Varick 
streets, and west of Tioga and north of State streets ; Fourth Ward, all 
east of the Center of Tioga street, and north of the center of State 

With the inauguration of the city government, there met at the trus- 
tees' room. Village Hall, at noon of June 1, 1888, the following, who 
were then occupying the offices designated: President, David B. 
vStewart; clerk, Charles A. Ives; trustees, George W. Babcock, Clay- 
ton Crandall, J. W. Tibbetts, James A. McKinney, J. A. Lewis, Jesse 
W. Stephens, A. B. Wood, J. E. Van Natta; police justice, Myron N. 
Tompkins ; treasurer, Edgar O, Godfrey ; collector, Frank Dans ; cor- 
poration counsel, James L. Baker; assessors, John E. Brown, J. W. 
Brown, Comfort Hanshaw, Samuel Beers; chief engineer fire depart- 
ment, Edmund E. Robinson ; first assistant, Frank Cole ; second 
assistant, A. B. Oltz; policemen, A. Neideck, John Donovan, John 
Campbell, jr., P. D. Robertson, Richard Emmons; street commissioner, 
John Terwilliger; cemetery keeper, George W. Evarts; pound master, 
Robert Walker; health commissioner, William Mack; health officer, 
Edward Meany ; Board of Education, E. S. Esty, J. J. Glenzer, F. C. 
Cornell, A. B. Brooks, C. M. Williams, E. K. Johnson, Elias Treman, 
Cornelius Leary, A. M. Hull, H. A. St. John, B. F. Taber, R. B. 

There were also present the officers of the village to be superseded 
by the city officers, the charter committee (elsewhere named), and 
oth ers. 

The ceremonies of inaugurating the new management were opened 
by President D. B. Stewart calling the meeting to order. The mayor 
then delivered an address reviewing the action that had led up to the 
change and congratulating the people upon the happy consummation 


of the undertaking. This was followed by prayer by Rev. Charles M. 
Tyler. The various officials then took the oath of the office, and Judge 
Lyon announced the mayor and aldermen as duly installed. The fol- 
lowing resolution was then offered by Alderman Wood : 

Resolved, That the maximum salaries of the officers to be appointed by the mayor 
be as follows: City clerk, $800 per annum; collector, the legal fees to be collected as 
per statute ; treasurer, $200 per annum ; city attorney, $100 per annum for counsel 
fee, and taxable costs and reasonable fees for conducting actions or proceedings in 
behalf of the city; city superintendent, $300 per annum ; assessor, $240 per annum; 
five policemen, $14 per week each; poundmaster, the fees provided by the city 

This resolution was adopted. 

The mayor then announced the following appointrhents : City clerk, 
C. A. Ives; police constables, Albert Neideck, John Campbell, jr., 
Harry D. Robertson, John Donovan, and Richard Emmons ; assessor, 
John E. Brown; treasurer, Edward O. Godfrey; collector, Frank Dans; 
city superintendent, F. C. Cornell; city attorney, James L. Baker; 
poundmaster, Robert Walker. Jason P. Merrill was appointed re- 
corder, the office then being vacant. 

The oath of office was then administered to the several appointees, 
and by resolution the bond of the rejcorder was fixed at $2,000. After 
this the mayor concluded his address, and Mr. Halliday made the fol- 
lowing suggestion, which was adopted by resolution : 

Mr. Mayor: — In common with every citizen of the new city I experience a sincere 
and warranted pride in our new position and relationship. But it seems to me that 
you gentlemen will not have done your full duty until provision is made for placing 
the exercises of this interesting occasion in the hands of our fellow citizens unable to 
be here present to-day, and in some enduring form, that those who come after us 
may be acquainted with the impressive character of the ceremonies which we have 
this day heard and witnessed. I offer this as a suggestion to the Board of Aldermen, 
and I trust it may meet their approval, and that such action will be taken by them 
as will accomplish a permanent record of these proceedings. 

Following is a list of the presidents and trustees of the village, and 
the mayors and aldermen of the city from the year 1821 to the present 
time : 

1821, president, Daniel Bates ; trustees, William R. Collins, George Blythe, Julius 
Ackley, A. D. W. Bruyn. 

1832, president, A. D. W. Bruyn; trustees, A. D. W. Bruyn, Nathan Herrick, 
Julius Ackley, John Tillotson, William R. Collins. 

1833, president, David Woodcock; trustees, David Woodcock, Ebenezer Mack,, 
Benjamin Drake, Andrew J. Miller, Lucius Wells. 


1834, president, David Woodcock; trustees, David Woodcock, Nathan Herrick, 
Otis Eddy, Edward L. Porter, Lucius Wells. 

1825, president, Ben Johnson; trustees, Ben Johnson, John Tillotson, William R. 
Collins, James Nichols, Joseph Burritt. 

1836, president, David Woodcock ; trustees, David Woodcock, Arthur S. Johnson, 
Henry Hibbard, Origen Atwood, Lucius Wells. 

1837, president, Chas. Humphrey; trustees, Charles Humphrey, Stephen B. Munn, 
jr., Thomas Sinclair, William Lesley, Lucius Wells. 

1838, president, Charles Humphrey; trustees, Ira Tillotson, William Hance, Will- 
iam R. Collins, Chauncey G. Heath, Lucius Wells. 

From 1838 to 1853, inclusive, seven trustees were elected annually, who elected 
their president. 

1839, president, Henry S. Walbridge; trustees, William Hance, .Sylvester Hunger, 
Joseph Esty, Julius Ackley, George Henning, Thomas Sinclair. 

1830, president, John Holman; trustees, William Hance, Levi Leonard, James 
Mulks, Resolve L. Cowdry, Joseph Burritt, Derrick B. Stockholm. 

1831, president, Levi Leonard; trustees, Derrick B, Stockholm, Wait T. Hunting- 
ton, Charles E. Hardy, Resolve L. Cowdry, Edward L. Porter, Jacob Terry. 

1832, president, Levi Leonard; trustees, Derrick B. Stockholm, Wait T. Hunting- 
ton, Charles E. Hardy, Arthur S. Johnson, Edward L. Porter, Heman Powers. 

1833, president, Ira Tillotson; trustees, Derrick B. Stockholm, Jacob M. McCor- 
mick, William Andrus, Joseph Burritt, William S. Hoyt, Jacob Terry. 

1834, president, Wait T. Huntington; trustees, William Hance, Ira Bower, Ben- 
jamin C. Vail, Henry H. Moore, David Hanmer, Samuel Crittenden, jr. 

1835, president, Amasa Dana; trustees, George W. Phillips, Samuel Giles, Thomas 
Trench, Isaac Randolph, William Andrus, George P. Frost. 

1836, president, Amasa Dana; trustees, Jacob M. McCormick, Robert Halsey, 
Thomas Trench, Chauncey L. Grant, Daniel A. Towner, George P. Frost. 

1837, president, George P. Frost; trustees, Jacob M. McCormick, Levi Hvibbell, 
William A. Woodward, George McCormick, Ithiel Potter, Zalmon Seely. 

1838, president, Caleb B. Drake; trustees, John J. Speed, jr., George W, Howe, 
Lewis Gregory, George McCormick, Henry H. Moore, Chauncey G. Heath. 

1839, president, Amasa Dana; trustees, Jacob M. McCormick, William Andrus, 
Enos Buckbee, Horace Mack, Lewis H. Culver, Nathan Phillips. 

1840, president, Jacob M. McCormick; trustees, Chauncey G. Heath, William 
Andrus, Benjamin C. Vail, Horace Mack, Lewis H. Culver, Nathan Phillips. 

1841, president, Benjamin G. Ferris; trustees, Henry H. Moore, Harley Lord, 
Benjamin C. Vail, Charles Robinson, Ira Bower, Frederick Deraing. 

1843, president, Henry S. Walbridge ; trustees, John E. Williams, Chauncey Cow- 
dry, Isaac M. Beers, Frederick Barnard, William S. Hoyt, Silas Hutchinson. 

1843, president, John J. Speed; trustees, Anson Spencer, Daniel F. Hugg, Stephen 
B. Cushing, Frederick Barnard, Robert Halsey, Isaac Randolph. 

1844, president, Timothy S. Williams ; trustees, Anson Spencer, William S. Hoyt, 
Frederick Deming, Edwin Mix, Samuel Halliday, Nathan T. Williams. 

1845, president, Timothy S. Williams; trustees, Anson Spencer, Nelson Palmer, 
Frederick Deming, Horace Mack, William R. Humphrey, Nathan T. Williams. 


1846, president, Timothy S. Williams; trustees, Anson Spencer, P. J. Parteii- 
heimer, Frederick Demiiig, Peter Apgar, William R. Humphrey, Nathan T. Will- 

1847, president, Nathan T. Williams; trustees, Levi Newman, Joseph E. Shaw, 
Theophilus Drake, Peter Apgar, William R. Humphrey, Charles V. Stuart. 

1848, president, Nathan T. Williams ; trustees, Samuel Stoddard, Joseph E. Shaw, 
Theophilus Drake, John L. Whiton, William R. Humphrey, Hervey Platts. 

1849, president, Frederick Deming ; trustees, Samuel Stoddard, Josiah B. Williams, 
P. J. Partenheimer, John L. Whiton, Anson Spencer, Nathan T. Williams. 

1850, president, Nathan T. Williams; trustees, Joseph E. Shaw, Leander Mills- 
paugh, Leonard Treman, Peter Apgar, George W. Schuyler, Harvey A. Dowe. 

1851, president, Horace Mack; trustees, Isaac Earl, Josiah B. Williams, Samuel 
Stoddard, Peter Apgar, George W. Schuyler, P. J. Partenheimer. 

1H53, president, Uonjamin G. Ferris; trustees, Anson Spencer, Frederick Barnard, 
Anson Braman, George Whiton, Justus Deming, John Gauntlett. 

1853, president, Anson Spencer; trustees, Hervey Platts, Frederick Barnard, Noel 
Kettell, George Whiton, Justus Deming, P. J. Partenheimer. 

In the winter of 1853-64 the village charter was amended, dividing 
the village into three wards, electing the president by the people and 
electing the trustees for two years each. 

1854, president, P. J. Partenheimer; trustees. First Ward, R. Willard King, Ben- 
jamin F. Taber; Second Ward, Samuel Stoddard, WaitT. Huntington; Third Ward, 
Isaac Randolph, Isaac M. Beers. 

[In the remainder of this list only the names of the three trustees elected annually 
will be given, the other three, of course, holding over from the previous year.] 

1855, president. Wait T. Huntington ; trustees (given in each of the following years 
in the order of the numbers of the wards), Joseph C. King, Oliver E. Allen, Jacob 

1850, president, Lewis H. Culver; trustees, Newell Hungerford, Justus Deming, 
Thomas P. St. John. 

1857, president, P. J. Partenheimer; trustees, Joseph C. King, Adam S. Cowdry, 
George Covert. 

1858, president, Charles Coryell; trustees, Albert Phillips, Justus Deming, James 

1859, president, Thomas P. St. John ; trustees, Curtis Taber, Adam S. Cowdry, 
Griswold Apley. 

1860, president, George McChain ; trustees, Thaddeus W. Seely, Edward Stoddard, 
K. S. Van Vorhees. 

1861, president, Elias Treman; trustees, Joseph C. King, Adam S. Cowdry, Gris- 
wold Apley. 

1863, president, Frederick T. Greenly ; trustees, Thaddeus W. Seely, Horace Mack, 
Anson Spencer. 

1863, president, Frederick T. Greenly ; trustees, Joseph C. King, Adam S. Cowdry, 
James B. Taylor. 


1864, president, George McChain ; trustees, Joseph N. Ives, Horace Mack, Thomas 
P. St. John. 

1865, president, George McChain ; trustees, James B. Bennett, Adam S. Cowdry, 
Horace C. Williams. 

1866, president, P. J. Partenheimer ; trustees, Joseph C. King, Philip Case, James 
B. Taylor. 

1867, president, Samuel Stoddard ; trustees, Thaddeus W. Seely, Adam S. Cowdry, 
Michael Wick. 

1868, president, John Gauntlett; trustees, James Popplewell, Leonard Treman, 
William Nixon. 

1869, president, John C. Gauntlett ; trustees, Thaddeus W. Seely, Adam S. Cowdry, 
Michael Wick. 

1870, president, Rufus Bates; trustees, Joseph C. King, Ebenezer Purdy, George 

1871, president, John Gauntlett; trustees, Thaddeus W. Seely, Edward I. Moore, 
Albert M. Hull. 

1872, president, John H. Selkreg; trustees, J. B. Sprague, E. M. Latta, George 
W. Fowles. 

1873, president, A. S. Cowdry ; trustees, James D. Bennett, Herman D. Green, L. 
V. B. Maurice. 

In 1874 four wards were made, and thereafter four trustees elected each year. 

1874, president, A. S. Cowdry; trustees, Francis O'Connor, F. K. Andrus, Isaiah 
Robinson, George F. Hyatt. 

1875, president, John Rumsey; trustees, H. L. Kenyon, A. C. Sanford, R. A. 
Crozier, B. G. Jayne. 

1876, president, E. S. Esty; trustees, J. J. Glenzer, William Andrus, W. Jerome 
Brown, J. E. Van Natta. 

1877, president, J, B. Sprague; trustees, James Robinson, Ira Rockwell, Comfort 
Hanshaw, Peter Apgar. 

1878, president, H. M. Durphy; trustees, Thaddeus W. Seely, James Robinson, 
Harmon Hill, Ed. Tree, jr. 

1879, president, Albert H. Platts ; trustees, Lyman E. Warren, C. B. Brown, Har- 
mon Hill. 

1880, president, Albert H. Platts; trustees, Thomas McCarty, William Frear, Alex- 
ander Smith, John B. Lang. 

1881, president, P. Frank Sisson; trustees, Daniel Fowler, John E. Goewey, Chas. 
W. Manchester, E. M. Latta. 

1883, president, Henry H. Howe ; trustees, A. W. Goldsmid, F. E. lUston, Charles 
IngersoU, John B. Lang. 

1883, president, Charles J. Rumsey; trustees. First Ward, Patrick Shannon; Sec- 
ond Ward, J. R. Wortman ; Third Ward, Seth Wilcox ; Fourth Ward E. M. Latta. 

1884, president, Charles J. Rumsey; trustees. First Ward, Jacob M. Stewart; Sec- 
ond Ward, Fred. E. Aldrich; Third Ward, William L. Carey; Fourth Ward, William 
H. Perry. 

1885, president, Charles J. Rumsey; trustees. First Ward, James D. Bennett; 
Second Ward, James A. McKinney; Third Ward, William F. Major; Fourth Ward, 
John E. Van Natta. 


1886, president, C. B. Brown; trustees, First Ward, Patrick Shannon; Second 
Ward, L. G. Todd; Third Ward, A. L. Niver; Fourth Ward, J. S. Kirkendall. 

1887, president, D. W. Burdick; aldermen. First Ward, George W. Babcock; 
Second Ward, James A, McKinney ; Third Ward, James A. Lewis ; Fourth Ward, 
John E. Van Natta. These officials, and those who held over from the previous 
year, were in office at the time of the adoption of the city charter, as before described. 

The following are the principal officers itnder the city government : 

1889, mayor, John Barden; aldermen. First Ward, J. C. Warren; Second Ward, 
Schuyler Grant ; Third Ward, Amasa G. Genung ; Fourth Ward, Edward Tree. 

1890, mayor, John Barden; aldermen. First Ward, Jacob Peters; Second Ward, 
Charles W. Gay ; Third Ward, E. J. Burritt ; Fourth Ward, Edward Tree. 

1891, mayor, H. A. St. John; aldermen. First Ward, Patrick Shannon; Second 
Ward, S. G. Williams; Third Ward, W. M. Eaton; Fourth Ward, D. Mclntiro. 

1892, mayor, H. A. St. John ; aldermen. First Ward, Walter McCormick ; Second 
Ward, Olin L. Stewart; Third Ward, Charles Green; Fourth Ward, Fred. D. John- 

1893, mayor, Clinton De Witt Bouton ; aldermen. First Ward, Patrick Crowley ; 
Second Ward, Adam Emig ; Third Ward, William F. George ; Fourth Ward, John 
E. Van Natta. 

The following officers were elected in Ithaca at the March election 
of 1894: 

Mayor (held over), C. D. Bouton ; recorder, Eron C. Van Kirk ; justice of the 
peace, Fred. L. Clock; commissioners of education, Arthur B. Brooks, F. C. Cornell, 
Albert H. Esty, John J. Glenzer; supervisors. First Ward, Charles F. Hottes ; Second 
Ward, Leroy G. Todd ; Third Ward, Thaddeus S. Thompson ; Fourth Ward, Will- 
iam P. Harrington; aldermen. First Ward, Clinton Ayres; Second Ward, Samuel 
G. Williams; Third Ward, Charles Green; Fourth Ward, Robert H. Thurston. 

Fire Department. — The fire department of Ithaca has always been 
an efficient one, and it cannot be said that the place has suffered to an 
unusual degree from fires. We have before noticed the purchase of 
the first engine in 1823, and the appointment of the company to take it 
in charge. That company and the others which were appointed later, 
as well as the fire wardens and department officers, have included many 
of the leading men of Ithaca — a fact which may clearly account for the 
general efficiency of the body as a whole. 

As the population of the village increased, and the number of fire 
companies in proportion, the question of water supply became of para- 
mount importance and led to ordinances and legislation for provision 
of reservoirs and their supply. The "fire laws," as they have been 
termed, were passed June 25, 1860, and gave the village authorities 
broader powers and more extensive resources for coping with the 


destructive element. In the report of Chief Engineer Barnum R. 
Williams, in 1868, he said: 

The matter of a supply of water in case of fire in some parts of the village has been 
to me a source of great anxiety. I give below a list of reservoirs as classified by 
Hon. E. S. Esty, during his term of office as chief engineer, to show more clearly 
my idea: A, Pleasant street, east of Aurora. B, State street, corner of Aurora. 
C, State street, corner of Tioga. D, State street, corner of Cayuga. E, State street, 
corner of Plain. F, Fayette street, south of Geneva. G, Albany street, corner of 
Seneca. H, Geneva street, south of Mill. I, Cayuga street, corner of Mill. J, Farm 
street, west of Aurora. K, Buffalo street, corner of Spring. L, Village Hall. M, 
Seneca street, east of Spring. 

Of this list Mr. Williams considered none of them reliable in case of 
a protracted fire, excepting B, C and D, most of them being filled by 
water from roofs, or from drains and small springs. For many years 
prior to the date under consideration, various plans and propositions 
had been made for providing an adequate water supply by different 
companies, and the final introduction of mains in the streets, with a 
large flow and strong pressure, soon relieved all anxiety on this score. 

In this connection it is interesting to note that the expense of the 
department for the year preceding Mr. Williams's report was $2,427.84. 
Of this sum $800 is credited to the "annual donation." There were 
then in the department five engine companies, one hook and ladder 
company, one bucket company, and a company of Protective Police, 
the membership numbering in the aggregate 450 men. There were 
eleven fire alarms in the year 1868. 

The Ithaca Fire Department was incorporated by act of the Legisla- 
ture April 1, 1871, and includes all of the fire companies formed and to 
be formed, whose enrolled members number thirty each and are so 
maintained. The act was amended April 14, 1884. The governing- 
board was made to consist of two trustees from each company, together 
with the chief engineer and assistants, who were ex-officio members. 
A president, vice-president, and secretary of the board were to be 
chosen annually from their body by the trustees. The body thus formed 
constitutes the "Firemen's Board." 

With the incoming of the city government in 1887, the powers and 
duties conferred on the village trustees by the act of 1860 were con- 
tinued to the Common Council of the city. 

The body known as the " Protective Police " was formed with thirty 
members January 23, 1868. This body of men have all the privileges 
and exemptions of firemen and are invested with police powers in time 


of fire. They are commanded by a captain, a lieutenant and a sergeant, 
the other officers being a treasurer, secretary and two trustees. 

Upon the organization of the Protective Police the following were 
chosen the first officers: P. J. Partenheimer, captain; Elias Treman, 
lieutenant; H. A. St, John, sergeant; L. Kenney, secretary; F.W. Brooks, 
treasurer; and the following members: F. A. Brown, C. F. Blood, 
Walter Burling, Rufus Bates, Uri Clark, C. Cowdry, Joseph Esty, jr. 
II. F. Hibbard, W. 11. Hammond, J. F. Hawkins, C. D. Johnson, 
Freeman Kelly, J. C. King, E. M. Latta, E. M. Marshall, E. I. 
Moore, H. D. Partenheimer, James Quigg, J. H. Tichenor, J. B. Tay- 
lor, S. D. Thompson, jr., vSamuel Stoddard, J. R. Wortman, H. J. 
Wilson, H. W. Wilgus. 

The following named companies have been organized at the dates 
given, with the officers of 1868 designated : 

Cayuga Engine Company, No. 1, organized May 13, 1828. Foreman, 
John Diltz ; first assistant, H. Mastin; second assistant, R. Latoui'ette. 
Besides a lai-ge membership, this company published in 1868 a list of 
seventeen honorary members. 

Rescue Engine Company, No. 2, organized June 0, 1823. Foreman, 
John Spence ; first assistant, Edward Landon ; second assistant, A. B. 

Tornado Hook and Ladder Company, No. 3, organized February 4, 
1831. Foreman, J. M. Lyons; first assistant, M. L. Granger; second 
assistant, O. B. Welch. 

Eureka Engine Company, No. 4, organized April 29, 1842. Fore- 
man, William S. Berry; first assistant, C. Sloughter; second assistant, 
George True. 

Tornado Bucket Company, No, 5, organized July 1, 1846. Foreman, 
George Pickering; first assistant, Amasa I. Drake; second assistant, 
Sam Goddard. 

Hercules Engine Company, No. 6, organized March 23, 1853. Fore- 
man, George J. Kenyon; first assistant, C. Popplewell; second assist- 
ant, E. Jarvis. 

Cataract Engine Company, No. 7, organized December 31, J 803. 
Foreman, Sylvester Norton; first assistant, Ed. Tree, jr. ; second as- 
sistant, George Norton. 

Eureka Company, above named, was placed in charge of the old 
engine (No. 1), but this machine had seen its best days, and was ex- 
20 , 


changed in June, 1842, for a new one. This company finally became 
Eureka Hose Company, No. 4, now in existence. 

Hercules Company, above mentioned, was one of the most efficient 
early organizations, and was especially for the protection of property 
in the western part of the village, where the tower at the Inlet was 
erected for their use. After nearly twenty years of service the com- 
pany was dissolved, and in its place was organized Sprague Steamer 
Company, No. 6, October, 31, 1872. 

Cataract Company, above mentioned, took charge of the engine pur- 
chased for No. 4 in 1842. The tower at Fall Creek was built for this 

In addition to the above are the following organizations, all of which 
are now in existence : 

Cayuga Hose Company, No. 1, organized May 12, 1828; now located 
in City Hall. Has a two-wheeled cart and 500 feet of hose, with 
other appurtenances. Foreman, B. F. McCormick; first assistant, 
William McGraine; second assistant, Joseph Myres; secretary, L. F. 
Maloney; treasurer, Michael Herson. 

Rescue Steamer Company, No. 2, organized July 1, 1823; incorpo- 
rated November 28, 1883, Located in a two-story brick building ad- 
joining the City Hall ; have in charge a third class Silsby steamer, and 
a four-wheeled hose carriage with 500 feet of hose. Foreman, John A. 
Fisher; first assistant. Perry Robertson; second assistant, Horace 
Miller; secretary, W. A. Woodruff; treasurer, Charles Clapp. 

Tornado Hook and Ladder Company, No. 3, organized February 4, 
1831 ; incorporated March G, 1886. Located in City Hall, and have in 
charge a hook and ladder truck, with extension and other ladders, etc. 
Foreman, F. H, Romer; first assistant, C. S. Seaman; second assist- 
ant, C. E. Treman; secretary, A. G. Stone; treasurer, O. L. Dean. 

Eureka Hose Company, No. 4, organized in 1842. Located in City 
Hall, and has in charge a four-wheeled hose carriage with 450 feet of 
hose. Foreman, J. E. Driscoll; first assistant, George ]. Dixon; sec- 
ond assistant, W. J. Pringle; secretary, F. D. Gray; treasurer, George 

Torrent Hose Company, No. 5, organized March 2, 1843. Located 
in the two-story brick building on State street near Geneva ; has in 
charge a four-wheeled carriage and 500 feet of hose. Foreman, W. 
C. Taber; first assistant, E. G. Hance; second assistant, Henry Brost; 
secretary, W. W. Phillips; treasurer, E. McGillivray. 



Sprague Steamer Company, No. G, organized October 1, 1872. Lo- 
cated in a two-story brick building on West State street near Fulton ; 
has in charge a Clapp & Jones piston steamer, a two-wheeled hose cart 
and GOO feet of hose. Foreman, A. R. Van Zoil; first assistant, Milo 
Walley; second assistant, Bert Shaw; secretary, W. J. Lambert; 
treasurer, William Moore. 

Cataract Hose Company, No. 7, organized December 31, 1863. Lo- 
cated in a two-story brick and frame building on North Tioga street, 
and has in charge one two-wheeled racing cart, one four-wheeled hose 
cart and 500 feet of hose. Foreman, Charles Terwilliger; first assist- 
ant, William Benson ; second assistant, George Edsall ; secretary, F. 
A. Van Vradenburg; treasurer, M. H. Norton. 

The gross membership of the department on the 31st of December, 
1893, was 447. 

Following is a list of chief engineers from 1840 to the present time : 

Jacob M. McCormick, December 19, 1838, to June 23, 1843; Robert Halsey, June 
23, 1842, to January 17, 1850; P. J. Partenheimer, January 17, 1850, to December 31, 
1857 ; Merritt L. Wood, December 31, 1857, to December 30, 1858 ; Justus Deming, 
December 30, 1858, to December 31, 1859. 


Under the Fire Laws adopted June 25, IBGO, and Act of Incorpora- 
tion, passed April 1, 1871, and amended April 14, 1884: 






Edward S. Esty. 

Jesse Johnson. 

J. Beardsley. 




L. V. B. Maurice. 



■ 1 

Joseph N. Ives. 


William W. Esty. 

Joseph N. Ives. 

W. G. Davenport. 



W. G. Davenport. 

Levi A. Berry. 


George E. Terry. 

Joseph N. Ives. 

J. R. Wortman. 


Elias Treman. 

Joseph C. King. 

James Latta. 


William W. Esty. 

R. Willard Boys. 

James Ashdown. 


B. R. Williams. 

' J. M. Heggie, jr. 

George Sincepaugh. 



T. S. Thompson. 

George J. Kenyon. 


T. S. Thompson. 

George J. Kenyon. 

Amasa I. Drake. 


B. R. Williams. 

John H. Prager. 

James Latta. 



ti 11 

11 (( 


H. M. Durphy. 

Almon Boys. 

O. D. Terry. 




E. H. Mowry. 



Almon Boys. 

E. H. Mowry. 

Charles A. Ives. 

(1 II 


Charles A. Ives. 

S. S. Gress. 








Almon Boys. 

S. S. Gress. 

Will F. Major. 



Will F. Major. 

Frank D. Tree. 


Samuel S. Gress. 

Louis S. Neill. 

William J. Ireland. 



Charles S. Seaman. 

E. W. Prager. 


" " 

E. W. Prager. 

A. Schriver. 



A. Schriver. 

E. E. Robinson. 


E. H. Mowry. 

E. E. Robinson. 

H. L. Haskin. 






E. E. Robinson. 

H. L. Haskin. 

Frank Cole. 







Frank Cole. 

A. B. Oltz. 






Frank Cole. 

A. B. Oltz. 

W. H. Herrington. 







A. Vf. Randolph. 

Charles C. Garrett. 




S. l^red Smith. 

Following is a list of the officers of the department for 1894: 

Chief engineer, Frank Cole ; first assistant engineer, A. W. Randolph ; second 
assistant engineer, S. Fred Smith; president, J. M. Welsh; vice-president, William 
Egan ; secretary John M. Wilgus ; treasurer, Edwin M. Hall. 

Trustees of Department; Cayuga Hose Company, No. 1, J. M. Welsh, C. M. Kelly; 
Rescue Steamer Company, No. 3, A. S. Cole, AVilliam Egan; Tornado Hook and 
Ladder Company, No. 3, Chas. W. Major, C. L. Smith ; Eureka Hose Company, No. 
4, S. S. Gress, C. G. Selover;. Torrent Hose Company, No. 5, J. M. Wilgus, J. F. 
Tetlej' ; Sprague Steamer Company, No. 6, Isaac Brokaw, Lester Rundle ; Cataract 
Hose Company, No. 7, Thomas Tree, Arthur Tourgee; Protective Police, H. M. 
Hibbard, Franklin C. Cornell. 

In the 3'^ear 1891 the Gamewell Fire Alarm system was introduced, 
which now has sixteen boxes, and is a valuable auxiliary to the depart- 
ment. The expenses of the department for 1893 were f;3,();J7.85. 
'rhere are now fovirteen cisterns in the city at the most available points, 
with 101 hydrants connected with the water supply system. There 
were nineteen fire alarms in 1893, and the total loss was $17,511.33. 
The following table shows the number of alarms and losses since 18(50: 







































$ 3,001.00 






. 31,708.00 





38,98 .00 












$ 1,051.00 
























5,918.00 ■ 









$ 951.00 

1861 - 






1864 --- 





1867 - 






1870 - 









1875 1 










1880 - 


1881 - 


1883 - 





1885 - 


1886 _ 


1888 - 


1889 . 


1890 - 




1893 .- 


1893 ,- - 


Following is a list of 

Blood, Charles F., captain. 
Williams, R. B. , lieutenant. 
Hinckley, H. L., sergeant. 
Quigg, James, treasurer. 
Tichenor, James H., secre- 
Esty, A. H., trustee. 
Enz, Frank J., trustee. 
Almy, Bradford. 
Bostwick, H. V. 
Brown, C. B. 
Burdick, D. W. 
Cornell, Frank C. 
Crozier, R. A. 

the Protective Police as constituted in 1893 : 

Clark, Uri. 
Frear, Wra. 
Gauntlett, J. C- 
Hall, E. M. 
Halliday, S. D. 
Hibbard, H. M. 
Johnson, E. K. 
Johnson, C. D. 
Kenney, Levi. 
Lyon, Marcus. 
Latta, E. M. 
Marshall, E, M. 
McElheny, T. J. 
Randolph, F. P. 

Stewart, D. B. 
Sanford, L. J. 
Sage, Wm. H. 
St. John, H. A. 
Treman, Elias. 
Taylor, J. B. 
Van Kirk, E. C. 
Van Order, Linn. 
Van Vleet, D. F. 
Van Cleef, Mynderse. 
Wilson, H. J. 
Williams, E. L. 
Williams, Chas. M. 


The most disastrous fires from which Ithaca has suffered were those 
of July 14, 1833, which destroyed nearly all of the buildings on the 
square bounded by Owego (now State), Tioga, Seneca and Aurora 
streets. Several of these were brick. On the 28th of May, 1840, when 
everything on the north side of State street from the store of John 
Rumsey to the corner of Aurora and Seneca streets, ten three-story 
brick buildings were burned, causing a loss of about $65,000. Sunday 
night, July 24, 1842, on the south side of State street, the Chi-onicle 
office and buildings to the corner of Tioga street, and three small 
buildings on the latter street, were burned. On July 10, 1845, an in- 
cendiary fire was started in the stables of the Columbian Inn (then 
called the Franklin House), and swept nearly the entire block bounded 
by State, Cayuga, Green and Seneca streets, sparing only the three 
brick stores on the northeast corner of the block, and the residences 
John L. Whiton and Dr. J. E. Hawley on the west. Six horses were 
burned in the stables. On August22, 1871, occurred the most destructive 
fire in the history of the place. The Ithaca Hotel and the entire block 
on which it stood was swept clean, excepting a few stores on State 
street. The flames also crossed Tioga street westward and burned the 
tannery of Edward S. Esty and many houses on the north side of 
Green street, and on Tioga several more belonging to Henry L. Wil- 

Ithaca Water Works Company. ^ — -A brief reference has already 
been made to the first attempts to supply the village of Ithaca with 
water. It is sufficient to state that those attempts were largely abor- 
tive, and not until 1853 was a systematic effort made towards accom- 
plishing the object. An act passed the Legislature June 26, 1853, 
under which Henry W. Sage, Alfred Wells, Charles E. Hardy, Anson 
Spencer and Joseph E. Shaw were named as incorporators, and they 
and their associates constituted the Ithaca Water Works Company. 
The capital was $40,000. This company furnished an inadequate sup- 
ply of water from springs on East Hill, north of Buffalo street, and 
laid iron pipes in some of the streets. The supply proved insufficient 
and the works were subsequently sold to a new company, which con- 
tinued operations under the old charter amended to meet new require- 
ments. In 1875 the company acquired rights on Buttermilk Creek and 
erected a crib dam in the ravine, from which water is supplied to the 
city and to a reservoir on South Hill of 1,260,000 gallons capacity. 
The head from the dam is 215 feet, and from the reservoir 146 feet. 


The officers of the company are L. L. Treman, president; E. M. Tre- 
man, secretary; and these, with Elias Treman, R. R. Treman, and 
Leander R. King, are the directors. Under the present administration 
liberal extensions have been made of pipes in all the principal streets 
of the city, and the public supply is furnished through 101 hydrants. 
(There are also fourteen cisterns in use in the city). 

Other attempts have been made to furnish a water supply, but they 
were not successful. An act was. passed May 23, 18G8, in which Alonzo 
B. Cornell, Charles M. Titus, George W. Schuyler, John L. Whiton, 
George McChain, Elias Treman, Sewell D. Thompson, Edward S. 
Esty, Abel Burritt, Henry J. Grant, Edwin J. Morgan, Henry L. Wil- 
gus, John Rumsey, John H. Selkreg, Henry R. Wells, and their as- 
sociates, were named as a body corporate by the title " Ithaca Water 
Works Company." Capital, $75,000, with power to increase to $150,- 
' 000. No organization took place under this act. 

In 1870 an act was passed by which Henry B. Lord, Rufus Bates, 
and Charles M. Titus were constituted commissioners for the construc- 
tion of water works to be owned by the village, and providing for a 
tax, not exceeding $100,000, to pay the cost thereof; subject first, how- 
ever, to a vote of the tax-payers. When put to a vote the project was 
defeated . 

Ithaca Gas Light Company. — The supply of gas to the village of 
Ithaca dates back to 1853. The present control of the business is 
vested in a company under the same title, and is substantially in the 
hands of the same officers that are at the head of the water company. 

Street Railways. — It is within only a comparatively brief period 
that Ithaca has been favored with street railways. The first steps 
taken in this matter were in the year 1884, when, on the 29th of No- 
vember, the Ithaca Street Railway Company was organized with a 
capital of $25,000. During the various changes that have since taken 
place, this capital was first increased, on the 5th of July, 1892, to 
$175,000, and on the 11th of December, 1893, to $250,000. For about 
two years after the first charter was obtained the undertaking lay dor- 
mant. This is scarcely to be wondered at, for the peculiar conditions 
existing in the place in a topographical sense were not encouraging to 
the projectors of the street railway. While the' village was growing 
rapidly, and its prospects were excellent for future growth, the exten- 
sion was largely towards the east and the university, and up a steep 
hill presenting a grade of something like 400 feet to the mile. In the 


year 1887-88 the first track was laid, extending from the Ithaca Hotel 
to the railroad stations at the foot of State street. On the 1st of May, 
1891, the franchises and property of the old company were transferred 
to the present organization, and on the 1st of June, 1893, the company 
purchased the franchise and property of the Brush-Swan Electric Light 
Company, which it still owns. That company had used electricity on 
the street cars imder the unsatisfactory Daft system since January 4, 
1888. The Brush-Swan system was adopted in 1891. Upon the reor- 
ganization of the company in 1891, as above noted, Charles H. White 
was made president ; D. W. Burdick vice-president ; D. F. Van Vleet 
treasurer. Extensive improvements were inaugurated, the track ex- 
tended up the hill to the Elmira, Cortland and Northern Railroad 
station, and new and improved cars began running to that point in 
February, 1893. The franchise for the Tioga street branch was ob- 
tained in May, 1891, and the first cars ran thereon in July of the same 
year. At the present time a branch crosses the Cascadilla Creek on 
the luiiversity grounds and extends northward for the accommodation 
of the extensive travel to the institution. The Cayuga Lake Electric 
Railway Company, organized in 1894, is constructing a line passing 
Percy Field and reaching the lake at the southeast corner, formerly 
known as Renwick, where a steamboat dock is to be built. Its capital 
is $25,000. The present officers of the company are as follows: pi-esi- 
dent, Horace E. Hand, of .Scranton, Pa. ; vice-president, Hon. Alfred 
Hand; secretary, treasurer and general manager, H. Bergholtz;. attor- 
ney, D. F. Van Vleet. 

The lighting of the streets of Ithaca by electricity by the Brush- 
vSwan Company, above mentioned, was begun in 1883-84, it being one 
of the first plants for this purpose in the interior of the State. With 
the transfer of the franchise to the present company, many improve- 
ments and enlarged facilities have been introduced, and a contract has 
just been concluded (December, 18'93) under which the company is to 
supply the city with ninety arc lights for ten years. 

Banks. — Financial affairs in Ithaca, as well as in the other towns in 
this county, have in past years experienced at least average prosperity 
in comparison with other localities. Their administration has been, as 
a rule, conservative arid prudent. Aside from the brief periods of ex- 
aggerated anticipation, speculation, and culminating stringency and 
panic, described in the preceding pages of general history, in which 
almost the entire country shared, progress in the increase of wealth 


and its safe investment has been sjfenerally steady and satisfaetoi-y 
throughout the count3^ It is probably true that few villages or eities 
in the State of New York have reached the size of Ithaca without ex- 
periencing more business failures. While the growth of Ithaca has 
been, until quite recently', somewhat slow, possibly for that reason its 
business men have been conservative and prudent in a marked degree. 
This may have been to a certain extent a weakness, as indicating a 
lack of progressive public spirit and enterprise; but it has certainly 
been more conducive to the ultimate benefit of the community than 
would the unbridled speculation and so called booms that have charac- 
terized many other localities. 

The needs of banking facilities were felt in Ithaca before the forma- 
tion of Tompkins county, and resulted in the incorporation of a branch 
of the Bank of Newburg iinder an act of the Legislature passed April 
18, 1815. The act authorized the officers of that bank to establish an 
office of discount and deposit in the village of Ithaca, Seneca county. 
A lot was pui"chased on Owego (now State) street, west of Cayuga and 
running through to Green street, and a banking house erected there. 
That building afterwards became the residence of John L. Whiton. 
Among the first directors of the institution were William R. Collins, 
Luther Gere, Benjamin Drake and Andrew D. W. Bniyn. In 1821 
Daniel Bates and Jeremiah S. Beebe were placed in the directorate; 
they were all good citizens of Ithaca. Charles W. Connor was the first 
cashier and Abel Corwin the second. George W. Kerr, afterwards 
president of the Bank of Newburg, was an early clerk in the bank. 

On the 22d of April, 1829, the Bank of Ithaca was incorporated, with 
authorized capital of $200,000 in 10,000 shares. Andrew D. W. Bruyn, 
Henry Ackle)^ Francis A. Bloodgood, Hermon Camp, Horace Mack, 
Jeremiah S. Beebe, David Hanmer, Ebenezer Mack, Ira Tillotson and 
Nicoll Halsey were made commissioners with the usual powers to re- 
ceive subscriptions. The entire amount of stock was taken in three 
days. In April, 1830, the real estate owned by the older institution 
was sold to the Bank of Ithaca. Following are the names of the first 
board of directors : Luther Gere, president ; A. D. W. Bnn^i, Daniel 
Bates, James Nichols, Benjamin Drake, Jeremiah S. Beebe, Henry 
Ackley, Calvin Burr, William Randall, .Stephen Tuttle, Jonathan Piatt, 
David Hanmer and Ebenezer Mack. The first cashier was Ancel St. 
John, who was succeeded by Thomas P. St. John and William B. 
Douglass. Subsequently this bank erected the brick building on the 


south ■ side uf State street, which passed to possession of Treman 
Brothers, who made extensive alterations in its front. This building- 
is now the Itliaca post-ofifice. The charter of the bank expired in 1850. 

ToMi'KiNS County Bank. — This financial institution was chartered 
in 1830, with authorized capital of $350,000. The following- comppsed 
the first board of directors: Hermon Camp, president; Timothy S. 
Williams, Jeremiah S. Beebe, Horace Mack, William R. Collins, 
Robert Halsey, Edmund G. Pelton, Julius Ackley, Chauncey L. Grant, 
Moses vStevens, Edward C. Reed, Charles Davis, and Augustus C. 
Marsh. The first cashier was Seth H. Mann, who was succeeded by 
Nathan T. Williams. Upon his death he was succeeded by Philip J. 
Partenheimer, who had been the first book-keeper in 1830, and was 
promoted to teller upon the death of William Henry Hall. Mr. Par- 
tenheimer was succeeded by Henry L. Hinckley in January, 1881, who 
still holds the position. Succeeding Mr. Camp as president were 
Amasa Dana, and next, Chauncey L. Grant. The present capable 
official and astute financier, Lafayette L. Treman, assumed the office 
in 1873, and has therefore filled it for over twenty years. The present 
Board of Directors is composed as follows: Besides the officers above 
nained, John C. Gauntlett, vice-president; Roswell Beardsley, John 
Barden, L. R. King, Elias Treman, and Robert H. Treman. The 
bank has surplus and profits of about $78,000, and its average deposits 
are $300,000. The capital has recently been reduced to $150,000. 

Under the National Bank Act this institution was reorganized in 
18UC, becoming the Tompkins County National Bank. The commodi- 
ous building now occupied by the institution was erected by it in the 
year 1838. In 1893 a Safe Deposit Department was added, in an exten- 
sion made to the original building. 

Mkkchants' and Farmers' Bank. — This financial institution was 
organized under the law on the 18th of April, 1838, with a capital of 
$150,000, which was equally divided between the three brothers, 
Timothy S. Williams, Manuel R. Williams, and Josiah B. Williams. 
After the death of the first two named, the bank continued with Josiah 
B. Williams as president, and was absorbed by the First National Bank 
in 1873. Chaiies E. Hardy was cashier during most of the life of the 
bank, and until his death. 

The First Na-iional Bank. — This bank was organized in 1864, with 
a capital of $150,000, by the following named persons: John McGraw, 
John Southworth, Ebenezer T. Turner, Ezi-a Cornell, Douglass Board- 


man, John C. Stowell, Joseph Esty, E. S. Esty, Alonzo B. Cornell, and 
George R. Williams. The capital remained as at first until 187:), when 
the Merchants' and Farmers' Bank was absorbed and the capital raised 
to $250,000, and so remains. The first president was Ebenezer T. 
Turner, and the first cashier, Alonzo B. Cornell. John McGraw suc- 
ceeded Mr. Turner as president: J. B. Williams next occupied the 
position, and he by Douglass Boardman, who filled the position until 
his death in August, 1890, when George R. Williams assumed the 
office. Henry B. Lord became cashier of the bank in 1800, and has 
faithfully and efficiently served in that capacity ever since. The direc- 
tors of this bank, besides the officers named, are as follows: John C. 
Stowell, vice-president; Calvin D. Stowell, F. M. Finch, Albert H. 
Esty, Samuel B. Turner, Truman Boardman, S. D. Halliday, R. B. 
Williams, Clarence H. Esty. The bank statement of October, 1893, 
shows a surplus of $50,000; undivided profits of $33,770.60; and loans 
and discounts of $330, 140.89. Deposits, $375,000. 

Savings Bank.— The first act incorporating the Ithaca Savings 
Bank was passed April 17, 18G3. No action was taken under that act 
and the charter was revived by an Act of April 3, 1808, which named 
the following directors: Ezra Cornell, Douglass Boardman, John H. 
Selkreg, William Andrus, Joseph Esty, John Rumsey, John L. Whiton, 
Leonard Treman, Obadiah B. Curran, George W. Schuyler, Wesley 
Hooker, and their successors. Ezra Cornell was made the first presi- 
dent of the institution, and was succeeded at his death, in 1874, by 
John Ruinsey, who had been vice-president from the first. He held 
the position until his death in April, 1882. John L. Whiton succeeded 
him on the 22d of January, 1883, and on his death Leonard Treman 
was elected, January 24, 1887. He died on the 20th of May, 1888, and 
on June G succeeding, Roger B. Williams, the present president, was 
elected. The other officers at the date of organization were William 
Andrus and George W. Schuyler, vice-presidents ; Obadiah B. Curran, 
treasurer and secretary; F. M. Finch, attorney. The office of vice- 
president is now filled by John H. Selkreg, first vice-president ; John 
C. Gauntlett, secondjvice-president ; W. J. Storms, secretary and treas- 
urer; Mynderse Van Cleef, attorney. In 1890 the bank erected the 
handsome and substantial building, a part of which it now occupies, at 
a cost of about $00,000, besides the site. 

The Ithaca Trust Company began business on the 7th of December, 
1891, transacting a regular banking and trust deposit business. Its 


capital is $100,000. Following are the first and present officers and 
directors of the company : President, Franklin C. Cornell; vice-presi- 
dent, Francis M. Finch; secretary and treasurer, Frederic J. Whiton; 
cashier, William H. Storms; attorney, Mynderse Van Cleef; directors, 
Charles F. Blood. Franklin C. Cornell, Albert H. Esty, Francis M. 
Finch, Elias Treman, Lafayette L. Treman, 'Samuel B. Turner, Charles 
E. Van Cleef, John C. Gauntlett, Levi Kenney, William H. vSage, 
David B. Stewart, Mynderse Van Cleef, Frederic J. Whiton, Charles 
M. Williams, Emmons L. Williams. 

Rkcorder's Court. — This court was established in the city by the 
law which founded the city government. May 2, 1887. Previous to 
that time the justices of the peace, constables and police had been relied 
upon to protect the property and persons of citizens of the place. The 
new charter provided that the then acting police justice should fill the 
office of recorder for the remainder of the period for which the justice 
was elected; but it so happened that the office of justice was vacant on 
the incoming of the new government, and the mayor appointed D. F. 
Van Vleet as the first regular incumbent of the position. He held the 
office until March 1, 1888, and was succeeded by Myron N. Tompkins, 
who was elected for a term of three years. Clarence L. Smith suc- 
ceeded him and served until March, 1 804. He was succeeded by Eron 
C. Van Kirk, who was elected recorder for a full term. 

The recorder has jurisdiction over all criminal business in the city, 
without a jury, and is empowered to hold courts of special sessions, 
and to admit to bail all persons charged with crime before him in cases 
of felony when imprisonment in the State prison on conviction cannot 
exceed five years ; with other various powers usually attaching to that 
office. The salary is $1,000 and use of an office. 

Court House, Jail and Clerk's Office. — The present court house, 
built in 1854, occupies the original site selected at the formation of the 
county in 1817. The structure at the time it was removed had some- 
what changed during the thirty-seven years it existed, but still had a 
most venerable appeai-ance. It was of wood, two stories high, and 
with a tower or steeple the architectural beauty of which was at the 
best unimpressive. The basement and a single room in the rear on 
the west side were the jailer's quarters for himself and his family; the 
front room was for jurors. A wide hall ran north and south through 
the building, with doors on either side, and on the east side were six 
cells for the safe keeping of prisoners, imless those who were detained 



Cl'J'Y OF I'JMIACA. J (15 

chose to saw through the wooden sides or doors or manipulate the vcry 
simple locks, which lacked nothing" in size but were sadly deficient in 
security. It was a very patient prisoner who would long remain there 
in confinement. '^J'^he locks at one time caused the jailer to become 
suspicious and he called in a locksmith to examine them. (Joing into 
his own rooms for keys, he found on his return that the expert had 
opened the doors by the aid of a crooked nail. 

The second story of the building was the court room, heated by 
stoves and lighted in the most primitive manner. John Graham, the 
murderer, was allowed by the sheriff to stand in the front window of 
the court room and attempt to address the crowd below, just before his 
execution on the 5th of May, 1843. 

The steeple of this court house was partially burned at the time of 
the destruction of the Baptist church by fire. 

Under the law of 1817, which organized Tompkins county, the free- 
holders of the new county were required to give bonds in $7,000 to be 
expended as the Board of Supervisors should direct, and Luther Gere, 
William R. Collins and Daniel Bates were the commissioners designated 
to superintend tlie erection of the building. On the 13th of April, 
1819, an enabling act was passed by the Legislature empowering the 
supervisors to raise $;J,00() with which to finish the court house and 

The commissioners who constructed the present court house seem 
to have been impressed with the idea that a vaulted room was the 
proper thing, and sacrificed acoustic and heating properties to please 
the eye. Thus judges, attorneys and litigants have lost volumes of 
eloquence which floated away into the peak where the mercury marked 
blood heat while the crowd shivered below. Under orders of the court 
the supervisors roofed over the room, and it is now possible to hear 
what is said therein and avoid the danger of freezing in zero weather. 
Money has also been appropriated to replace the old style furnaces and 
ventilate the structure. 

A law was passed on the 21st of March, 1821, providing for the erec- 
tion of a county clerk's office, the supervisors being authorized to raise 
$1,000 for the purpose. Luther Gere, Nathan Herrick and John John- 
son were the commissioners appointed by the act. 

This old clerk's office eventually became unsafe and inadequate for 
its purpose, and measures were adopted for building a new one. The 
old building was demolished and work was begun on the present clerk's 
office on the 2d of April, 18G2. 


A new stone jail was erected on the east side of the court house lot 
in 1854. At that time the cells therein were deemed more than ample 
to contain all who might be confined there at any one time, but on 
many occasions their capacity has been fully tested. The jail cost be- 
tween $15,000 and |16,000. 

Streets. — The streets of Ithaca in years past were not such as to 
reflect the utmost credit upon the city, or to give the greatest pleasure 
to those who were compelled to use them most. But in quite recent 
years a sentiment has come into existence which will soon work a great 
change, the influence of which is already manifest. Under the act of 
1882 the Ithaca Paving Commission was created in 1802, consisting of 
O. H. Gregory (deceased December 27, 1893), Holmes Hollister, Charles 
F. Blood, and ex-Mayor Henry A. St. John became a member by virtue 
of his office. This commission has taken an advanced view of the 
needs of the city as to its streets, and already most gratifying progress 
has been made in paving several of the principal streets in the most 
substantial inanner. 

Thea'i'er. — The village and city were long in need of better accom- 
. modations for public entertainments before measures were adopted to 
secure them. Finally in 1893 the Lyceum Company was incorpcjrated, 
with a capital of $31,500, for the purpose of erecting a modern opera 
house that would be worthy of the city. The following are the officers 
of the company: E. M. Treman, president; C. H. White, vice-presi- 
dent; B. F. Jervis, secretary; Fred. J. Whiton, treasurer. Directors: 
E. M. Treman, C. H. White, B. F. Jervis, F. J. Whiton, M. Van Cleef, 
R. A. Crozier, Charles M. Williams, L. L. Treman, vS. B. Turner. 
Stockholders: Elias Treman, R. H. Treman, Robt. Reed, John Fury, 
Geo. H. Baker, R. B. Williams, Geo. R. Williams, Wm. B. Esterbrook, 
De F. Williams, N. S. Hawkins, R. Wolf, F. W. Phillips, F. W. Brooks, 
S. H. Winton, J. M. Jamieson, L. R. King, Levi Kenney, H. E. Dann, 
J. M. McKinney, C. E. Treman. 

The site selected is a central and convenient one, the main entrance 
on Cayuga street, and the services of the well known theatrical archi- 
tects, Leon Lempert & vSon, of Rochester, secured. Plans were drawn 
and the work of construction was vigorously pushed during 1892-03. 
M. M. Gutstadt was given the management, and on the 27th October, 
1893, the house was opened. 

This theater is one of the finest in the vState in all respects. It is on 
the ground floor, with balcony and gallery; is steam heated; has a 


seating capacity of 1,200, and foui- private boxes, and nineteen loges; 
sixteen exits from the auditorium on vState, Cayuga and Green streets. 
There are fourteen commodious dressing rooms, and the stage is forty 
by sixty feet, with a height of twenty-six and one-half feet in the 
proscenium arch. The cost of the theater and its furnishings was 
about $05,000. Since its opening, the Lyceum, as it has been appro- 
priately named, has had upon its stage many of the first class traveling 
companies, who have received a liberal patronage. The members of 
the Lyceum Company have conferred a permanent and worthy institu- 
tion upon the city. 

Puiu.ic HousKS. — The first public house in Ithaca that is entitled to 
the name was prc^bably the one built by Luther Gere on the southeast 
corner of Aurora and vSeneca streets in 1805, of which he was the owner 
and landlord. According to Mr. King, in 1800 a Mr. Hartshorn kept 
a tavern " just across the street south of the village hall," and another 
stood on the site of the Tompkins House, which was kept by Jacob S. 
Vrooraan. The tavern above referred to as kept by Hartshorn was 
built by David Quigg, and was. with a brick office built by Alfred 
Wells, removed in 1805, to clear the site for the Cornell Library. 
Vrooman called his house the Ithaca Hotel. In 1800 Luther Gere 
built the then grand edifice, mentioned by Mr. Clinton in his journal, 
which became widely known as the Ithaca Hotel, Mr. Vrooman having 
meanwhile changed the name of his house to "Tompkins," in honor 
of the then new governor, Daniel D. Tompkins. On the 27th of July, 
1813, Mr. Gere sold his house to Elnathan Andrus, having occupied it 
only two years; he soon afterward removed to Cincinnati. Returning 
in 1810, he again took the hotel, but for only a short period; and in 
that or the following year he began erecting the "Columbian Inn," 
on the northwest corner of Owego (State) and Cayuga streets, previously 
the site of a little red house occupied by Higby Burrell. Gere's new 
house became a popular resort. It was afterwards kept by Joseph 
Kellogg, Jacob Kerr (from New Jersey), and Moses Davenport be- 
tween 1822 and 1825. Among them Abram Byington and Michael 
Blue kept the house, the latter in 1830; still later a Mr. Houpt was the 
landlord, and William H. Brundage kept the house for a time. Scwell 
D. Thompson, who kept the Clinton House in 1802, was the proprietor 
of the Ithaca Hotel in 1842-3. In 1831 the Columbian Inn was the 
scene of the murder of Mrs. Guy Clark by her husband (previously 
described), and naturally suffered from the unwelcome notoriety, and 


soon after Mr. Brundag-e's proprietorship the building was dismem- 
bered, the larger part becoming the "Carson Tavern," on the west 
side of Cayuga street, between vState and Green streets. By a some- 
what strange coincidence that part of the building was the scene of 
another murderous plot, the result of which was the killing of a shoe- 
maker, John Jones, in ] 841. This part of the old hotel was burned June 
10, 181:-'). Two other parts of it afterwards became dwellings. 

The popular "Grant's Coffee House" was built by a Mr. Teeter 
before the year 1811, for his own use; but he was soon succeeded by 
Jesse Grant, an enterprising business man, who gave the house its 
well known name and its great popularity. Mr. Grant had for a time 
after his arrival in Ithaca kept the hotel bxiilt by a Mr. Gere, corner of 
.Seneca and Aurora streets. The Coffee House was burned in 183:5 or 
J 835, and the Grant block erected on its site, after its occupancy by 
wooden buildings for a period. It was again burned in the forties and 
the present structure then erected. In comparatively recent years 
Chauncey L. Grant, son of Jesse, kept a coffee house on the same site. 

The Clinton House was begun in 1828 and finished in 1831, in sub- 
stantially its present form. It was for many years the most imposing 
structure in the village, and even now has not lost its dignified appear- 
ance, with its 120 feet of front and lofty pillars. The barns of the 
former Columbian Inn occupied a part of this site and became a stable 
for the Clinton House. The house was greatly improved in 1862, and 
has on several occasions been altered internally. Its registers have 
borne the names of manj^ of the most eminent men in the State. The 
house was kept for many years by Sewell D. Thompson, leasing it in 
1850 for -fifteen years; but before the end of the term he purchased 
a one-third interest in the property, and Ezra Cornell bought the other 
two-thirds. Mr. Thompson subsequently became sole owner and was 
a popular landlord for more than thirty years. The house in now 
owned by John M. vSmith and kept by Charles Bush. 

The old Ithaca Hotel, built by Mr. Gei'e in 1809, was used as a hotel 
for more than half a century, but fell in flames in the great fire of Au- 
gust, 1871. The old house had been popularly managed after 1866 by 
Col. W. H. Welch, and for a few years before it was destroyed, by his 
son, O. B. Welch. The new hotel (the present one) was finished in 
1873 at a cost of $64,000. It was opened by Colonel Welch and his 
son, and successfully conducted by them until the death of Colonel 
Welch in 1873, when a stock company bought the property, and the 

ci'i'v OF rniACA. uio 

management was jilaced in the liands of A. vSherman & Son, former! 3' 
of Syracuse. In 1880 Frederick Sherman withdrew from the business. 
In 1885 the management of the house passed to its present proprietor, 
Henry D. Freer, who has successfully conducted it since. Mr. Freer 
is also proprietor of the Taughannock House, a very popular resort at 
the celebrated falls of that name in the town of Ulysses. At this house 
he has made great improvements recently, and it is kept in fii'st-class 

The Tompkins House, corner of Seneca and Aurora streets, is one of 
the historic hotels of Ithaca and dates back to 1832. It was originally 
a story and a half structure, but in 1805 it passed into possession of 
vSamuel A. Holmes and A. B. Stamp, who rebuilt it and made it sub- 
stantially a new structure. Mr. Holmes withdrew from the manage- 
ment of the house in 1877, and Mr. Stamp conducted the house until 
E. B. Hoagland took it. The firm is now Hoagland & Lace)^ Besides 
these three old and well known public houses, there are, perhaps, a 
a dozen others of various kinds in different parts of the city, most of 
them established in recent years and not calling for especial mention in 
these pages. 

Manufacturils. ■ — In the course of the preceding pages many of the 
early manufactures of Ithaca have been necessarily alluded to, but a 
brief review of the various industries, past and present, is desirable. 
It has been stated that several of the very early, as well as later, man- 
ufactories were situated on Fall Creek. This property was owned in 
early times by Benjamin Pelton,* the conspicuous pioneer, who bought 
nearly 200 acres on lot 94. On the 20th of May, 1813, Mr. Pelton sold 
to Phineas Bennett 170 acres from the north end of lot 94, and in 1814 
the latter built a grist mill a little east and south of the site of A. M. 
Hull's present mill. The water was carried to the wheel in a wooden 
flume framed into the rock along the south side of the stream, from a 
point above the main fall down a considerable distance, when it was 
taken in a channel in the rock. Bennett gave Pelton a mortgage for 

1 Mr. Pelton was in the Revolutionary array as a lieutenant and a captain ; was 
present at the attack on Quebec, and stood near General Montgomery when he fell. 
After the war he drew three bounty lots of 600 acres each, but not in the town of 
Ulysses. He may have exchanged a. part of that land with Van Rensselaer for his 
Ithaca possessions. He was father of Richard W. and E. G. Pelton, and brother of 
Dr. William Pelton. He died in Ithaca at his residence on Seneca street about the 
year 1830. 


$4,000 on the property, whieh was assigned to George Wells; he fore- 
closed it, and the property was bid ofif by David Woodcock for |3,2G0, 
on the 11th of January, 1817. In some manner Mr. Bennett and his 
son seem to have again acquired or to have retained an interest, as in- 
dicated by the fact that December 14, 1816, they conveyed to Abner 
Howland the land on which stood the chair factory of the latter, to- 
gether with " water from the falls " sufficient to run the factory. On 
July, 14, 1819, the Bennetts conveyed to Barney McGoffin and Ansel 
Bennett for $1,600 " all the plaster mill and carding room in same, for 
and during the time the same shall stand." This plaster mill and 
carding machine had, of course, been established in the mean time. 

On the 32d of April, 1817, David Woodcock and others conveyed to 
Frederick Deming and Jonathan F. Thompson, for $600, a piece of 
land fifty feet square immediately east of the bridge over Fall Creek. 
Those two men built tin oil mill on the land, and were soon (1820-31) 
succeeded by Thompson & Porter, who added a distillery. Thompson 
& Porter were already leading merchants in the village. In June, 
1822, Mr. Thompson sold his mercantile interest to his partner, Sol- 
omon Porter, and greatly increased his distilling business; he adver- 
tised at one time for 100 head of cattle for stall feeding. Above the 
oil mill stood a saw mill which Bennett had rebuilt about 1816-17; it 
was probably first built before Bennett's purchase of 1813. Just above 
this saw mill a dam was erected across the creek into which the water 
from Bennett's plaster and grist mills discharged through a flume in 
the rock. In 1 822 a small foundry stood near the saw mill and was 
owned by Origen Atwood and Sylvester Roper; it is said that the 
smelting furnace was made of a potash kettle. 

On the 9th of November, 1827, Jeremiah S. Beebe bought of David 
Woodcock 125 acres of land, including the grist mill before referred to. 
The mill then had two run of stones and was carried by an overshot 
wheel. At that date the plaster mill was under lease to Gere, Gunn & 
Nichols, and the distillery was leased to Gere & Gunn for ten years. 
Mr. Beebe continued to operate the grist mill without much alteration 
until 1830, when he entirely rebuilt it, and engaged Ezra Cornell to 
run it. In the following year ho began the construction of the histor- 
ical' tunnel. This then remarkable engineering project was carried 
forward under Mr. Cornell's direction and finished in the summer of 
1832. It was cut from the rock, about two hundred feet in length, 
twelve feet wide and thirteen feet high, and was completed at the small 


cost of $2,000.' A dam was built above this tunnel from which the 
water flowed through the tunnel and then through an open raceway to 
the mills. The old flume was abandoned. 

On December 1, 1838, Horace Mack, of the firm of Mack & Ferris, 
and John James Speed (see history of the town of Caroline), of the firm 
of Speed & Tourtellot, purchased the Beebe grist mill and power for 
$36,000. They can-ied it on only one year. They built the old store- 
house at the steamboat landing to facilitate their grain handling. 
April 1, 1840, Mr. Mack conveyed his interest in the mill to Chauncey 
Pratt and Chauncey L. Grant. In 1840 the Ithaca Falls Woolen Man- 
ufacturing Company purchased the property and enlarged the mill and 
put in woolen manufacturing machinery, making the building five 
stories in height. This organization seems to have been badly man- 
aged ; stock was taken by farmers and other citizens to a large amount. 
In the latter years of its existence it was conducted at a loss, the de- 
ficiency being made up by assessments, until in 1851 the entire build- 
ing and its contents were; destroyed by fire. It had, however, been 
disused some time previous to the fire. In 1864 Henry S. Walbridge 
became owner of the property and built a new grist mill on the old 
foundation. He failed in business and the property passed to posses- 
sion of A. M. Hull, who has conducted the mill ever since. A stock 
company has just been formed called the Fall Creek Milling Company, 
of which A. M. Hull is president. 

On the 16th of July, 1819, Otis Eddy and Thomas S. Matthewson 
purchased of Phineas Bennett (before mentioned), and others, a small 

1 " I have this day paid a third visit to Fall Creek for the sole purpose of viewing 
that stupendous work of art called the Tunnel, which conducts part of the waters of 
the creek from a point a few rods above the first fall, and within sight of the second, 
to the mill site at the bridge. . . . The entrance for about twenty feet is from 16 
to 20 feet in width, top square, allowing for the ruggedness occasioned by the blast- 
ing, The remaining 180 feet is pretty much in the shape of an arch way, making 
the same allowance for the effect of blasting. Along this subterranean passage, to 
accommodate those who wish to pass through it, Mr. Beebe has had pieces of scant- 
Img placed transversely about four feet above the base at proper distances through- 
out the whole length, over which are laid strong oak plank; on these we walked 
safely through, the water rolling on below us, and over our heads a solid roof of rock 
from twenty to forty feet thick, till it reaches the soil above. . . . This magnifi- 
cent work of art — the Tunnel — of which perhaps there is nothing in this country in 
the annals of individual enterprise to exceed it, was commenced as above mentioned 
in 1831." Mr. Southwick, from whom we have before quoted in these pages, and 
who wrote the foregoing, was nothing if not enthusiastic when writing of Ithaca. 


piece of land, four rods by five, on which they built the first paper mill 
in Tompkins county. Chester Walbridge soon afterward obtained an 
interest in the business, and continued until April 1, 1822, with Mr. 
Matthewson, Mr. Eddy having retired in August, 1820. In October, 
1823, Mack & Morgan purchased an interest in this mill, then publish- 
ers of the American Journal and proprietors of the bookstore on State 
street. The mill for years afterwards did a large business in making 
printing and writing papers, one part of it being devoted to the manu- 
facture of wrapping paper exclusively, under the management and 
partial ownership of James Trench. Both mills finally pas.sed to Mack 
& Andrus, by whom they were improved from time to time. The white 
paper mill was nearly destroyed by fire in 1846. The proprietors im- 
mediately built a white paper mill at Forest Home, then known as Free 
Hollow. In 1851 they rebuilt the brick mill at Fall Creek and removed 
the manufacture there, abandoning the Forest Home property. Mack 
& Andrus were succeeded by Mack, Andrus & Woodruff; Andriis, 
Woodruff & Gauntlett ; Andrus, Gauntlett & Co. ; Andrus, MaChain & 
Co., and finally from Mrs. Mary L. McChain, the wrapping mill 
passed to its present owners, Enz & Miller, in 1887. Wrapping paper 
is principally made, about twenty-five tons a week being turned out. 

The other mill making book and newspaper papers at Fall Creek 
passed through various hands to S. H. Laney, of Elmira, and from him 
to M. H. Arnot. In February, 1892, the Elmira Stamping and Paper 
Company was incorporated, with A, A. Watters, president ; T. H. Far- 
ley, vice-president; P. B. Smith, secretary. C. A. Brown is superin- 
tendent. White paper only is made. 

The business of tanning leather is almost alwaj's a pioneer industry 
in all new settlements in this country, the cause of which is obvious in 
the ready siipply of bark. Captain Comfort Biitler, who came to 
Ithaca before 1808, built a tannery on the southeast corner of Aurora 
and Buffalo streets, the latter street not being then open. In later 
years the building became a residence. 

This tannery was conducted prior to 1831 for some time by William- 
Butler and George Carpenter, who dissolved partnership in August of 
that year, and Captain Butler commanded a boat running between 
Ithaca and Syracuse. He was drowned in Cayuga Lake, November 
21, 1821. One of his daughters was the wife of A. P. Searing. In 
April, 1822, Rev. William Brown leased the tannery. One of his ad- 
vertisements reads: " If there should beany gentlemen who wish to 


have their hides or skins tanned on shares, they may rely they shall have 
justice done them." The italics are his. 

Daniel Bates settled in Ithaca about 1812, and purchased of Mr. 
Gardner a tannery which stood on the east side of Aurora street, nearly 
opposite where William W. Esty recently lived, on the (then) north 
branch of the Six Mile Creek. To obtain additional water Mr. Bates 
built a dam in Cascadilla Creek, directly south of the Cascadilla Mill, 
diverting the water into a raceway. Cooper, Pelton & Co. succeeded 
Mr. Bates in the tannery, and it afterwards passed, with other property, 
to John Tichenor. It. long ago oisappeared. 

In 1816 George Blythe built a wool carding and cloth dressing fac- 
tory on Aurora sti^eet, north of the tannery of Mr. Bates and directly 
over the creek. In May, 1820, it was removed by its builder to Ben- 
nett's plaster mill at Fall Creek, and in 1825 he transferred the machin- 
ery to the mill then owned by A. D. W, Bruyn on Six Mile Creek. It 
mvxst have been brought back to its original site, for Samuel J, Blythe 
was operating it there in 1841, and afterwards George J. Blythe carried 
on the business. 

Virgil D. and Ben Morse had an oil mill which they operated many 
5'ears on the lowest water power from the Willow Pond. The business 
was finally abandoned. 

A Mr. Robinson built a grist mill prior to 1818 on Six Mile Creek, 
which in the year named passed to Archer Green, and David Booth 
Beers put a carding machine in the building. A. D. W. Bruyn next 
owned the property about 1825, and Otis Eddy carried on a small cot- 
ton factory there. It was to tliis building that Mr. Blythe transferred 
his wool carding business in 182G, as above stated. The structure was 
changed in 1838, under the ownership of Jacob M. McCormick, into an 
oil mill. About the year 1851 it was superseded by him with a flouring 
mill, which was burned in 1853. 

General John Smith * purchased the Solomon Bryant farm on East Hill 
some time between 1795 and 1801, and soon afterwards became inter- 
ested in real estate on the flat, which included the site of the historical 

' John Smith and R. W. Pelton laid out in lots that part of Aurora street from the 
bridge to Seneca street. This was before 1814 Smith's plat of Ithaca village is 
mentioned many times in the old records of real estate in the section alluded to. 
Lot No. 1 of Smith's plat was the southeast corner of Seneca and Aurora streets, 
which is mentioned in old records as ' ' the same premises formerly occupied by 
Luther Gere.'' 


Halsey's mill, which stood nearly on the site of the abandoned electric 
light and power station, which is now used only as a storehouse 
for idle cars. Smith probably built a grist mill, and perhaps a dis- 
tillery, and the grist mill he sold to Judge Salmon Buell before 
1811. About 1814 Judge Buell conveyed the mill property to David 
Woodcock and Daniel Shepard, and they, in September, 1818, to 
Phineas Bennett and Phineas Bennett, jr. The Bennetts purchased 
also land west' of the mill site on the turnpike (now State street). In 
December, 1820, the Bennetts sold a quarter interest to Edward 
Davidson, and a little prior to this the three partners (Bennetts and 
Davidson) joined in an agreement with Daniel Bates to permit on their 
part the waters of Six Mile Creek to be conveyed by the channel already 
formed to Mr. Bates's tannery; Mr. Bates agreeing on his part to de- 
fend any suits for damage that might be brought by reason of such 
diversion. This agreement caused much subsequent litigation. Mr. 
Bates and Archer Green were contemporaries in the use of the water, 
which did not always supply both the mill and the tannery; hence, in 
the summer of 1833, Green built a dam which kept the water from the 
north branch. Bates removed the dam, which was replaced by Green. 
Finally the two met one day and Bates threw Green into the creek. 
Mr. Bates then sought his supply of water from the Cascadilla, as be- 
fore stated. 

In the year 1830 C. W. E. Prescott opened .a store on the west side of 
Aurora street, near State. In 1831 he removed to his new store, then 
lately built on the corner of Tioga and State streets, now owned by 
James T. Morrison. In 1833 he built the "Ithaca Brewery," on the 
east side of Six Mile Creek, below Clinton street. The brewery in 
1836 passed to O. H. Gregory and Wait T. Huntington, who were then 
in mercantile business in what became a part of the Treman, King & 
Company's store. The brewery became the property of Mr. Hunting- 
ton, and the business was supei-intended for years by Mr. Gregory. 
After passing through various ownerships, and continuing in operation 
to about the time of the breaking out of the war, the building was 
burned in 1878. 

In 1834 Jonathan Bridges built what was called the " Eagle Factory," 
on the northeast corner of Cayuga and Clinton streets, water power 
being taken from Six Mile Creek with a dam a little north of Clinton 
street. Mr. Bridges manufactured woolen goods here for many years. 
The property passed into the hands of James Raymond, but the 


business was finally abandoned and the building was vacant for many 
years, except as it was the headquarters of the Millerites during the 
excitement preceding the date when they believed they were to be 
transferred to another and a better sphere. The sect was quite numer- 
ous and very enthusiastic, and there are probably persons living in 
Ithaca to-day who threw away money publicly, upon the expectation 
that they would never have an opportunity of spending it. The night 
of the expected end of all things earthly some rogues set fire to the 
building and it was burned down. 

In the year 1832 Alvah Beebe built a stone grist mill on the Spencer 
road, a short distance from its intersection with Cayuga street ; the 
power V\fas from Six Mile Creek, by a dam a few rods below the site of 
the brewery, the water running in a race cut in the shale rock on the 
southerly bank of the creek. The mill was burned in 1840. 

In 1826 a cotton factory was started on the East Hill by Otis Eddy, 
who had already begun the business in a small way, as before stated. 
On the 4th of July of that year the foundation of the dam, which still 
exists, was laid by Mr. Eddy, assisted by Joseph Esty, Joel Palmer, 
Isaac Kennedy, and the usual contingent of boys. This dam and the 
Willow Pond at Cascadilla Place were finished and the mill started 
about the beginning of 1827. The building was of stone quarried near 
by. It will be remembered that Solomon Southwick described the 
property in 1834 as "a cotton factory, store, and about twenty dwell- 
ings." The factory contained 1,600 spindles and turned out 1,000 yards 
of cotton cloth daily. The mill property was bounded on the west by 
Eddy street, as now opened, and extended east along the Cascadilla. 
The manufacture of cotton goods was abandoned after twelve years as 
iinremunerative, and the old factories, which had long been unoccupied, 
were removed in 1866 to make room for the large stone structure called 
Cascadilla Place, now owned by the university. 

A machine shop was also established on the East Hill by Otis Eddy, 
and there Ezra Cornell began work in 1829, under a year's engage- 
ment. This was removed and Cascadilla Place erected on its site. 

The manufacture of hats was carried on in Ithaca at an early day 
somewhat extensively, as it was then in many small places. Henry 
and Julius Ackley came from New London, Conn. , to Ithaca in 1809, 
and were long residents of the place. Both built dwellings for them- 
selves. Henry Hibbard came soon after the Ackleys and joined with 
them, under the firm name of Ackleys & Hibbard, in the manufacture 


and trade in hats. They were in business on the corner of Buffalo and 
Aurora streets, and about 1815 removed to a brick structure, the first 
one built in the place, erected by William Lesley, on the 'north side of 
Owego (now State) street, east of Aurora street. Julius Ackley retired 
from the firm in 1830, and the other partners, under the style of Ackley 
& Hibbard, removed to another store " a few rods west of the hotel " 
on Owego street. Julius Ackley then began business again in the 
former location, and soon after took another brother. Gibbons J. Ack- 
ley, as partner. A few years later he joined with Ebenezer Jenkins 
in a general store on the southeast corner of State and Cayuga streets, 
where he had erected a brick building (now occupied by Treman, King 
& Co.). 

John Whiten had a cabinet shop in 1816-17 on the west side of Au- 
rora street just south of Seneca. He removed to another location and 
was succeeded by his son Luther. John Whiton died March 24, 1827. 
His son who bore his name was long a prominent business man, and 
sons Luther and George also carried on a cabinet and furniture estab- 
lishment on Aurora street. 

The present Cascadilla grist mill was built in 1840 by T. S. Williams, 
who died in 1848 and the property passed to vSage & Shaw. The firm 
afterwards changed to J. E. Shaw & Co., and in 1858 it was purchased 
by H. C. Williams. It is now owned by the Williams estate, and is 
under lease to John E. Van Natta. 

The account of these old industries may be closed with a little more 
of Mr. Southwick's Writing concerning them. He says: 

I descended the creek again, and determined to take a walk along the northern 
verge. The first object that presents itself here is General Simeon De Witt's grist 
mill,' erected twenty years since. It has two runs of iJtone, is farmed out to Mr. 
John Brown, and grinds on an average 25 bushels per day; can grind 100. 

Next comes William P. Stone's window-sash, picket and lath factory ; here about 
50,000 lights are turned out annually. A looking-glass factory is the next establish- 
ment, not, however, in a flourishing condition at present. 

Next to this is John J. Hutchings's chair and turning factory. Only from three to 
four hands are employed steadily in this factory, which turns out about 1,000 Wind- 
sor chairs annually. Present price from $10 to #12 per dozen. 

The grist mill, the sash and the chair factories are carried on by water power. 
Immediately above the chair factory is a lai-ge building erected for an oil mill, and 
used as such for some time, but is now at a stand. 

> Near the mill was also a distillery, owned by Mr. De Witt. The structure used 
as a grist mill is now the plaster mill of Mr. H. C. Williams's estate, but the distillery 
has not survived the " tidal wave " of time. 


Thk Ithaca Calendar Clock Company. — This has long been one of 
the leading industries of Ithaca, and the village has the honor of being 
the place of residence of the inventor of the first calendar to be moved 
by machinery. The inventor was J. H. Hawes, who took out his 
patent in 1853. It did not register the extra day in February in leap 
year, and was otherwise imperfect. In 1854 W. H. Akins, ' of Caro- 
line, invented an improvement on this calendar, removing most of its 
defects, and he sold his rights to Huntington & Platts, who brought it 
to Ithaca to the Mix Brothers to manufacture. These brothers made 
further improvements for which patents were granted in 1860 and 
1862, and after a few years of manufacture of large bank clocks, Hunt- 
ington & Platts sold out their rights to the Seth Thomas Clock Com- 
pany. In the years 1864-5 Henry B. Horton, of Ithaca, a very ingen- 
ious inventor, perfected a new perpetual calendar, the best one yet 
made, and in 1865 took out his patent. This patent, with subsequent 
ininor improvements, passed to the Ithaca Calendar Clock Company, 
which was formed in 1868, with John H. Selkreg president; Samuel P. 
Sherwood vice-president ; Wm. J. Storms secretary and treasurer. The 
capital was only f8,000, and the manufacture began on a very limited 
scale ; but the clock was a success and found a ready market, and the 
business developed rapidly. About 1869 the works were removed to a 
large building on State street, and the biisiness continued to increase 
until 1874 when Messrs. Selkreg and Sherwood were succeeded as 
president and vice-president by B. G. Jayne and Hervey Platts, and 
the capital was increased to $150,000, while a large three story brick 
building was erected on the old fair grounds. On February 12, 1876, 
the entire works were burned, and were immediately' rebuilt. In the 
fall of 1877 Charles H. White succeeded Mr. Storms as secretary and 
treasurer, and H. M. Durphy was given the general superintendence. 
At the election of officers in 1894 Charles H. Blair, Otis E. Wood and 
Charles H. White were chosen to respectively fill the offices of presi- 
dent, vice-president and secretary and treasurer. The clocks produced 
by this company have a world wide reputation for excellence. 

1 Mr. C. F. Mulks, of Caroline, is authority for the statement that Mr. Akins in- 
vented the first successful sewing machine feed, the news of which reached some one 
of the manufacturers of the early machines, who came on and ofEered Mr. Akins 
1500 for his invention and would give him but an hour to decide. Akins was a poor 
man and accepted the pittance for what was worth a fortune. 


The AuToi'HONE Company. — This company was formed to mantifac- 
ture a musical instrument which is largely automatic, and is the result 
of inventions of Mr. Henry B. Horton, the inventor of the calendar 
clock. Many attempts were made to produce a musical instrument 
which could be played by the uninitiated, and still rise above the toy in 
character. This desired result is produced by the autophone and its 
much more valuable successor, the roller organ, which the Autophone 
Company now manufactures almost wholly. The first patents were 
granted to Mr. Horton in 1877 and 1878, and were followed by his 
device for cutting the paper music used in the instruments. A com- 
pany was thereupon incorporated in 1879 by Francis M. Finch, H. F. 
Hibbard, and H. B. Horton. Accommodations for manufacturing the 
autophone were seciired in the Clock Company's building, and the 
popularity of the new instrument was such that the capacity of the 
works had to be increased several times within the first few years of 
the business. The manufacture of the original instrument has been 
now almost wholly superseded by the roller organ, which has been de- 
vised by the company, an instrument that is far superior to its prede- 
cessor. Several styles, varying in price, are made, and an almost 
unlimited collection of music, from which selections may be made, is 
kept on 'hand. The officers of the company are H. A. St. John, presi- 
dent; H. M. Hibbard, treasurer; W. F. Finch, secretary. 

The tannery of Comfort Butler has been mentioned. In the year 
1833 Joseph Esty came to Ithaca to become one of its leading citizens. 
He borrowed $1,000 and at first leased the small tannery, and by indus- 
try and economy he was able in 1833 to purchase of Simeon De Witt 
the lot at the corner of Tioga and Green streets, where he erected a 
large tannery, sinking forty pits in the ground. From 1840 to 1845 
Alexander Hart was partner in the business, and from that date to 1853 
the firm was Joseph Esty & Son. This was succeeded b)-^ his son, Ed- 
ward S. Esty; the latter was for many years prominent in the various 
affairs of Ithaca. (See biography). 

The tannery was burned in 1871, but was rebuilt on a much larger 
scale in the western part of the village, and the firm was long in the 
front rank of the business men of the place. The capacity of the 
tannery was 50,000 sides of sole leather annually. The firm also 
operated two other tanneries, one at Candor and one at Cattatonk, in 
Tioga county. The whole tanning interest was sold out to the United 
States Leather Company of New York, and Clarence H. and Albert H. 
Esty are managers of the industry for that company. 

,,(, ; :'.ifi«'- y ^ 















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^'*^^' ^'f'': %'-:^H 











CITY Ol' rrilACA. 170 

On the site of the Phoenix Iron Works was in early years the foundry 
of Vincent Conrad, which liad been operated still earlier by others. It 
passed to proprietorship of Moore, Hackett & Company, and later to 
Titus & Bostwick, who established and largely developed the manufac- 
ture of the Ithaca wheel horse rake. (See biography of Charles M. 
Titus). In 1870 the business passed to Bostwick & Williams, who were 
succeeded in 1872 by Williams Brothers (George R., Henry S. and 
Roger B. Williams). Since 1883 it has been conducted by Roger B. 
Williams. The works comprise one of the largest and most successful 
industries in the city, and manufacture rakes, steam engines, grain 
sowers, straw and feed cutters, and do a general machine business. 

As far back as 1830 a foundry and machine business was in operation 
on the site of the Masonic Temple on Tioga street, by McCormick & 
Coy. This concern changed hands frequently, and in 1841 J. S. 
Reynolds began learning his trade there as a moulder. In 1861 Mr. 
Reynolds leased the property. In 1865 he took as a partner John B. 
Lang, a skillful machinist, and the business has continued successfully. 
The works were established on Green street in August, 1870, where 
they now are. vSteam engines, portable saw mills, land rollers, plows, 
horse hoes and cultivators, etc., constitute the leading articles made by 
the firm. Mr. Reynolds died on October 31, 1891. 

The Hague Horseshoe Company was incorporated in 1889, with a 
capital of $50,000, by B. F. Slocum, C. H. Wilcox, William Wilcox and 
Japhet George, and the works occupy a part of the old Ithaca Organ 
Company's building in the western part of the village. In 1892 it was 
changed to the Ithaca Drop Forge Company; capital, $26,000; with C. 
H. Wilcox, president; William Wilcox, secretary, and B. F. Slocum, 
manager. A general drop forging business is carried on and special- 
ties made of the champion chain pipe wrench and the Hague expansion 
horse shoe. 

The fame of the late W. H. Baker as an inventor of guns and their 
fixtures is well known, and fortunes have been made from them. His 
latest gun was devised to supply the great demand for a firearm of 
moderate price and which should at the same time combine all the best 
qualities of the higher priced arms. Wheii the new invention was 
about perfected Mr. D. Mclntyre and J. E. Van Natta became inter- 
ested in it, and in February, 1883, a partnership was formed by the three 
men named under the title of the Ithaca Gun Works to manufacture 
the new gun. In the same year the brick building formerly occupied 


by the bending works at Fall Creek was purchased and the manvif acture 
begun. The gun found a ready market and the sales rapidly increased, 
rising from a very small number daily to about twenty per day. The 
gun was greatly improved and special tools manufactured for its various 
parts. The demand was so great for the new arm that in 1889 the 
company built anew two-story and basement brick structure, 3G by 105 
feet, in which is now located a large part of the gunmaking machinery, 
as well as the company offices. A new hammerless gun has recently 
been put on the market by the company which excels in many respects. 
The company now bears the name of the Ithaca Gun Company and is 
composed of D. Mclntyre estate, L. H. Smith and George Livermore. 

In another part of this work is given a sketch of another prominent 
Ithaca inventor, Charles M. Clinton. A few years ago Mr. Clinton 
became associated with James McNamara in perfecting a new and im- 
proved typewriter, on which they have both worked ever since. 
Patents have been secured on several most valuable improvements, and 
these and the entire control of the machine have passed to the Ithaca 
Gun Company, who have put in a plant especially for its manufacture. 
As this work is going through the press, the new typewriter is about to 
be placed on the market, with every prospect of its taking rank with 
the best in the country. 

The glass industry has long been a prominent one in Ithaca. The 
Ithaca Glass Works were established in 1874, changed owners in 1876, 
and were successfully conducted until 1883, when they were destroyed 
by fire. The establishment was rebuilt in 1883 under direction of 
Richard Heageny, the superintendent, who had been with the company 
since 1876. At the time of the rebuilding the officers of the company 
were C. F. Blood, president; D. F. Williams, vice-president; William 
N. Noble, treasurer; Bradford Almy, secretary. In 1889 the works 
passed under control of the United Glass Company, and are now 

In 1882 B. F. Slocum, who had recently come to Ithaca, organized 
the Washington Glass Company, and was made president and manager 
of the company. A ten-pot factory was erected and the manufacture 
of window glass begun. The factory was burned and rebuilt under 
Mr. Slocum's management in the same year. The business was fol- 
lowed with success until 1889, when it was also merged in the United 
Glass Company. ■> 


The Empire Glass Company was permanently organized in 1893 
with J. George, president; E. S. Slack, vice-president; Stephen Hutch- 
inson, treasurer; W. F. George, secretary. Besides these there were 
in the Board of Directors, C. H. White, E. Gillette, W. Carman, James 
Hutchinson. The capital was $12,000. The company occupied the 
factory formerly used by the Washington Glass Company, and have 
since then carried on a prosperous business. The directors of the 
company are Adam Frederick, William Carman, Stephen Hutchinson, 
Edward Slack, W. F. George, Charles H. White, Edward Gillette; J. 
George, president; W. F. George, secretary; Stephen Hutchinson 

Hermon V. Bostwick has carried on an extensive cooperage business 
since 18G7. In 1873 his factory was destroyed by fire, but he rebuilt 
on a larger scale, and has since turned out annually a large quantity of 
barrels, firkins and other cooper's products. The factory is equipped 
with all modern machinery for the business. 

The lumber manufacturing industry has not been large for many 
years, the business now being mostly of a local character. Howell & 
Van Houter established a lumber business on the corner of Tioga and 
Green streets in 1871, which was purchased by George Small in 1870. 
In 1881 he built a three-story brick structure and put in modern ma- 
chinery for working lumber in the various forms required by builders 
and others. He has two large yards and handles a large quantity of 
rough and finished lumber annually. 

W. H. Perry established a planing mill, lumber business, etc., sev- 
eral years ago and is still conducting a large and successful business. 

Dixon & Robinson have a planing mill, lumber and coal yards, and 
manufacture doors, sash, etc., near the Inlet. They began the business 
in 1888. The firm is composed of George J. Dixon and Rodney G. 
Robinson, both natives of Ithaca, and they are doing a successful busi- 

It will be inferred that the boat building business has been large in 
Ithaca, and it is still carried on extensively by the veteran William 
Jarvis and by B. F. Taber, both of whom have turned out many beauti- 
ful examples of the boat-builder's art. Mr. Jarvis came to America 
from England in 1869, and soon afterward to Ithaca. He has a boat 
yard, a boat livery and a summer hotel at the steamboat landing. 

There are many other small industries varied in kind and magnitude, 
detail of which would be out of place in this work; and when the sub- 


ject is exhausted it can hardly be said that Ithaca is noted as a manu- 
facturing center. Whether it will ever be depends of course upon its 
citizens; but the natural tendency would seem to be towards develop- 
ment of its mercantile interests as against manufacturing. The uni- 
versity brings to the place a vast amount of mercantile trade and the 
local merchants show enterprise and activity in seeking it, to the neglect 
of manufactures. Moreover, Ithaca in the past has been the theater of 
several large industries which, for one reason or another, were doomed 
to early and disastrous failure; a fact which may serve to deter others 
from entering the field. Among these was the Ithaca Organ Com- 
pany, the Ithaca Manufacturing Works, and some others, the his- 
tory of which is well known. The place now enjoys excellent shipping 
facilities, is centrally located, possesses unbounded water power, and 
thei-e would seem to be no good reason why it should not become a 
center of extensive manufacturing operations, such as Mr. Southwick 
saw in his mind's eye sixty years ago. 

Saut Discovery.- — In the year 1890 a company was incorporated in 
Ithaca for the purpose of boring a well in the hope of striking gas. 
The work was begun and completed to the depth of more than 3,000 
feet in December of the year named. At a depth of 700 feet a vein of 
mineral water was struck; and at about 1,800 feet a vein of rock salt 
was encountered which proved to be about 300 feet thick. Thfe boring 
was continued but without reaching the hoped for gas. Aboiit f5,000 
were expended in the attempt. 

Another well was finished a little south of the city in 1892, under 
direction of Jesse Johnson, .from which is taken now an excellent min- 
eral water, the health giving qualities, of which have been quite 
thoroughly tested and with good results. The depth reached is about 
600 feet, and veins of the water were struck at 300, 430, 480, and 555 
feet. The combined qualities of the water are said to closely resemble 
those of the Hathorn spring at Saratoga. The water is on sale at drug 
stores. The cost of the experiment was about $1,500. 

The De Witt Guard.— The De Witt Guard, also known as Company 
A, Fiftieth Regiment of the National Guard of the State of New York, 
was organized in 1851 and the first regular meeting held December 31 
of that year. Philip J. Partenheimer was chosen captain and held that 
position ten years. On the 2d of June, 1861, the company tendered its 
services to the general government. This offer was repeated June 17, 
1863 On the 25th of April, 1864, the third offer was made, and on the 

i:^^^^^^<,^^ ^ 


28th of August the offer was accepted and the company detailed for one 
hundred days' service at Ehiiira. On the 2d of September the company 
left for Elmira and the same afternoon was mustered into the service 
of the United States, with the following officers in command: Charles 
F. Blood, captain; Levi Kcnncy, first lieutenant; Joseph Esty, jr., 
second lieutenant; John C. Hazen, orderly; Calvin C. Greenly, second 
sergeant; Edwin M. Finch, third sergeant; Henry A. St. John, fourth 
sergeant ; Barnum R. Williams, first corporal ; Uri Clark, second corp- 
oral ; John C. Gauntlett, third corporal ; Alfred Brooks, fourth corporal. 
The company was mustered out of service on the 2d of December, 18G4. 
The roll of the company shows that 202 persons joined the organization. 
Of these eighty-two served either in the army or the navy during the 
war; eighty- eight did not, and twenty-nine names appear of whom no 
knowledge can be obtained. The company was always a self-support- 
ing organization, receiving nothing beyond arms from the State, and 
had raised and expended for company purposes from members up to 
186G, $2,720.56. The company is not now in existence. 

PuHLic Schools. — As an introduction to a description of the schools 
of Ithaca, it will prove interesting to make some extracts from the 
writings of W. T. Eddy on the subject. After mentioning the building 
of the academy in 1818, he says: 

The School District No. 16 hired the lower part of the building for its school. The 
building was of wood and stood afterwards at the back and east of the later academy. 
I had previously been to school in rooms on Aurora street, kept by Hannah Eddy ; 
but our first teachers were Mr. Heacock and Miss Lydia Hibbard, afterwards Mrs. 
Smith, in the academy building. Miss Lydia Hibbard was a person of such amiable 
disposition that of all of the children she taught (and they were many) there is not 
one but looks back to her with love and affection. 

After describing some of the pranks of the scholars and the early 
methods of punishment, Mr. Eddy continues : 

Wait T. Huntington was our next teacher ; then A. H. Shaw, who was afterwards a 
member of the Legislature. After Mr. Shaw came Mr. Griswold, but I never went 
to him, having been promoted to the upper part of the building under Mr. Phinney, 
who was principal of the academy. 

The schools of Ithaca were for a long period conducted on the Lan- 
casterian system, as they were in most localities. This system de- 
veloped from the old common schools. Early in the period during 
which the Lancasterian system was in vogue here and between 1827 
and 1832, a Mr, Hulin was the principal teacher, and was succeeded by 


Isaac Day. In 1838 he was followed by William P. Pew, who raised 
the Ithaca school from a very ordinary standard to a high degree of 
efficiency and attendance. During his period of teaching (about fifteen 
years) he raised the attendance (the population increasing largely, of 
course, in that time) from only 125 to over 1,100. Graded schools 
were established in place of the former system in 1853-4. Mr. Pew 
was succeeded by M. R. Barnard, who was long principal of the graded 
school here. 

In the year 1854 W. R. Humphrey read in the central school build- 
ing in Ithaca a trustees' report which embodied a good deal of valuable 
historical material relative to the early schools of the village. From 
that paper we draw liberally. The first meeting in the old school dis- 
trict was held at the first school house in 1810, and Luther Gere was 
chosen chairman and George W. Phillips secretary. The school house 
stood on the academy grounds and was an old red building. When 
this school house was erected or who was prominently connected with 
its erection, is not prominently known. It was destroyed by a mob or 
a mass meeting which probably gathered for that purpose. At the 
meeting above alluded to, David Woodcock, John C. Hayt and William 
R. Collins were appointed trustees for the year 1810, and Arthur John- 
son, clerk. The meeting resolved to raise $30 by tax, " for the purpose 
of furnishing wood and other necessary repairs to the school house." 

At a subsequent meeting held that year at the house of E. Andrews, 
" for the purpose of taking into consideration measures to build a school 
house," Luther Gere was chosen chairman. It was there resolved to 
rescind the resolution of the first meeting, and it was resolved "That 
we build a school house this fall;" also, "Resolved that there be a 
committee appointed of those that belong to the lodge [Fidelity Lodge] 
for the purpose of assisting in building said school house." 

In pursuance of this resolution Luther Gere, C. B. Drake and Ira 
Tillotson were appointed the committee in reference to the lodge, and 
Luther Gere, Ira Tillotson and D. Bates a committee to secure a site. 
The meeting then adjourned two weeks. On the 21st of September 
they again met, and the committee on site reported that they had 
agreed to build the school house on the southeast end of the public 
square (the present High School Square), "joining the southwest 
corner of W. Mandeville's lot." Mr. Tillotson's proposed plan was 
adopted, and the committee authorized to build accordmgly, provided 
the lodge would pay the committee f 250 that year and $260 whenever 


the lodge saw proper, to finish the upper part of the building. Al- 
though the adjournment of that meeting was for three months, there 
is no record of another until November 17, 1817, when one was held at 
the Columbian Inn, "for the purpose of taking into consideration the 
propriety of building a school house." Archer Green was chairman of 
this meeting, and Ii^a Beers secretary. It was then resolved to raise 
$76 towards a new building, but this amount was raised at the same 
meeting to $300. Adjournment was taken for three months, but again 
it was September 28, 1818, before the next meeting was held. With 
Luther Gere in the chair it was resolved to provide a room immediately 
in which to continue the school, and the meeting was adjourned to re- 
convene on the 2d of October following. On that day it was " Resolved, 
that this district unite with the inhabitants in building a school house 
with an academy." This was the first feeble germ of the old and his- 
toric academy. It was moved and seconded that G. Benjamin, J. 
Johnson, and David Ayres be a committee to circulate subscription 
papers for the object in view, and that David Woodcock and J. Collier 
be a committee to draft the subscription. It does not appear that the 
soliciting committee met with the most abundant success ; money was 
very scarce in those days, even with men who were in successful busi- 
ness or perhaps owned much property. 

Another meeting was held at the Columbian Inn on the 12th of Oc- 
tober, at which James Nichols, Otis Eddy and Ebenezer Mack were 
elected trustees, and Benjamin Drake, collector; David Ayres, clerk; 
and Luther Gere, David Woodcock and William Linn were appointed 
a committee to correspond with General Simeon De Witt respecting a 
a site for a school house. 

At a meeting on the 33d of October it was resolved to lay a tax of 
$400 for building a school house, and ' ' Archer Green, David Wood- 
cock and Luther Gere were made a building committee for the 

On the 8th January, 1819, a special meeting was held in the district 
school room of the academy building (which was then so far progressed 
as to make it possible to use that room), and Mr. Eddy made a report 
of the cost of building the academy, which was accepted; Mr. Drake 
reported on the condition of collections on the $300 tax of 1817, which 
was not so satisfactory, a large part of it remaining uncollected. 

At a meeting held February 5, 1819, it "was moved and seconded 
and carried that the trustees be authorized to negotiate with the lodge 



respecting certain lumber and make such arrangement as they think 

At a meeting held February 21, 1820, Mr. Lyons, the teacher, at his 
own request and on motion of Mr. Woodcock, was given leave to give 
up the school. It was also unanimously resolved ' ' That the present 
trustees of this district be and are hereby authorized to exonerate from 
the payment of the wages of the teachers of the district school, for the 
present and the last quarter, all such poor persons within the district 
as they shall think proper, and to collect the whole of such wages from 
all such other persons as shall not so be exonerated." 

At a meeting on January 19, 1821, Charles Humphrey in the chair, 
Charles W. Conner, David Woodcock and Nathan Herrick were chosen 
trustees. A. D. W. Bruyn acted as clerk, and David Ayres was chosen 
collector. On the 30th of May, 1821, it was resolved to raise $167 to 
pay Otis Eddy arrearages in building the school house. February 7, 
1822, it was voted "That the members of the district 'now present pro- 
ceed to nominate some person as an instructor for the ensuing season ; 
whereupon W. T. Huntington was nominated by a large majority." 

In October, 1822, the St. John's Episcopal Society was given the 
privilege of occupying the west room of the lower floor of the academy 
" for the space of four years." Previous to this time the Methodists 
and the Presbyterians had been given privileges to hold services in the 
school building. 

On the 13th of May, 1825, David Woodcock, Luther Gere and Stephen 
Mack were appointed a committee on the part of the district to confer 
with the trusteesof the academy in reference to the title to the build- 
ing used by the academy and the common school ; and also to negotiate 
with the academy in reference to a sale of the .building. The commit- 
tee reported that they considered two schools in the same building as 
incompatible with each other; that the district had paid $()32.63 towards 
the academy; that Mr. Eddy had a claim for building of $880.57, half 
of which he was willing to relinquish, provided he could get the other 
half, which, in the opinion of the conamittee, was a fair and liberal 
proposition. The committee finally recommended that the district sell 
their interest in the academy building, provided the academy paid the 
district the amount the district had expended on the building, which 
was agreed to. On the 11th of October, 1825, the trustees were ordered 
to build a new school building as soon as practicable. In September 
following, at a meeting held at Jesse Grant's coffee house, $000 were 


voted to be appropriated towards the payment for the lot on the corner 
of Mill and Geneva streets, and also for the new school house. The 
building was finally finished, and the first annual meeting held therein 
on the 9th of October, 1827. This was the site of the later Lancasterian 
school, taught long by Wm. P. Pew, as before stated. 

The school prospered in that building until 1840, when the increased 
number of pupils made it necessary to provide greater accommodations ; 
the buildingf was accordingly enlarged to double its first capacity. The 
enlarged structure was used until 1853, when steps were taken to build 
the structure which was in use until 1874, as noted further on. 

In Mr. Humphrey's paper he pays tribute to the high character and 
unselfish labors of the men whose names have been given here in the 
cause of education at a period when it was most difficult to carry out 
their plans. He says that in 1852-3 there were in the district about 
2,000 children entitled to a seat in that school; the building contained 
seats for 1,000 scholars, and the school was divided into three depart- 
ments — primary, intermediate and higher. The trustees in 1853 were' 
W. R. Humphrey, Douglass Boardman and A. Spencer. The dedica- 
tion of the new school house took place in January, 1854. 

Returning now to our account of the old academy, we find that Rev. 
Samuel Phinney was the first principal after the separation of the acad- 
emy from the district school ; he began in January, 1836, and continued 
until 1839.. Since that time the principals were John P. Hendrick, 
began in May, 1839; William A. Irving, May, 1831; James F. Cogswell, 
September, 1838; William S. Burt, September, 1839; James Thomp- 
son, April, 1843 ; Samuel D. Carr, July, 1846 ; Samuel G. Williams, 
July, 1859 ; Wesley C. Ginn, August, 1869. 

The presidents of the. Board of Trustees were as follows : Rev. Will- 
iam Wisner, elected April, 1835; Daniel L. Bishop, December, 1827; 
Henry. Ackley, 1848; Augustus Sherrill, 1850; Nathan T.Williams, 
May, 1854; Henry S. Walbridge, May, 1858; Douglass Boardman, 
October, 1868. 

The academy was generally prosperous, and acquired an extended 
and honorable reputation, but it was considerably crippled for financial 
aid. This was rendered more onerous through a large number of per- 
petual scholarships which had been sold to tide over periods of special 
embarrassment. These were extinguished in 1839, by purchase, 
under the management of William Andrus, who was long its faithful 


In 1840 the brick extension of some fifty or sixty feet long, was erected. 
Under the financial direction of Mr. Andrus for about thirty-five years 
the institution accumulated a fund of about $10,000, the interest of 
which, since the establishment of the new school system in 1874, has 
been appropriated to the Cornell Library, for the purchase of books. 

The annual catalogue of the academy for 1840 gives the following as 
the teachers: William S. Burt, principal; William G. Mitchell, Alfred 
vStebbins, Miss Aurelia Matson, Miss Amanda Stebbins. In the class- 
ical and higher English department there were in that year sixty-five 
male students and one hundred females ; primary department, thirty- 
nine males and fifty-nine females. Among the male names are many 
who have since become prominent in business and official life ; among 
these are the late Edward S. Esty, Francis, Joseph, Rufus,Wm. E. and 
Warren L. King, Ferdinand and Henry Partenheimer, Francis M. Finch, 
and many others. The catalogue states that board can be obtained at the 
"Academy Boarding House " at $1.50 per week. A perusal of the 
■ various catalogues since that time to 1 874 will reveal the fact that many 
of the leading men of Ithaca have been educated, or partially educated,, 
in or connected with the old academy. 

Under the act of April 4, 1874, the schools of Ithaca were incorpo- 
rated by the following persons: Douglass Boardman, Benjamin F. 
Taber, John L. Whiton, William L. Bostwick, Rvifus Bates, John 
Gauntlett, Francis M. Finch, Peter B. Crandall, Joseph C. King, H. D. 
Donnelly, Marcus Lyon and E. S. Esty. 

On the date just mentioned the schools consisted of the academy, the 
central school, and a school at Fall Creek in an old building of little 

Under the new union free school system the old academy became the 
property of the village and all the schools passed under the control of 
a board of commissioners and a superintendent. The first board of 
1875 were: E. S. Esty, Francis M. Finch, Marcus Lyon, Joseph C. 
King, Frederick K. Andrus, Francis O'Connor, Peter B. Crandall, John 
L. Whiton, William L. Bostwick, Benjamin F. Taber, John Gauntlett, 
Henry D. Donnelly. The first officers were E. S. Esty, president; 
John Strowbridge, secretary; Charles A. Hart, treasurer; H. H. Moore, 
collector. The first principal of the High School was Fox Holden, who 
continued to 1880. He was succeeded by D. O. Barto, who continued 
until 1893, with the exception of two years, during which he was absent 
by resignation on account of the illness of his wife. He was succeeded 
by F. D. Boynton, the present principal. 


In August, 1875, L. C. Foster was chosen superintendent of schools 
and has held the office without interruption since. In this most respon- 
sible station Mr. Foster has succeeded in placing the schools of Ithaca 
upon a high level, while his entire devotion to the duties of his office, 
his constant study to keep abreast or aliead of tlie time in educational 
affairs, give him the entire confidence of the community. 

With the incoming of the new system, the commissioners at once 
began improvements in the school buildings. The first of these im- 
provements was the erection of the West Hill School at a cost of about 
$16,000, with the lot; this building was commenced in 1874. In 1879 
the Fall Creek Building was erected at a cost of about f 10, 000. Then 
followed an expenditure of about $4,000 on the Central Building.' In 
1881-82 the East Hill Building was erected at a cost of about $12,000, 
with the lot ; but the greatest improvement in educational facilities, and 
one that reflects honor upon the city, is the present beautiful and com- 
modious High School Building, which was erected on the site of the old 
academy in 1884, at a cost of over $55,000. In 1893 an annex was built 
containing accommodations for about 200 scholars, at a cost of $15,000. 
This building is admirably adapted to its purposes, and embodies all 
the latest improvements for the successful teaching of students, their 
healthfulness and convenience. 

The Board of Education for 1893-94 is as follows: Albert H. Esty, 
John J. Glenzer, Franklin C. Cornell, Arthur B. Brooks, Roger B. Will- 
iams, Henry A. St. John, Benjamin F. Taber, Albert M. Hull, Charles 
M. Williams, E. Kirk Johnson, Elias Treman, Cornelius Leary. 

Officers: Roger B. Williams, president; Luther C. Foster, superin- 
tendent and secretary; Isaac C. Andrews, treasurer. 

Faculty: Frank D. Boynton, A.B., principal, mathematics; Harriet 
W. Thompson, preceptress, German, French, literature; Belle Sher- 
man, A.B., natural and physical sciences, history of England, Greece 
and Rome; Myra L. Spaulding, English; Nettie Baucus, American 
history, civil government, and instructor of Teachers' Training Class; 
Lottie A. Foster, Ph. B., Latin; Bertha P. Reed, Greek and mathe- 
matics; Hollis E. Dann, principal of the commercial department and 
instructor of vocal music. 

The annual report of the superintendent of schools made in October, 
1893, shows some interesting facts and statistics. The school population 
in 1891 was 2,763, against 3,000 in 1893. The number registered in all 


the schools in 1891 was 1,947; in 1893 it was 2,010. The number of 
days' attendance in 1891, 280,531;' in 1893, 292,323. The average daily- 
absence fell from 90 in 1891, to 88 in 1893. The total cost per pupil 
for all ordinary expenses in'l891 was |17.99; in 1893 it was $17.71. In 
1891 there were 170 non-resident pupils; in 1893 there were 191. The 
receipts for tuition in 1891 were $2,723.20; in 1893 they were $3,493.88. 
The gross sum for teachers' salaries in 1893 was $21,110. The total 
receipts for the year were $38,272.20; the disbursements were within 
about $000 of this sum, over $10,000 of which was for buildings and 
sites. The schools of Ithaca are now conducted upon a high plane and 
with the best results. The High School is fast becoming a very impor- 
tant factor in the preparation of scholars for Cornell University. 
President R. B. Williams says in his report: 

The schools of Ithaca hold a proud position in the State and are looked upon as 
models by many of our neighbors. Our duty is to so support and conduct them that 
they may never recede from this position, but continually advance, to the growing 
honor of our city and to the advantage of our children. The high position that they 
now occupy is largely due to the ability of our superintendent and his superb corps 
of instructors. Our policy should ever be to obtain and retain such talent, and while 
expecting the highest grade of ability and service, we should not overlook the fact 
that it is worthy of liberal compensation. 

Cornell Library. — Various efforts of little importance in their re- 
sults were made to establish libraries in Ithaca long before the benefi- 
cent act of Mr. Cornell. There was a " Methodist Theological and 
Historical Library Association " in 1821, and " The Ithaca Methodist 
Literary Society " in 1820, and the " New Jerusalem Church Library " 
in 1831 ; but, as would be inferred, the collections of books made by 
these organizations were small and soon dispersed. 

By an act of the Legislature passed April 5, 1804, the Cornell Library 
Association was incorporated. Under this act Ezra Cornell caused to 
be erected the commodious and handsome brick structure on the corner 
of Seneca and Tioga streets, costing with Mr. Cornell's donation of 
books, at the date of dedication, over $05,000. 

This building, denominated the Cornell Library, besides the library 
and reading rooms, contains a fine hall for public exercises and other 
excellent rooms for business purposes, whose rental was designed to 
sustain the library free of cost to patrons. It has more than accom- 
plished this- purpose, the receipts proving sufficient to pay expenses 
and add yearly many volumes to the library. 


Under the. will of the late John Rumseythe library received a legacy 
of about 111, 400. 

The use of the academy fund of $10,000 has for several years past 
enabled the trustees to increase the yearly acquisitions to a total of 
about GOO volumes. There are now upon the shelves. over 11,000 vol- 
umes, many of them very rare and valuable. 

With few necessary exceptions the books of this library circulate free 
within the limits of Tompkins county to all the inhabitants thereof who 
comply with the few conditions imposed to secure their proper use and 
prompt return. 

The library was appropriately dedicated on the evening of December 
20, 18U6. 

Officers of Library for 1894: A. B. Cornell, president; Wm. R. 
Humphrey, vice-president; R. B. Williams, secretary; D. F. Finch, 
treasurer; S. H. Synnott, librarian. 

Trustees: F. C. Cornell, Albert H. Esty, D. F. Finch, C. J. Rumsey, 
R. B. Williams, Wm. R. Humphrey. Ex-ofificio Trustees: Mayor of 
the city, superintendent of schools, chief engineer of fire department, 
chairman of the Board of Tompkins County Supervisors, and pastors 
of the established churches of Ithaca. 


The first regular religious organization in Ithaca was the Presbyterian 
society, organized January 24, 1804, by Rev. Jedediah Chapman, a 
missionary from the General Assembly. The society then numbered 
thirteen members, and was named ' ' The South Presbyterian Church 
in Ulysses." On the minutes of the Presbytery it was called " Ulysses 
Second Church," and was so called until the name of Ithaca was applied 
to it. The young church went under charge of the Oneida Presbytery, 
and on the organization of the Presbytery of Geneva in 1806 was 
assigned to that body. In August, 1816, it was transferred to the Pres 
bytery of Cayuga, and on the formation of the Presbytery of Ithaca was 
assigned to that. From 1805 -to 181G Rev. Gerritt Mandeville served 
the church, and was succeeded by Rev. William Wisner. The services 
were then held in the old school house near the academy ; in the fol- 
lowing summer a barn was used that stood on the pastor's lot, and soon 
afterward a loft in a building owned by Levi Leonard. After preach- 
ing one year as stated supply Mr. Wisner was installed pastor in Feb- 


ruary, 1817, and the following year the services were transferred to the 
new church in the park. In 1825 the congregation had become suf- 
ficiently large to need more room and the church was accordingly 
enlarged; the number of members was then 203. In the fall and winter 
of 1826, 220 persons were added to the church, and in' January, 1831, 
224 others were enrolled. In April of that year Dr. Wisner was, at his 
own request, dismissed from the charge. At that time the church had 
nearly 800 members. Succeeding pastors of the church liave been Rev. 
William Page, one year; Alfred E. Campbell, 1832-34; John W. Mc- 
Cullough, 1834-38; Dr. Wisner, who had returned to Ithaca, 1838-48, 
when his health failed; Se den T. Haynes, 1849-50; Wm. N. McHarg, 
1850-57; T. Dwight Hunt, to 1860; David Torrey, D.D., March, 1800; 
Theodore F. White, November I, 1865, to 1877; M. W. Ktrykcr, and 
the present incumbent. Rev. A. S. Fiske. 

The present church officers are: Elders, Chas. F. Blood, John C. 
Stowell, George R. Williams, J. T. Newman, Arthur B. Brooks, Ed- 
ward P. Gilbert, Uri Clark; deacons, Wm. J. Storms, Oliver L. Dean, 
Geo. S. Rankin, Francis M. Bush; trustees, Elias Treman, Geo. R. 
Williams, C. D. Stowell, Thos. G. Miller, C. F. Blood, A. H. Esty. 
Jared T. Newman is Sunday school superintendent. 

The old church building was torn down in 1853 and the present 
building erected, and preparations are now in progress for the building 
of a modern and beautiful church edifice. 

It is said that Methodist preaching was heard in the house of one of 
the pioneers, John McDowell, in June, 1793, the minister being William 
Colbert, who was on his way from Niagara to Ithaca and Wilkesbarre. 
His report to the Conference led Bishop Asbury to form that immense 
region into a circuit and appoint James Smith preacher; this was called 
Seneca Circuit, and Valentine Cook was presiding elder. Others who 
were connected with the early ministrations here were Alward White, 
John Brodhead, Cornelius Mars and Thornton Fleming. A revival 
occurred in 1794, under Mr. Brodhead, and a class of- eighteen persons 
was formed. After several changes in the boundaries of the circuits in 
this section, and a period from about 1800 to near 1817 in which the 
class was disbanded, a Methodist society was founded largely through 
the efforts of David Ayres, who began business as a merchant in the 
year last named ; he was from New York city. Meetings were begun 
in the fall in the loft where the Presbyterians had previously met, with 
Rev. James Kelsey, grandfather of Geo. W. Apgar, the present post- 


mastei- of Ithaca, as preacher, and at a meeting held in the school 
house a society was organized composed o£ the following persons: 
David Ayres and his wife, William Dummer, Anson Titus and his wife, 
Elizabeth Sydney, Maria Wright and Mary Barber. In 1818 Rev. 
George Harman took the charge, and was succeeded in the following 
year by Rev. George Densmore, under whose pastorate a church build- 
ing was begun and finished in 1820, at a cost of $5,000. The lot was 
donated by Mr. De Witt for the purpose at the northwest corner of 
Aurora and Mill streets. The building had a modest tower in which 
was placed the first church bell in Ithaca. The building was completed 
only by the most persistent work on the part of Mr. Ayres and others. 
William R. Collins, Archer Green and Jesse Merritt were the building 
committee, and Ira Tillotson did the work. Rev. Elias Bowen suc- 
ceeded Mr. Densmore, and then came Revs. Fitch Reed and Dana Fox 
on the circuit. In 1823 the preachers on the Ithaca and Caroline cir- 
cuit were Loring Grant and Wm. W. Rundell. Benjamin Sabin took 
the church in 182G and brought it out of some internal troubles that 
had afflicted it, and increased the membership from ninety-six to three 
lumdrcd and forty-nine in one year. A separate society was organized 
in 1851 which drew many from the older church, but it continued to 
prosper and in 1806 was forced to build larger for accommodation of 
the congregations. In that year they built on the same site the present 
brick edifice, which has cost, with the parsonage, more than $25,000. 
In 1801-2 the Gee Memorial Chapel has been added to the church in 
memory of Mrs. Gee, at a cost of $3,000, and in the latter year a new 
system of ventilation was put in and the church was renovated, fres- 
coed, and the interior made substantially new, at a cost of about $2,000. 
The present pastor of the church is Rev. C. E. Mogg, who came in 
October, 1800, succeeding Rev. G. W. Chandler; both of these paslor- ■ 
ates have been remarkably successful, and the society is now one of the 
most prosperous in the interior of the State and numbers 077 members, 
with a Sunday school having an average attendance of about 366. 
Officers of the church are as follows: Presiding elder, E. J. Hermans, 
Elmira; member of Annual Conference, Hiram Gee; local preachers, 
W. N. Tobie, Prof. H. S. Jacoby, C. G. Shaw, S. E. Hunt; superin- 
tendent of Sunday school, Ellsworth D. Wright; stewards. Prof. G. S. 
Moler, W. B. Georgia, Prof. F. D. Boynton, H. N. Hodson, F. W. 
Treman, M. M. Dayton, Prof. H. S. Jacoby, R. C. Osborn, I. J. Ma- 
comber, D. N. Van Hoesen, H. J. Jones; trustees, T. J. McElheny, 


George Livermore, F. J. Enz, B. F. Taber, H. B. Wright, A. C. White, 
George W. Frost. 

State Street Methodist Church. — What was then known as the 
Seneca Street Methodist church was organized February 3, 1851, with 
the following trustees: Henry H. Moore, Benjamin Taber, Daniel F. 
Hugg, Charles S. Miles, and Joseph C. Burritt. The corner stone of a 
wood church was laid July 30, 1851, the site being on the corner of 
Seneca and Plain streets, and the dedication occurred November 20 
following, when only the basement of the building was furnished. The 
structure was completed in the following summer. This building suf- 
ficed for the congregation for about twenty-five years, when the corner 
stone of the handsome brick edifice on State street was laid August 39, 
1878. Rev. W. H. Giles is the present pastor, beginning in October, 
1803. The trustees are Alexander Minturn, Henry S. White, George 
E. Buck, James Osburn, John S. T. Beardsley, Abram Van Order, R. 
E. Gager. The superintendent of the Sunday school is Prof. H. S. 

Free Methodist Church. — This society was organized in 1871, the 
first pastor being Rev. Benjamin Winget. The church edifice was 
erected in 1872 at an expense of $3,000. The church has been prosper- 
ous and now has a membership of thirty. The present pastor is Rev. 
Charles Balch. 

The Zion Methodist Episcopal church was organized about 1825 and 
has continued in prosperity since. In 1834-35 their meetings were 
held at the house of Rev. Mr. Johnson, their pastor. They afterwards 
built their church on Wheat street, which was used until they built 
their present meeting house. The present pastor is Rev. H. J. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Episcopal Society (colored) is an offshoot 
from the society just mentioned and was organized in 1857. They built 
a church on North Albany street, and the present pastor is Rev. Mr. 

St; John's Episcopal Church. — This church was organized in 1822 
at a meeting held in the Methodist Chapel on the 8th of April. Mis- 
sionary work had been done in Ithaca prior to that time by Rev. Dr. 
Babcock and "Father Nash." In the latter part of 1822 and in ]823 
the society used the west room of the academy, where Rev. Samiiel 
Phinney preached as the first regular rector. He was succeeded after 
one year by Rev. Ezekiel Geer, who served until 1828, the society 

CrfY OP ITHACA. 195 

growing encouragingly. Meanwhile, in 1824 a lot on the corner of 
Buffalo and Cayuga streets was purchased and there the first house of 
worship was erected, and opened for worship on Christinas eve of that 
year. The structure was of brick, but very plain. During the ministry 
of Rev. Ralph Williston, who succeeded Mr. Geer, the church was en- 
larged. In 1831 Rev. Dr. Carder came to the church and remained 
three years. Mr. Geer then returned for two years and was succeeded 
by Rev. F. T. Todrig, who remained only a short time. After an 
interval of two years, during which services were irregular, Rev. Dr. 
Judd in 1838 assumed the pastorate, and remained until 1842. Rev. 
Dr. Walker was then called and faithfully served the church for 
twenty- three years. In 1844 the church was enlarged and changed, 
and in the following year the ladies of the congregation purchased a 
parsonage. In 18G0 the old church was demolished and the present 
edifice erected on the site. Dr. Walker resigned in 18G5, and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. W. A. Hitchcock, as acting rector. He was succeeded 
in 18G0 by Rev. J. W. Payne, and the pastors since then have been 
Revs. Jarvis Spaulding, Pliny B. Morgan, George P. Hibbard, Amos 
Beach, S. H. Synnott. The principal officers of the church are: 
Wardens, L. L. Treman, H. V. Bostwick; vestrymen, S. G. Williams, 
Dr. Gc(n-gc W. Mclotte, D. W. Burdick, F. J. Whiton, S. B. Turner, 
C. B. Brown, George W. Apgar. Within the past two years the church 
edifice has been enlarged by adding about sixteen feet in length and 
practically rebuilding the interior. A new brick Parish House was 
built on a lot purchased next south of the church, at a cost of $0,000, 
in 1801. A parsonage with a very large lot attached, situated on East 
Buffalo street, was purchased, and is now occupied. 

The First Unitarian Society of Ithaca. — This society was orig- 
inated in the autumn of 18G5 by Rev. William H. Fish, then of Cort- 
land, in concurrence with Rev. Charles Lowe, secretary of the Ameri- 
can Unitarian Association, and Rev. Samuel J. May, of Syracuse. 
Judge Alfred Wells was one of its first officers and took, perhaps, the 
most active interest in its inauguration. The first services were held in the 
village hall on the 15th of October of that year. Rev. Samuel J. May 
officiating, and regularly continued services by different ministers were 
held there, until the first Sunday in February, 18G6, when they moved 
into the Cornell Library Hall, then newly finished, which they occupied 
most of the time until May, 1873. Rev. E. C. Guild was installed its 
first pastor, October 16, 18GG, remaining two years. Rev. J. C. Zachos 


was pastor for one year. Rev. Dr. R. P. Stebbins preached November 
7, 18G9, was called to the pastorate, and remained until September 30, 
1877. His administration was remarkably successful. In 1871 a lot 
was purchased on the north side of Buffalo street, a little east from 
Aurora street, and a building erected, which was first occupied May 7, 
1873. The first cost of this building including lot was $13, .500. Revs. 
Henry C. Badger, Alfred E. Goodnough, John W. Day, and J. F. Dut- 
ton were pastors until 1801. In the fall of that year Rev. John M. 
Scott became its pastor; under him the society gathered new life. In 
February, 1893, its building was destroyed by fire; efforts were im- 
mediately begun to raise funds for a new building, when, to their sur- 
prise and delight, so many expressions of sympathy and good- will, and 
so many and substantial offers to help in the rebuilding were freely 
given, that the trustees decided to select a more desirable site and build 
a handsome stone church that would be suited to their wants for many 
years to come. They secured what seemed the best possible location, 
the corner of Aurora and Buffalo streets, have their building nearly 
finished, and hope to dedicate it in April free from debt. This beauti- 
ful structure is an ornament to our city, and in every way worthy of 
its architect, W. 11. Miller, and its builder, W. 11. I'crry, and of the 
small society that undertook the large expense. The present officers 
are Prof. George C. Caldwell, Prof. J. E. Oliver, Prof. C. L. Crandall, 
William H. Perry, William M. Smith, Charles H. White, trustees; C. 
C. Piatt, treasurer; George Small, secretary. 

The First Baptist Church. — This church had its origin in the 
Spencer chui'ch, now of West Danby, when twenty-five members joined 
on the 25th of September, 1821, in forming a "Conference by the 
name of the Baptist Conference of Danby." This conference was 
recognized as an independent church on the 13th of November, 1821, 
by a council composed of the Second Ulysses, the Dryden, the Spencer 
and the Third Ulysses churches. Meetings were held at first in school 
houses and private houses. Elder Chester Coburn served as pastor 
until July, 1825, and was succeeded by Elder Caleb Nelson, who con- 
tinued to October, 1820. The organization was then transferred to 
Ithaca and became " The First Baptist Church of Christ of Ithaca." 
The first meeting here was held in the court house on Wednesday, Oc- 
tober 18, 1826. O. C. Comstock was the pastor for about a year. 
Elder John Sears became pastor May 10, 1827, and on the 28th of that 
month a meeting was held and the church organization perfected under 


the statute by the name of "The Trustees of the First Baptist Church 
in Ithaca;" nine trustees were elected. The first church building was 
erected of brick at a cost of about $7,000 on the site of the present 
church, and was first occupied in March, 1831. The following pastors 
have served this church: Elder Sears retired in 1831; N-. N. Whiting, 
James R. Burdick, Calvin Philleo, C. G. Carpenter, S. S. Parr, David 
Bellamy, Jirah D. Cole, H. L. Grose, Aaron Jackson, F. Glenville, 
William Cormack, J. M. Harris, J. N. Folwell, C. J. vShrimpton, C. A. 
Harris, Hermon F. Titus. 

On the 11th of January, 1854, the church was destroyed by fire, and 
on the site was erected an edifice costing about $10,000, which was 
demolished to make room for the present stone edifice, costing about 
$35,000, finished in 1892. 

The present church officers are as follows: Rev. R. T. Jones, pastor; 
deacons: Theophilus Drake, M. P. Ellison, John Northrop, Charles F. 
Rappleye, E. M. Latta; church clerk. Miss Helen M. Elliott; trustees: 
Prof. James Law, J. J. Trench, E. M. Latta, J. B. Lang, John North- 
rop, O. R. Stanford. 

The Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. — This society was or- 
ganized April 2, 1830, by Rev. John H. Schermerhprn, and was com- 
posed chiefly of persons who had been dismissed at their own request 
from the Presbyterian vSociety, of whom there were thirty-one. Daniel 
Bishop, Isaac Carpenter, Augustus Sherrill, were chosen elders, and 
Levi Kirkham and Daniel Pratt, deacons. Rev. Alexander M. Mann, 
D.D., was appointed missionary by the Board of Missions, and began 
his services in June, 1830; he was made regular pastor December 11, 
1830, and resigned in 1837. The first meetings were held in the acad- 
emy, but the church building was erected in 1830-31 on the corner of 
Seneca and Geneva streets. Various changes have been made since in 
the interior of the building. On the 30th of April, 1873, the organiza 
tion was changed after some legal controversy to ' ' The First Congre- 
gational Church of Ithaca. " Rev. Dr. vStrong, and, after, Rev. C. M. 
Tyler, were called to the pastorate. 

The articles of faith were adopted October 1, 1874. The pastor, 
Rev. C. M. Tjder, was installed by a council of Congregational churches 
November 18, 1874. On October 22, 1878, the number of active mem- 
bers was 144, and of families 95. The present constitution was adopted 
March, 1880, and the new church edifice, which cost thirty thousand 
dollars, was built in 1883 and 1884. A notable event was on April 4, 


1885, when forty persons were admitted to membership at one com- 
munion. In 1890 Rev. C. M. Tyler, D.D., was called to the professor- 
ship of the History of Religions in Cornell University, his chair being 
founded by the mtinificence of Mr. Henry W. Sage, who is a regular 
worshiper in the Congregational church, and who has already given to 
the university over $1,300,000. After nineteen years of pastor service 
in Ithaca, Dr. Tyler sent in his letter of resignation September 2, 1801. 
In the mean time the church had called the Rev. W. F. Blackm^m from 
the Congregational churchof Naugatuck, Conn. Mr. Blackman's letter of 
acceptance is dated August 38, 1891. He began his labors by preach- 
ing, vSeptember 20, and was installed by council December 1, 1891. 

One of his former parishioners at Naugatuck having founded a pro- 
fessorship of Christian Sociology in Yale Divinity School, and having 
nominated his former pastor as occupant of the chair, Mr. Blackman 
resigned his pastorate in Ithaca and ceased his labors in June, 1893, re- 
pairing to Europe for a year's study, preparatory to entering upon his 
new duties. 

The present pastor of the church is the Rev. William Elliot Griffis, 
D.D., well known as the author of several works upon Japan, in which 
country he was in the educational service of the Japanese government, 
introducing the American public school system. Graduated from Rut- 
ger's College, New Brunswick, N.J., in the class of 1809. Mr. Griffis, 
after traveling in Europe and completing one year's theological study 
at New Brunswick, spent four years in the Mikado's Empire; returning 
he was graduated from Union Theological Seminary in the class of 
1877, and was settled as pastor of the First Reformed church at Sche- 
nectady from 1877 to 1886, and in Boston as pastor of the Shawmut Con- 
gregational church from 1880 to 1893. He was called to the Congre- 
gational church of Ithaca May 22, 1893, and began his labors July 1. 
The church is at the present time in a high state of prosperity. 

In 1884 the old church became insufficient for the needs of the society 
and the present edifice was erected. Elders: Pliny Hall, Samuel D. 
Sawyer, George F. Beardsley,' Marcus Lyon. Deacons: John J. 
Glenzer, John L. Morris, Orange P. Hyde, Henry A. St. John; church 
clerk, George F. Beardsley; church treasurer, Samuel D. Sawyer. 

Trustees of the Corporation: Samuel H. Winton, John L. Morris, 
William N. Noble, Henry B. Lord, George H. Northrup, Charles W. 
Gay, John J. Glenzer, William A. Church, Henry A. St. John; secre- 
tary of corporation, George H. Northrup; treasurer of corporation, 
William A. Church. 


Catholic Church. — The first Roman Catholics came to Ithaca about 
1830, and soon afterward they began having religious services in a 
private dwelling. Their first church organization was effected under 
the pastoral charge of Rev. Mr. Gilbride, and a small church building 
was ei-ected on Geneva street. During the incumbency of Rev. Ber- 
nard McCool the present church was erected. In 1884 a parsonage was 
built at a cost of $5,000. The society is now under charge of- Rev. 
Father Alfred J. Evans. 


li'idclity Lodge V. & A. M. No. 5L was first organized in Trumans- 
burgh, Tompkins county, N. Y., June 34, 1818, as Fidelity 309, charter 
dated June 8, 1818. Henry Taylor, Master, and Edward B. Ely, Zach- 
ariah P. Smeed, Horace Osborne, Elijah H. Goodwin, Almon Wake- 
man, Luther Foote, Daniel Starkweather and Peter Hager constituted 
the charter members. Henry Taylor was the first Master. 

The lodge prospered until 1827, to the time of the anti-Masonic 
trouble, when it was dangerous to meet, and gradually dwindled to 
twelve members. 

In July, 1828, the lodge room was broken into and the jewels stolen, 
and have never been recovered. During this trouble the change of 
number was made from iJOO to 51. 

In 1840 the lodge was removed to Ithaca and meetings were held on 
the third floor of the building first west of the Culver Block. They 
afterwards moved to the old Coffee House Block, and from there to Odd 
Fellows Hall, and in 1871 moved to the Masonic Block, and January 1, 
1893, removed to their present quarters in the Savings Bank Building. 
The present membership is 217, and officers are: Frank H. Romer, M. ; 
Henry L. Peters, S. W. ; C. C. Garrett, J.W. ; A. L. Niver, C. A. Hart, 
C. J. Rumsey, trustees; W. B. Georgia, sec; H. L. Estabrook, treas. ; 
John Rife, S. D. ; George S. Tarbell, J. D. ; Geo. Lattemore, S. M. C. ; 
Clarence W. Peirce, J. M. C. ; Lucius Mastin, Tiler. 

Eagle Chapter R. A. M., No. 58, was organized February 6, 1817; 
charter granted to Lewis Beers, Archer Green and E. Champlin, and 
prospered until 1829. From 1830 to 1860 no records are found. The 
chapter was reorganized May 29, 1850, with Wait T. Huntington, High 
Priest; Jacob McCormick, King, and Caleb B. Drake, Scribe. The 
membership now is 204. Present officers: H. L. Peters, High Priest; 


John Barnard, King; John Rife, Scribe; A. W. Force, Sec; L. G. 
Todd, Treas. 

St. Augustine Commandery No. 38, dispensation granted December 
6, 1800, was organized October 2, 1807. The charter members were 
J. B. Chaffee, Samuel L. Vosburg, Wm. Andrus, James Quigg, Geo. 
E. Terry, J. M. Kimball, Miner Culver, Frank J. Enz, Philip J. Part- 
enheimcr. First Commander, J. B. Chiiffce; first (Jcneralissimo, S. L. 
Vosburg; first Captain General, P.J. Partenheimer ; no Prelate; S. W., 
Alfred Brooks ; J.W., Dewitt J. Apgar; Treas., James M. Heggie; Re- 
corder, Marcus Lyon; Standard Bearer, Wallace W. Barden; Sword 
Bearer, Joseph M. Lyon; Warder, J. M. Kimball; Captain Guard, J. R. 

Officers for 1803: Charles C. Garrett, Commander; Henry L. Peters, 
Generalissimo; James A. McKinney, Captain General; George W. 
Melotte, Prelate; Frank E. Howe, Senior Warden; John Barnard, 
Junior Warden; Charles G. Hoyt, Treasurer; Albert W. Force, Re- 
corder; Jacob Peters, Standard Bearer; Jesse W. Stephens, Sword 
Bearer; Cary B. Fish, Warder; John H. Henry, Thad. S. Thompson, 
George S. Tarbell, Guards; Charles E. Whitlock, Organist; Lucius 
Mastin, Sentinel. Trustees: Leroy G. Todd, CoUingwood B. Brown, 
Oliver L. Dean. Past Commanders: Marcus Lyon, Jerome B. Teed, 
George H. Northrup, Frank J. Enz, Ralph C. Christiance, Charles M. 
Benjamin, Albert W. Force, George W. Melotte, Charles F. Blood. 

The present membership of the commandery is 314:. 

" Hobasco, " a Hebrew word, meaning when translated "a hiding 
place in the rocks, " or "a secret place in the mountains." Hobasco 
Lodge, No. 71(1, F. & A. M., was organized under a dispensation from 
the Grand Lodge of the State of New York, and its first meeting was 
held in Odd Fellows Hall (the Hibbard Block) on the corner of State 
and Cayuga streets in Ithaca, N. Y., on the 19th day of October, 1871. 
The officers present at its opening were as follows: Hon. Mills Van 
Valkenburg, W. M.; William Andrus, S. W. ; D. P. Shai-p, J. W. ; 
James Quigg, J. D. ; N. J. Roe, Secy., A.. O. vShaw, of Fidelity Lodge 
No. 51, Tiler; Bro. S. L. Vosburg. 

A charter was granted to the lodge, dated Jime 8, 1872, with the 
following named officers: Hon. Mills Van Valkenburg, W. M. ; William 
Andrus, S. W. ; Alfred Brooks, J. W. ; who with the following named 
Masons constituted the charter members, Philip J. Partenheimer^ Den- 

<y %. "c/ , <:^1m_^*-«.*^^ 



nis P. Sharp, Samuel L. Vosburg, James Quigg, N. J. Roe and A. M. 

The first meeting held under and by virtue of the charter was on 
June 27, 1873, in Masonic Hall, Masonic Block, N. Tioga street, the 
following named officers and brethren being present: Hon. Mills Van 
Valkenburg, W. M.; William Andrus, S. W. ; Dennis P. Sharp, acting 
J. W.; Albert W. Force, S. D. ; James Quigg, J. D. ; N. J. Roe, S. M. 
of C. ; A. D. Luce, J. M. of C. ; Geo. C. Mowry, Secy.; A. O. Shaw, 
Tiler; W. W. Barden, Treas. ; Bro. S. L. Vosburg. 

The Hon. Mills Van Valkenburg continued as W. M. of the lodge 
until the date of his death, which occurred September 21, 1873. His 
memory is ever green in the hearts of all his brethren for his genial, 
kind disposition, his masterly ability as a presiding officer, his great 
love and fidelity to the craft, his noble, pure and virtuous character as 
a man and citizen, and his uprightness and high executive ability as a 
public officer. 

Bro. Perry G. Ellsworth filled the vacancy caused by the untimely 
death of the beloved and much lamented brother officer, and in Decem- 
ber, 1 873, he was elected master of the lodge, filling the po,sition with 
great credit to liimself and the brethren until December, 1874, when he 
was succeeded by the election of Bro. Merritt King, who continued in 
office until December, 1877. He was succeeded by Bro. Wm. A. 
Church, who in December, 1870, was succeeded by the election of Bro. 
A. W. Force, who continued .n office until December, 1882, when he 
was succeeded by the election of Bro. Geo. B. Davis. Bro. Davis held 
the office until he was succeeded by the election of Bro. Horace M. 
Hibbard in December, 1884, who, in December, 1888, was succeeded 
by the election Bro. J. A. Mortimore. In December, 1889, Bro. E. M. 
Ellis was elected master, and continued in office until December, 1893, 
a term of four years, and was succeeded by the election of Bro. Frank 
E. Howe the present incumbent. 

Bro. O. P. Hyde, the present secretary of the lodge, joined in Sep- 
tember, 1872, by affiliation from Groton Lodge No. 492, and was acting 
secretary until the following December, when he was duly elected to 
the office, continuing as such for eight successive years. In December, 
1880, he was succeeded by the election of Bro. A. R. Ward, who con- 
tinued until December, 1881, when Bro. Wm. F. Major was elected, 
serving until December, 1883, and was succeeded by Bro. George J. 
Dixon, who continued until December, 1887, at which time Bro. O. P. 



Hyde was again elected and has served ever since up to the present 
time, making his term of service more than fourteen years as secretary 
of the lodge. 

The names of the present officers of the lodge are as follows: Frank 
E. Howe, W. M. ; P. M. Elias M. Ellis, vS. W. ; Walter O. Kerr, J. W. ; 
O. H. Fernback, S. D. ; C. E. Moore, J. D. ; Otis O. Clark, S. M. of 

C. ; J. M. of C. ; James A. McKinney, Treas. ; O. P. 

Hyde, Secy.; E. C. Tichenor, Organist; L. Mastin, of Fidelity Lodge 
No. 51, Tiler. 

The present membership of the lodge numbers 138, and its meetings 
are now held in the Masonic Rooms on the third floor of the new Sav- 
ings Bank building, corner of Tioga and Seneca streets, to which new 
(juartcrs it, with the other Masonic bodies, removed in January, 18!):!. 

Ithaca Council R. & S. M., No. 08, was first organized under dispen- 
sation granted October 1, 1874. Charter granted to Jacob M. Kimball,* 
Ralph C. Christiance, John C. Van Kirk, Eron C. Van Kirk, Sidney vS. 
Smith, C. B. Brown, C. Fred MeWhorter, Samuel A. Holmes, Lute 
Welch.*' The order has flourished ever since its first organization and 
has gradually increased its membership until now it has a membership 
of 120. Present officers: T. 111. M., C. C. Garrett; Dep. M., P. H. 
Romer; P. C. of W., G. W. Melotte; Treas., C. A. Hart; Recorder, 

A. W. Force; C. of G., Henry L. Peters; Cond. of Council, ; 

Steward, ; Organist, C. E. Whitlock; Sentinel, L. Mastin. 

■Ithaca Lodge, No. 71, I. O. O. F. Early in 1840 five of Ithaca's 
foremost men went to Rochester, N.Y., were initiated into and received 
the degrees of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. On the after- 
noon of July 2;$, 1842, D. D. Ct. M., W. H. Perkins, of Rochester, in a 
room in the Clinton House, instituted Ithaca Lodge, No. 71, I. O. O. I*\, 
with William R. Humphrey, Charles V. Stuart, Moses R. Wright, W. 
H. Hall and Robert Gosman as charter members. Its first officers 
were Charles V. Stuart, N.G. ; Moses R. Wright, V.G.; William R. 
Humphrey, Secy.; W. H. Hall, Treas. On the evening of institution 
Messrs. S. B. Ctishing, W. P. Pew, Henry Sayles, William U. Gregory, 
R. H. Hall and P. J. Partenheimer were initiated and received the de- 
grees. The lodge held its meetings for some time in the Exchange 
Hotel, now occupied by Joseph La Point on West State street; then 
moved into rooms fitted up for the lodge over the Culver store, now 

* Deceased. 


occupied by The Bool Company; in 1847, while Mr. Hibbard was erect- 
ing the building on the northwest corner of State and Cayuga streets, 
the lodge leased the third floor and one room on the second floor for a 
term of ten years, and moved into them in the spring of 1848, where 
they remained until November 1, 1803, when they moved into the 
elegant West Brothers' block and rooms Nos. 30 and 38 East State 
street. Since the institution there have been over 700 members 
initiated, and has paid for relief about $34,000. Of the charter mem- 
bers there is but one living, P. G. William R. Humphrey, who is in 
good standing and occasionally visits the lodge. The present officers 
are E. N. Corbin, N. G. ; T. L. Kittle, V. G. ; P. A. Campbell, Rec. 
Secy.; L. A. Barnard, Per. Secy.; R. Wolf, Treas. ; H. L. Haskin, J. 
E. Vaughn, J. F. Hawkins, Trust Com. The funds of the lodge 
amount to about fo,000. 

Cascadilla Lodge, No. 89, Knights of Pythias, was organized Janu- 
ary 33, 1873, with the following charter members: Thomas P. St. 
John, Philip J. Partenheimer, Dr. M. M. Brown, E. O. Godfrey, E. P. 
Davenport, John Stoddard, Ai G. Seaman, Charles S. Seaman, Thad. 
S. Thompson, O. D. Terry. Instituted by W. W. Ware, D. D. G. C, 
of Elmira, No. 81. This has been a flourishing and successful order 
ever since its organization. It now has 100 members. It has cash on 
hand, invested at interest, $1,304.75, and has $500 of paraphernalia, 
making a total value of personal property of $1,804.75. The lodge re- 
ceived since its organization $8,934.30, and paid for relief $1,149.95, and 
general purposes $0,409.50. The lodge boasts of having one Past 
. Grand Chancellor and Past Supreme Representative, both embodied in 
the person of James L. Baker. The lodge has always met in Odd 
Fellows' Hall, now with them in their new rooms in West Brothers' 
block, second and fourth Wednesdays in the month. 

Forest City Council No. 47, Royal Arcanum. This council was or- 
ganized August 14, 1878, with the following charter members: James 
L. Baker, Dr. David White, Milo C. Jones, John S. Gay, Wilfred M. 
Jones, Thos. Culver, Thos. N. Drake, Arthur R. Hill, Chas. H. Bun- 
stead. The first three of these were ' the original founders, and the 
only ones of the charter members now in the council. Dr. White was 
the first Regent, and James L. Baker Vice-Regent. 

It has been a very prosperous organization and has grown from, that 
number to a strong council of ninety-one members. It is a beneficiary 
institution, and on the death of seven members $3,000 have been paid to 


the widows and children of these members. This council alone has 
paid out about $21,000. 

The present Regent is Charles F. Rappleye, and the Vice-Regent, 
Charles Taber; Orator, R. E. Gager; Chaplain, Geo. Small; Rec. Sec, 
Edward Saxton; Treasurer, Thomas J. Stephens; Collector, Fred. 
Harding; Guide, Charles Scott; Past Regent, John B. Lang. 

The meetings are held in the G. A. R. rooms, on E. Seneca street, 
the first and third Thursdays of each month. 

G. A. R. — In 1866 or '67, early after the war, a G. A. R. post was 

established called the Barton Post No. ■, which flourished for about 

three or four years, and one of its early commanders was D. W. Bur- 
dick, a major of artillery. 

Sidney Post G. A. R. No. 41 ; charter granted December 32, 1876 ; 
named after Lieut. Joseph Sidney, of the U. S. Marines, who died in 
line of duty on board the U. S. gunboat Brooklyn. First commander, 
Col. K. S. Van Voorhees, of the De Witt Guard. Charter members 
were John Barnard, John E. Mcintosh, Barnum R. Williams, Dr. 
Ziba H. Potter, Major W. P. Van Ness, L. S. Mackey, James H. Tich- 
enor, Geo. W. Gray, Henry Stoughton, James Gardner, Moses Sneed, 
P. C. Gilbert, F. E. Tibbetts. 

Following Van Voorhees the commanders have been: John E. Mc- 
intosh, C. S. Norton, A. A. Hungerford, J. A. Northrup, N. G. White, 
Doctor Tarbell, P. E. Tibbetts, Reuben Gee, John B. French. 

The present officers of the post are: John Barnard, Com.; W. H. 
Herrington, Sr. V. Com. ; John Johnson, Jr. V. Com. ; Charles Smith, 
Quartermaster; Thos. J. Stephens, Adjt. ; Theo. J. Harrington, Chap- 
lain; R. F. Lobdell, Surgeon; J. W. Skinner, Off. of Day; E. R. 
Hurlburt, Off. of Guard; John A. Freer, Sergeant-major; Hermon 
Cummings, Quar. Ser. ; G. W. L. Gardner, Sentinel. Present mem- 
bership, 150. The post occupies rooms in the Bates Block, on E. Sen- 
eca street, and meets every Tuesday evening. It has been supported 
by the citizens in general and the civic authorities. H. W. Sage 
presented a record book in 1892, which has been a very valuable ac- 

Forest Home. — This is the euphonious name of a little settlement 
on Fall Creek, about two miles east of Ithaca, which was known for 
many years as *'Free Hollow." A small manufacturing interest was 
started there about the year 1812, by a Mr. Phenix, who built a grist 
mill, and one has been maintained there ever since. In 1819 Jacob G. 


Dyckman & Company established a fulling mill there, which soon 
passed to the sole ownership of Mr. Dyckman, and was sold by him in 
^^2L to Edmond Preswick. In 182:5 Samuel Seaman owned the mills 
and leased them to Job Gaskill. Another sale was made of the prop- 
erty in 1827 and then included the Phenix grist mill, a fulling mill, dye 
house and a new saw mill ; also four dwellings, two barns, a cooper shop, 
a school house and 260 acres of land. In 182G the woolen factory was 
conducted by Stewart & Allen and turned out fine cloths. Subse- 
quently the mills were sold to Jacob Starbird, and by him to Mack, 
Andrus & Woodruff. The present grist mill there was built by Arnold 
Mclntyre, father of Dwight Mclntyre, about 1855-56. It is now 
owned by Martin V. Campbell, Who purchased it in May, 1893, of F. 
C. Cornell. The woolen factory closed up in 1892. A saw mill is run- 
ning there by Richard Brown. Isaac Cradit manufactured furniture 
there for many years. David McKinney had a tannery for many years. 
A large factory of woolen goods was conducted by D. Edwards & Son, 
but the property has been sold and is not now operated. 



The town of Ulysses is situated on the west bank of Cayuga Lake 
and is the northwestern town iii Tompkins county. Its shore line on 
the lake is precipitous in many places, and the land rises gradually 
from the bluffs until it reaches a height of 600 feet above the lake, and 
then spreads into an undulating upland, constituting a beautiful and 
fertile farming section. The soil is a gravelly loam, admirably adapted 
for growing grains and grasses. The town contains 19,400 acres, by 
far the larger part (about 16,000) being improved. The only stream of 
importance is the Taghanic Creek, which flows across the town from 
west to east. In the northern part is Trumansburgh Creek, and there 
are several smaller streams, on all of which are cascades. The cele- 
brated Taghanic Falls, which are on the creek of that name and about 
a mile from the lake, is the highest perpendicular fall in this State. 


The stream flows through a gorge worn in the shale rock 380 feet deep, 
and the water drops over a harder limestone ledge 215 feet. ^ 

The town of Ulysses embraces the site of one or two Indian villages 
which existed before the foot of the white man had impressed its soil. 
In Greenhalgh's account of a journey westward from Albany, made in 
the summer of 1077, he says, " that Indian villages were sixty miles 
southeast of ye Onondagas on Lake Tiohero (now Cayuga)." Another 
early writer says that "where Taghanic Creek empties into the Tio- 
hero Lake the Indians had built a small town and were growing corn, 
beans and potatoes, and they had also apple trees on the rich flats of 
two and a half centuries' growth. " While we may not readily agree 
with some of this statement, the site of the Indian village is well known, 
and was called by the name of the creek. Its inhabitants escaped at- 
tention by Lieutenant-colonel Dearborn in his raid, from Sullivan's 
main army, on his return from the Genesee. There was also another 
Indian village near the site of Waterburg village. 

'Traditions Concerning the Name Taughannock, or Taghanic. — D. H. Hamilton, 
D.D. , gives a tradition concerning the name of the Taghanic Creek, which is from 
the Delaware dialect. From this tradition it would seem that the name was 
derived from a battle on its banks, between a band of Delawares from their homes 
in Pennsylvania on a raid to avenge the insult put upon that conquered nation by an 
Onondaga chief, Canassetego, in a conference with the governor of Pennsylvania 
and the Delawares at Philadelphia. The Delawares had sold land to the Pennsyl- 
vania people, and the Iroquois called the governor to account for his dealings with a 
tributary people who had no right to alienate the soil of the conquered territory. In 
his speech the Onondaga chief stigmatized the Delawares as dishonest and cowards, 
unworthy the name of warriors, and therefore to be only known as women, and 
ordered them to leave the lands they had sold and remove into the Wyoming Valley, 
where they went. ' The tradition says that' a young chief of the ancient line of 
Taughannock, being present at the council, was stung by the sarcastic speech of the 
Onondaga, and vowed revenge. He gathered together a band of 200 young braves 
and marched northward to wreak vengeance for the insulting demeanor of the Iro- 
quois in their own land, and, meeting with superior forces, was hemmed in on the 
banks of this stream, where the entire band perished except two, who were adopted 
into the Cayugas in place of relatives slain. 

On their route to this region ' ', they passed Wyoming and Owego and took the trail 
for Cayuga Lake, plotting to fall upon the Indian towns lying around, especially 
Neodakheat (Ithaca), Deowendote (Aurora), and Genogeh (Canoga). Fearing, how- 
ever, to attack Neodakheat, they turned to the left, and pursuing their way north- 
wards entered the Cayuga country, lying between Cayuga and Seneca Lakes, mean- 
ing to make an attack on Genogeh and then rush back and fall upon Neodakheat. 

1 Doc. Hist. 


The first white settleinent hi what is now the town of Ulysses was 
made by Samuel Weyburn, who came with his wife and four children 
from " Tioga Point " and built his log cabin at what has been known 
as " Goodwin's Point," on the lake shore. His son, of the same name, 
was town clerk in 1813, but the elder Weyburn removed away in a few 

In the fall of 1792 Abner Treman and his brother-in-law, John Mc- 
Lallen, came to Ulysses. Mr. Treman had served in the Revolution- 
ary war, and drew for his services lot No. % (640 acres), which tract 
embraced the site of Trumansburgh. He arranged with his brother 
Philip to come into the wilderness and clear a part of his land. Philip 
and his son Benjamin walked here from thirty miles north of Albany, 
carrying their axes, provisions, etc. They built a little hut, cleared off 
about eight acres, and then returned to their eastern home. In the 
fall of the same year Abner came on, as before stated, burned the 

They encountered, however, an unexpected resistance from some smaller settlements 
of Indians situated in the region where Trumansburgh, Perry, Mecklenburgh, Tan- 
nerville and Lodi have since been located. These Indians were both Cayugas and 
Senecas, the chief settlement of the former being between Perry and Mecklenburgh, 
while that of the Senecas was between Pratt's and Tannerville. The two tribes 
were, however, much intermingled, and assumed a name indicative of their origin, 
calling themselves Ganungueuguch, that is Senecayugas. This union was brought 
about, for the most part, by an aspiring and talented young chief whose father was 
a Seneca and whose mother was a Cayuga. The name of the chief of the com- 
munity — for they never rose to the full dignity of a tribe — was derived from Ganun- 
desaga (Seneca Lake), and Guenguch (Cayuga Lake). Ganunguenguch was the 
Indian name of the chief, the settlements, the people, the stream, and of tlie falls. " 
William H. Bogart, e.sq., of Aurora, says, "In the Algonquin, the word tahnun 
rpeans wood; olamehuknum, high; patihaakun, thunder. In the Miami tongue, 
forest is tawwonawkewe ; in Delaware it is taikunah. Tahxxan, in Delaware, means 
wood. In the Dacotah dialect, tehanwauken means very high. Schoolcraft states 
that the tribes generally dwelt on the banks of the rivers, which were denoted by an 
inflection to the root form of its name, as annah-annock-any, as heard in Susqueh- 
annah, Rappah-annock, and AUegh-any. The termination of -atun or -atan or -ton 
denotes a rapid stream or channel. In Iroquois, the particle on denotes a hill ; ock 
denotes a forest. I find in a dictionary of the Onondaga language, prepared by Jean 
Murinchau, a French Jesuit, the word dehennah. or dehennach, meaning, I believe, 
a fall. In the Algonquin is the word taakhan, which is interpreted as woods, and in 
the Mohawk, tungkah, the explanation of which is ■ great. All these, brought to- 
gether, are easily, in the changes of language and varieties of pronunciation, ren- 
dered as Taghannic, or The Great Fall in the Woods ! which is the easy, and natural, 
and probable appellation given to it by the quiet, simple, unimaginative men who 
once ruled and possessed all this land." 


brush, piled the logs, sowed the land to wheat, and returned home. 
Originally from Columbia county, Mr. Treman had lived about a year 
in Chenango county, and in February, 1793, started from there with 
his wife and three children, and John McLallen, his wife's brother, and 
reached his settlement in March. They built their first log house near 
the creek. In the winter of 1793-4 he drove his oxen to the flats where 
Ithaca is situated to feed them on the marsh grass. Returning he 
stopped over night at Nathaniel Davenport's tavern on the West Hill. 
A heavy fall of snow came on with intense cold, and he started on foot 
about nine o'clock the next morning. The journey was a terrible one, 
and he reached Weyburn's, at Goodwin's Point, about midnight, but 
too near dead to enter the house. His cries were heard, however, and 
he was carried in. His feet were so badly frozen that one of them had 
to be amputated. In 1794 he built a small grist mill on the creek, and 
soon . afterward erected a larger log house. In 180G he built a frame 
house. Mr. Treman was a man of great force of character and left his 
mark upon the community which he founded. He died August 13, 
1823, and his descendants are still living and occupying important 
places in the cotmty, as elsewhere stated. 

John McLallen's settlement is described in the later history of Tru- 
mansburgh village. 

Jesse Harriman settled at Trumansburgh in 1793, where he con- 
tracted with Mr. Treman for 100 acres of land in the west part of the 
village site for a year's labor in clearing land. He came from Barton, 
whither he returned, and his father gave him a yoke of oxen. With 
these and his brother Moses he returned to Trumansburgh, and on the 
way traded the oxen for (i40 acres of land, where Northville now is. 
His father heard of the trade, came on here, and, as Jesse was not of 
age, broke up the deal. Jesse Harriman built a frame house and reared 
a family of children. About 1810 he moved to Enfield and later to 
Newfield, where he lived with his son Lyman until his death March 10, 

About the year 1794 Richard and Benjamin Goodwin settled what 
has since been known as Goodwin's Point. Benjamin built an early 
grist mill on the north side of the Taghanic, where Daniel Norton was 
miller. He had a son Richard who was father of Rev. William H. Good- 
win. The first Richard Goodwin had a son George who was a resident 
of Jacksonville, 

^^ jS^^c/ 


James F. Curry came in 1708 and settled a mile south of Jacksonville. 
In the same year David Atwater built a saw mill on Taghanic Creek, 
near the Goodwin Mill. Thomas Cooper came in 170!) and brought his 
grandson Jeremiah with him; the latter was then eight years of age. 
Their journey ivom Connecticut with an old ox team consumed four 
weeks. They made a small clearing, and in the next year Jeremiah's 
father came on with the family. 

Jared Treman, brother of Abner, became a settler in 170G, and in 
that year or the year before, Henry and Robert McLallen settled on 
farms west of Trumansburgh. Elisha Trowbridge came into the town 
in 1708 from Cooperstown, and settled about a mile west of Waterburg. 
He died January 9, 1800. Captain Jonathan Owen moved in about 
1800. He had a military lot of a square mile on which he located, and 
he built the saw mill and grist mill in Waterburg, and gave his son 
Jonathan a farm near Waterburg, where he lived to near his death. 

Other settlers on the site of Trumansburgh or in its immediate vicin- 
ity prior to 1800 were Jacob Chambers, Job Rogers, Dr.. Peter Rose, 
and perhaps a few others. Benjamin Lanning came in 1801 and located 
near Jacksonville; his son Gideon became somewhat noted as an early 
Methodist preacher. 

Robert Henshaw was one of the pioneers and the first merchant 
in Trumansburgh. He had a few goods for sale in 1802-3, but discon- 
tinued in 1805, to be succeeded by the Camps, as explained further on. 

Jonathan Owen, from Orange county, settled in 1804 west of Water- 
burg, where the widow of John Vanderbilt now lives. He was the 
father of L. H. Owen. 

Albert Crandall was an early landlord and kept a tavern for many 
years after 1800, where the Barto Bank stands, and was succeeded by 
his son. Minor Crandall. 

Jeptha Lee, a Revolutionary soldier who drew lot No. 14, but se 
cured only 150 acres of it, came here in 1803 and settled on the home- 
stead now occupied by Sarah Johnson. Wilson Stout also came in that 
year and has descendants living in the town. Nathaniel and John Mack 
were the pioneers not much after 1800 in what has been known as 
"Mack Settlement." 

Alexander Bower, a Scotch immigrant, came to this town in 1804 
and spent most of his life near Waterburg. Several of his sons are 
resident in the town. 



Richard Ayres, from New Jersey, came in 1805 with his wife and 
seven children; the family and its descendants became prominent in 
the town. 

The "Updike vSettlement, " a little south of Trumansbtirgh, took its 
name from Jacob Updike, who came from New Jersey in 1800. He 
was the father of Abram G. Updike, who reared a large family. 

Nicoll Halsey, whose name is familiar throughout the coimty, settled 
in Ulysses in 1808, coming from Ovid, where he had located in 1793. 
He reared a large family, several of whom became conspicuous in the 
county. He held the offices of supervisor, sheriff, member of assem- 
bly, county judge, and member of congress, and was a leading man in 
the community. (See history of Ithaca village). 

Allen Boardman settled in Covert in 1799, and was a man of much 
prominence. He was father of Hon, Douglass Boardman, Henry 
Boardman and Truman Boardman. (See biography of Douglass Board- 
man in later pages). 

Azariah Letts, from New Jersey, settled in the town in 1801 and left 
a record of mighty deeds as a hunter. Henry Taylor, a tanner, who 
carried on his business many years, came in from Connecticut in 1809. 

Mathias De Mund, from New Jersey, settled here in 1803. He was 
father of Deacon Edward De Mund. Frederick Burluew settled south 
of Waterburg in 1807, and his descendants were long residents. John 
Creque came in 1811 and became a leading man in business and public 
affairs, as further explained in the later history of Trumansburgh. 

Dr. O. C. Comstock was in town before 1810, was a prominent early 
physician, the first postmaster of the village of Trumansburgh, member 
of congress, etc. His son, O. C. Comstock, jr., married a daughter of 
Nicoll Halsey. 

Albert G. Stone came to Trumansburgh in 1824 as clerk for his uncle, 
Hermon Camp. When he was twenty-one he was taken as partner by 
his uncle and continued in mercantile business until 1870. For more 
than fifty years he was a conspicuous figure in the community. He 
was postmaster of the village ten years ; a member of the Presbyterian 
church, and a leader in public affairs. He died in 1877. His sons 
were James L. , Richard H., Hermon C. , and George F. 

William Jarvis Stone came here in 1839, first as a clerk and afterward 
as a store keeper. Died here in 1874. 

Samuel Vann came to Ulysses in 1813 and settled where his de- 
scendants long lived. He was father of Thomas and Samuel Vann 
and was one of the early masons of the town. 


Lyman Strobridge, a more extended account of whom is given in the 
history of Trumansburgh, was a soldier of the War of 1812, and settled 
in the town in 1818. He was for many years a leading man in the com- 

Henry Barto came to Ulysses from Virgil in 1814, and opened a law 
office, one of the first in this vicinity. He accumulated a large for- 

We quote the following from a historical sketch written by Dr. J. 
M. Farrington in 187G, the memoranda for which he gathered largely 
from Hermon Camp during his life, and is a description of Trumans- 
burgh in 1805-6. As far as possible we have brought its statements down 
to the present time: 

The snow was about six inches in depth, and night overtook him before he reached 
the " Pine Woods," which at that time extended to the Halseyville Creek. There 
was no real road, the smaller trees only were cut, and the road was very crooked or 
zigzag to avoid the larger trees. He was very weary and cold by the time he reached 
McLallen's tavern. As you come from Jacksonville on the hill east of Halseyville 
Creek, where the barns of Frank Pearsall now stand, was a small frame house, occu- 
pied by Michael Snell, who afterwards became justice of the peace. A log biidge 
crossed the Halseyville Creek, above where the dam now is. The road there wound 
through what at that time were extensive pine woods, towards Trumansburgh — next 
house on the road being a log one, near where A. J. Howland now resides, and was 
occupied by a Mr. Havens. Another log house was located where J. D. Gould's barn 
now stands, and was owned by Robert McLallen. There was about an acre of clear- 
ing surrounding each of these dwellings. The next house was the one built by the 
first settler, Abner Treman. 

Going westward, the grist mill of Mr. Treman was the first structure, which stood 
on the site of the present stone mill of Clock & Smith. Both the mill and dam were 
built of logs. The hill-side slope leading to the mill was covered with large hemlock 
trees, girdled and dead. In the mill pond black ash trees were standing, but dead. 
A small frame house stood near where the book store now is [now a grocery]. Beth- 
niel Bond had once kept a few goods there. A log potashery was standing where 
Samuel Williams's shop is, bordering on the mill pond. A Mr. Cheesman owned the 
establishment, and got water from the mill pond for its use, Cheesman was there, 
and made a little potash after Mr. Camp came ; but Esquire Bond was at that time 
living in Covert with his family on the place now owned by Stephen Horton [now 

occupied by Curtis]. Bond still owned the little building before alluded to, but 

kept no goods after Mr. Camp came. Bond was accustomed to take two or three 
barrels of potash to Utica with a horse and wagon to buy goods. Mr. Treman had 
then cleared on our present South street as far as where Linas Waring now lives, and 
John Trembly, a tailor, grandfather of the landlord of the " Trembly House," lived 
there. The south road was opened as far as Deacon Hand's place, and there David 
Atwater lived. Mr. Atwater first settled where W. B. Dumont now lives, near the 
Taghanic depot. The Updyke Settlement had occurred previously, and probably 


the road was opened from Glen Mills as far as the log meeting house, which stood 
near the burying-gi-ound, on the farm now owned by Peter Van Liew. There was a 
road leading from this place to Goodwin's Point, passing somewhere near the hill of 
the present road. There was no clearing — the trees adjacent to the house were 
felled. Treman had cleared both sides of Main street to the creek, which was spanned 
by a bridge about where it now is. An old orchard on Mr. Corey's land, near the 
brick-yai-d, marks the site of a house where Jcshua Hinckley then lived. The only 
other building in that direction, which Mr. Camp recollects, was near where Seymour 
Hates now lives. The timber growing was mostly beech, maple and banswood, while 
pine and hemlock covered the banks of the creeks and the land adjoining. On the 
west side of Trumansburgh Creek, near where Goodyear's store now stands, John 
McLallen had just built a new tavern. It was a frame building, two stories high, 
the lower story dug back into the bank or hillside, and having a cellar at the rear 
part of it. The land was cleared upon the hill where the Phoenix Hotel now stands, 
and also for a considerable distance beyond, so as to afford quite an extensive 
meadow, which was used also as a parade ground. Here Colonel Camp trained his 
company of cavalry, sometimes three days in succession, with drills every day. 
Moses Harriman had a little distillery below James L. Stone's present residence, 
where an old barn of James McLellen's has recently been taken away to make room 
for a new house. Dr. Peter Rose lived near where Gregg's Furnace now is. He was 
an excellent physician ; but probably from his unfortunate proximity to said distillery, 
he, too, obtained supplies from there in too large quantities. 

There was a small building standing on the site of the present dwelling recently 
occupied by John Van Duyn, occupied by Merritt King, and another where Albert 
Stone formerly lived. There was a road leading northward to where Deacon King 
lived, and from there to the lake, as at present. Cayuga street vicinity was covered 
with trees ; there was no road there. 

A .small frame house was standing on the hill where what has been known as the 
Esquire Glazier place is situated. . . One-half of that building was Colonel 
Camp's first store. Henshaw's family lived in the other half. There were some 
little clearings in the vicinity, but none of large extent. 

Benjamin Hinckley lived where "Blue's Corners" now are, and Mr. Easling, 
grandfather to James and Henry Easling, lived whore the grandsons now do. There 
were no buildings from Hinckley's to Bond's, whicli latter was the jjlace that has 
been known as the Noble Farm. 

A valuable historical pamphlet was published in the office of the Free 
Press, written by A. P. Osborn, from which we must draw liberally for 
these pages. Concerning other pioneers of the town, it says : 

Gamaliel Dickenson and family came here from Long Island in 1813; many of his 
descendants still reside here. Daniel Atwater came into the country in 1799 ; he lo- 
cated near what is now known as Podunk, where some of his descendants still reside. 
Ephraim Osborn emigrated from Fairfield, Conn., in 1814, and settled near the pres- 
ent residence of A. L. Snyder ; one daughter, Mrs. S. B. Wakeman, still lives near 
this village ; several grandchildren, however, live in this village or vicinity ; Peter 
Jones, J. S. Hunter, Urial Turner, Noah and Amos Robinson, Sears, Odlong, David 

of. (M.^^c^<^<^d 


and S. G. Williams, Savage, Hiram and Samuel Clock, Godard, Howell, Dumont, 
Pelton, Jager, Post, N. B. Smith, Elleck, Tichenor, Pratt, Burr, Lewis, Valentine, 
King, a large family, of whom there are many representatives still living in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the village. Campbell and Bardwell were also familiar names 
.seventy-five years ago. Loyd Dorsey was the first colored man to vote in this town ; 
he is still hale and hearty. Barto, Daniel and Judge Henry D., were prominent in 
the affairs of the town and county in an early day, and descendants of both still live 
here. Judge Barto lived for many years in the house now owned and occupied by 
Mrs. Mary Quigley. His son, Henry D., succeeded to his legal bu.sinesa, and with 
J. D. Smith, as Barto & Smith, continued to practice law until Mr. Barto retired to 
found the H. D. Barto & Company's Bank. 

Turning now to the civil history of this old town, we find that when 
Onondaga county was set ofif from Herkimer, March 5, 1794, the same 
act created the towns of Marcellus and Ulysses. The latter at that 
time contained what are now the towns of Dryden, IthaCa, Enfield and 
Ulysses, and embraced the military townships of Dryden and Ulysses. 
On the 8th of March, 1790, Cayuga county was erected, and the town 
of Ulysses was included in its limits. 

At a town meeting held April 4, 1800, it was agreed upon that the 
town of Dryden should be set off from Ulysses; but the vote on the 
measure was not taken until the first Tuesday in March, 1802, and 
the act of Legislature erecting Dryden was not passed until February 
n, 1803. 

At a special town meeting held May 11, 1804, it was voted that " that 
part of the town of Ulysses east of the inlet be set off and annexed to 
the town of Milton, Cayuga county." 

On the 29th of March, 1804, Seneca county was erected from 
Cayuga, Ulysses constituting a part of the new county, and it so re- 
mained until April 17, 1817, when Tompkins county was organized 
from Cayuga and Seneca counties. On the 10th of March, 1821, Ithaca 
and Enfield were taken from Ulysses, reducing the town to its present 

In the act of 1794 which erected this town, it was ordered that the 
first town meeting should be held at the "house of Peter Hymnpough," 
in said town. The first record of a town meeting, taken from the town 
book is as follows : 

At the annual town meeting held on Tuesday the 7th day of April, 1795, at the 
house of Peter Hymnpough, in Ulysses, agreeable to publick notice given for that 
purpose, the appointment of town officers areas follows: Andrew English, super- 
visor; Abram Markle, town clerk; Andrew English, Isaac Patchin, Wm. Vannor- 
man, assessors ; Joseph Weston, constable and collector ; Peter Hymnpough, Philip 



Treman and Jas. Smith, commissioners of highways; Nathaniel Davenport and 
Rob't McDowel, overseers of the poor; Peter Demond, Rich'd Goodwin, Henry 
Davenport, overseers of highways; John Yaple and Wm. Vannorman, fence-viewers; 
Richard McDowel, poundmaster. 

The meeting took into consideration the recommendation from the last board of 
supervisors, respecting the assessment of taxable property and other matters, which 
the meeting voted to receive, except the article concerning the destruction of wolves. 
It was voted by said meeting that hogs should run free commoners as long as they 
behave well ; but when they do damage, where is good fence, they must be yoked 
and the damage prized by the fence-viewers, and paid by the owners. 

Recorded this 9th day of April, 1795. 

AiiRAM Markle, Town Clerk. 

The following jury list is worthy of preservation, as indicating many 
of the prominent dwellers in the town at an early date. It is known 
that ten or more of those named lived within the limits of the present 

A return of persons residing and in the town of Ulysses, and county of Onondaga, 
qualified to serve as jurors, agreeable to the statute passed April 3, 1798: Cornelius 
Davenport, farmer; Richard Goodwin and Richard Goodwin 2d, farmers; Jesse 
Harriman, farmer; Jabez Hanmer, farmer; Abram Johnson, shoemaker; Francis 
King, farmer; Abram Markle, esq.; Henry Markle, farmer; Robert McDowel, 
farmer; Henry McLallen, farmer; John McLallen, farmer; Benjamin Pelton, farmer; 
David Smith, farmer ; Joseph S. Sydney, yeoman; Abner Treman, farmer; Jonas 
Whiting, farmer; Geo. Brush; Wm. S. Burch, farmer; Jacob Koykendall, black- 
smith ; Jas. Curry, wheelmaker ; Eliakim Dean, carpenter ; Nathaniel Davenport, 

Recorded this first day of September, 1798. 

AuRAM Markle, Town Clerk. 

Following is a list of the supervisors of this town from its organiza- 
tion to the present time : 

1795. Andrew English. 
1796-99. Abram Markle. 
1800-4. Jonas Whitmg. 

1805. Cornelius Humphrey. 

1806. Jonas Whiting. 
1807-12. Archer Green. 
1813. Robert Ruhey. 
1814r-16. Nicoll Halsey. 

1816. Archer Green. 

1817. John Sutton. 

1818. Nicoll Halsey. 

1819. William R. Collins. 

1820. John Sutton. 
1821-36. Nicoll Halsey. 

1837-29. John Thompson. 
1830-38. Daniel Bower. 
1839-41. John M. Miller. 
1843^4. Alex. Bower. 
1845. William J. Stone. 
1846-48. Alex. Bower. 

1849. Lewis W. Owen. 

1850. W. C. Woodworth. 

1851. Thomas Bower. 
1853. Aaron B. Dickerman. 

1853. William C. Woodworth. 

1854. Aaron B. Dickerman. 
1855-56. Henry B. Chase. 
1857-60. Levi H. Owen. 



1875-77. J. Parker King. 
1878. Horace G. Cooper. 

1880. J. Parker King. 

1881. Horace G. Cooper. 

1882. Horace A. Bower. 
1883-4. Levi J. Wheeler. 
1885-91. Albert H. Pier.son. 
1893-3. Edward Camp. 

1861. A. M. Holman. 
1862-65. Lyman Cong^don. 

1866. William Pierson. 

1867. Alex. Bower. 

1868. Levi H. Owen. 

1869. Henry B. Chase. 

1870. L. H. Owen. 
1871-73. Thomas Bower. 
1874. Alfred B. Woodworth. 

Following is a list of the principal town officers for 1894: Jarvis 
Ganoung, supervisor, Ithaca; Francis M. Austin, town clerk, Trumans- 
burgh; Frank Terry, collector, Waterburg; Henry Hutchings, justice 
of the peace, Waterburg; Seneca Spicer, constable, Trumansburgh ; 
Samuel Frazier, constable, Trumansburgh; Adelbert J. Krum, con- 
stable, Jacksonville; Stephen Baker, constable, Ithaca. 

The pioneers of Ulysses, like those of most other localities in the 
county, made early arrangements for the education of their children. 
The first action in reference to public schools was taken on the 21st of 
June, 170G. A meeting was held for the purpose of choosing a com- 
mittee and trustees, resulting as follows: Robert McDowell, Jeremiah 
Jeffrey, Daniel Turrell, commissioners of schools; Robert McLallen, 
William Van Orman, trustees. 

The first record found relating to the erection of a school house 
speaks of it as having been built of logs at Trumansburgh, and Stephen 
Woodworth was the teacher. 

Previous to 1803 there was a block school house at Jacksonville, and 
Elisha Nye, of Aurora, was teacher. 

The following is of interest in this connection : 

This is to certify that there is due to the town of Ulysses the sum of five pounds 
eight shillings and fourpence three farthings out of the money granted to the county 
of Onondaga by the Supervisors of the State of New York, for the use of schools for 
the year 1795, as witness our hands and seals this 31st of May, 1796. 

Sii.AS Hai.sey, Comkort Tyler, Ebenezer Butler, Benijah Boardman, Elijah 
Price, Samuel Tyler, John Stoyel, and John Tillotson, Supervisors of the County 
of Onondaga. 

Recorded this 10th of June, 1796. 

Ad'm Markle, Town Clerk. 

The town was redistricted in 1813, in consonance with an act of the 
Legislature of the previous year. There have been various changes in 
the districts since that time. 


The prosperity and peace of this town were undisturbed for many 
years prior to the breaking out of the bloody conflict for the preserva- 
tion of the Union. In that historical struggle the people of Ulysses as 
a whole evinced the most enthusiastic patriotism and were among the 
foremost in providing men and means in aid of the threatened govern- 
ment. A general account of the measures adopted in the county at 
large during the war has already been given, and it only needs to be 
added here that Ulysses sent one hundred and seventy-nine men to the 
front, besides thirty-two who were enlisted and mustered into the ser- 
vice in January, 1865. These heroes many of them rest in honored 
graves; many still live with the scars of battle upon them, and many 
won distinction on the field and gained deserved promotion. 

Statistics. — The number of acres of land in Ulysses, as shown by 
the report of the Board of Supervisors for 1803, is 19,818. The assessed 
value of real estate, including village property and real estate of cor- 
porations, was $1,001,000. Total assessed value of personal property, 
$313,310. Amount of town taxes, $6,517.33. Amount of county taxes 
$3,408,4:7. Aggregate taxation, $13,341.33. Rate of tax on $1 valua- 
tion, $0,011. Corporations: N. Y. & P. Telegraph and Telephone 
Company, assessed value of real estate, $750; amount of tax, $8.25. 
G., I. & S. Railroad Company, $49,000, and P. & R. Railroad Company 
Telegraph, $1,000; amount of tax, $550. 

Within the past ten years the farmers of Ulysses have engaged exten- 
sively in cutting and marketing hay, paying less attention than formerly 
to grain growing. There is still a large quantity of fruit produced, and 
within a few years past the raising of grapes has been engaged in quite 

The Union Agricultural a!nd Horticultural Society of Ulysses and 
Covert was organized August 1, 1858; Hon. Truman Boardman, presi- 
dent; Lewis Porter, vice-president; Joseph H. Biggs, secretary; Fred- 
erick S. Dumont, treasurer; J. De Mott Smith, clerk. This society has 
continued since with average prosperity and has been of great benefit 
to the agricultural interests of this region. The principal officers at 
the present time are Dixon H. McNetten, president; Caleb Wixom, 
vice-president; R. J. Hunt, secretary; Horace A. Mosher, treasurer. 


This pretty and progressive village is situated in the northwestern 
part of the town, on both sides of the Trumansburgh Creek. The first 


settler here was Abner Treman, ' who came from Columbia county in 
1792. He was a Revolutionary soldier and drew for his services lot 
No. 3, 040 acres, comprising a strip of land about three-quarters of a 
mile wide and about two miles long, on which the present village is 
located. With Mr. Treman came his brother-in-law, John McLallen, 
and in the next year Jesse Harriman purchased of Mr. Treman 100 
acres on the western part of the village site. McLallen purchased a 
piece of land of Mr. Treman and built a log structure, in which he 
opened a public house, and the place for some years was known as 
"McLallen's Tavern;" it was also called "Treman's Village," and 
finally took its present name of Trumansburgh from the Treman fam- 
ily, members of which had formerly adopted the name of " Truman." 

There was excellent water power in the creek and Mr. Treman began 
operations for building a mill very soon after his arrival, as previously 
related. His mill was constructed of logs with a stone foundation on 
three sides,- the fourth being formed by the native rock. It contained 
only one run of stones and no elevators or conveyors. This old log mill 
was replaced by the pi-esent structure. Mr. Treman died in Mecklen- 
burg, August 23, 1828, and the reader will find an extended account of 
him and his descendants in the later pages of this work. 

When John McLallen came to Trumansburgh he was only nineteen 
years old and acted as teamster for Mr. Treman. His first tavern was 
on or adjoining the lot occupied by the Bennett livery stable. He mar- 
ried Mary King, probably the first marriage in the village, and reared 
a large family of children. His son James became a merchant; David, 
another son, was a physician, and Edward was a civil engineer and 
prominent in the militia. Descendants of John McLallen (some of 
whom spell the name "McClellan") have been numerous and conspicu- 
ous in the history of this town, as will further appear, and some of them 
are still resident in the town. 

John McLallen's log cabin stood near the present residence of E. H. 
Hart, and in that locality he was engaged in clearing land. His 
brother Henry was associated with him in the work and lived in Jessie 
Harriman's cabin. Wild animals were numerous and a few of the 
remaining Indians came to the settlement, sometimes frightening the 

> Sackett's Minutes of township of Ulysses, which covered the history of every lot, 
states that No. 2 was drawn by Abner Trimming, but all authorities show that Abner 
Treman was the person indicated. 


more timid by their demands for a sleeping place ; but they were harm- 
less. Henry McLallen remained on the farm, having bought out the 
interest of his brother, and he afterward purchased the Waterburg 

The little settlement around Treman's Mills increased in numbers, 
and in 1801, or 1802, the first store was opened by Robert Henshaw; 
it stood about where the Travis Hopkins house is located, and a large 
business for the time and place was soon transacted there. Although 
the little place was about two miles from the lake, most of the merchan- 
dise and products came and went by water, until the comparatively 
recent building of the railroad ; and the commercial importance of the 
location soon attracted attention. 

In 1810 seven commissioners were appointed to explore the region 
between the lakes and the navigable waters of the Hudson River, and 
report iipon the most eligible route for a water communication. De 
Witt Clinton, being one of the commission, kept a private journal, 
which has since been published. He visited this place, and says: "We 
dined at Treman's village, so called from the soldier who owns the lot 
jfor military services. He resides here, and is proprietor of the mills, 
and in good circumstances. The village has several houses, three 
taverns, and two or three stores and mills in a ravine or hollow formed 
by a creek which runs through it. It is in the town of Ulysses, and 
was formerly called Shin Hollow by some drunken fellows, who on the 
first settlement frequented a log cabin here, and on their way home 
broke their shins on the bad roads. Dr. Comstock and another phy- 
sician reside here. 

" The contemplated turnpike from Ithaca to .Geneva will pass through 
this place. We dined here at Crandall's tavern. From here to Ithaca 
it is eleven miles, and the road is extremely bad, except four miles 
from the former village. We passed through an uncommonly fine wood 
of pine trees. " < 

It may be presumed that the pioneers of Trumansburgh were men 
and women of considerable culture and certainly were possessed of a 
desire to improve their intellectual opportunities, for in 1811 the 
"Ulysses Philomathic Library " was incorporated. The members of 
this association met on the second Tuesday in June, 1811, at the inn of 
Michael Snell and elected the following trustees: Abner Tremain (as it 
appears in the records), Samuel Ingersoll, jr.. Minor Thomas, Henry 
Taylor and Cornelius Hanley. Stephen Woodworth was chairman of 


this meeting. This association prospered. H. Camp was the first 
librarian; Henry Taylor was the first chairman, and O. C. Comstock 
the first treasurer. As showing the names of some other early residents 
of prominence, the officers' names for the year 1812 were Isaac Still- 
well, chairman; and Abraham Hand, Nathaniel Ayers, Alexander 
Bower, Nicoll Halsey and Don C. Buell, trusteees. The meeting for 
that annual election was held in Mr. Camp's store. The society existed 
until 1839, when its property was sold at auction. The last board of 
officers were John Creque, chairman; James McLallen, secretary; 
Lyman Strobridge, James McLallen, John Creque, James Westervelt, 
E. J. Ayers, Henry Taylor, N: Ayers, Urial Turner and Lewis Porter. 

In 1818 one of the oldest Masonic lodges in this section was chartered 
at Trumansburgh. Eight men of that order petitioned the Grand Lodge, 
and the charter bore the date of June 8, 1818, and the lodge was given 
the name of "Fidelity." The first Master was Henry Taylor; Edward 
Ely, Senior Warden ; Zach. P. Smeed, Junior Warden ; Horace Osborn, 
Treasurer; Elijah H. Goodwin, Secretary. Later it was thought ad- 
visable to remove the charter of the lodge to Ithaca. In 1849, after 
the decline of anti-Masonry, the Grand Lodge was petitioned for a re- 
turn of the charter, but a new one was granted instead. It is Tru- 
mansburgh Lodge No. 157. The present officers are as follows: 
Lyman F. Smith, Master; E. E. Scribner, Senior Warden; C. C- Sears, 
Junior Warden; James G. McLallen, Secretary; Clinton Horton, treas- 
urer; O. G. Noble, Senior Deacon; John Wixom, Junior Deacon; N. R. 
Gifford, Tiler. 

Fidelity Chapter R. A. M. , No. 11, of Trumansburgh, is a prosper- 
ous organization, with the following officers: R. J. Hunt, High Priest; 
H. A. Mosher, King; B. F. Tompkins, vScribe; T. A. Swick, Captain 
of Host. 

Village Incorporation and Fire Department. — It has already been 
intimated that Trumansburgh was somewhat backward in early years 
in providing for the extinguishing of fires, and tlie village suffered ac- 
cordingly. An engine had been purchased previous to the great fire 
of 1864, but it had been neglected and little was done towards keeping 
up any organization for its use. 

In the spring of 1872 a meeting was held for the purpose of effecting 
a better organization of a fire department. A discussion of the subject 
led to a village canvass by J. K. FoUett, to ascertain public feeling re- 
garding the incorporation of the village under the General Act. Senti- 


ment appeai'ed to be in favor of the measure, and the necessary steps 
were so promptly taken that the first corporation election was held 
Avigfust 27, 1872, The following officers were elected : J. D. Lewis, 
president; C. P. Gregg, P. W. Collins, G. H. Stewart, trustees; W. H. 
Teed, collector; C. P. Barto, treasurer. 

Proper notice was given of the projected formation of a fire depart- 
ment and a meeting was called at Lovell's Hall, September 11, 1872, 
at which John N. Hood presided and H. M. Lovell was secretary. An 
organization was at once effected and the following were elected as the 
first officers of the new company: J. K. FoUett, foreman; N. R. Gif- 
ford, first assistant; John McL. Thompson, second assistant; H. M. 
Lovell, secretary; J. N. Hood, treasurer. Mr. Lovell resigned in 
October and M. C. Gould was elected to the vacancy. The date of the 
annual meeting was fixed for December, at which all these officers 
were re-elected for one year. Ira M. Dean was made chief engineer, 
and G. W. Warne and C. B. Dotiglass pipemen. The succession of the 
foremen of the company has been as follows: J. K. FoUet, 1872-4; C. 
W. Moore, 1875 to April,. 1876, when he resigned on account of ill 
health, and G. W. Warne was promoted from first assistant and held 
the office to December 20, 187U; C. F. Hunter, 1877-8; John Dailey, 
1870-80; E. H. Tallmadge, 1881; Matt Cully, 1882; C. F. Hunter, 
1883; R. B. Hill, 1884; R. H. Stewart, 1885; G. P. Becker, 1880-87; 
R. B. Hill, 1888 ; George P. Becker, and Edward Camp. 

The present officers (1894) are as follows: Foreman, Edward Camp, 
first assistant, Florence Fish; second assistant, Charley Rollins; cor- 
responding secretary, C, L. Adams; financial secretary, W. L. Hall; 
treasurer, M. T. Williamson; engineer, Eri Manning; trustees, A. J. 
Howland, R. J. Hunt, E. R. Williams, H. A. Mosher, C. L. Adams. 

In 1882 a social club of young men of the village determined to form 
themselves into an independent hose company and offer their services 
to the village authorities. A meeting was held in July and an organ- 
ization perfected, with the following officers: Will Jones, foreman; 
Charles Lisk, assistant; R. V. Barto, secretary; W. F. Creque and G. 
H. Almy, treasurers. The. succession of foremen of this company has 
been as follows: Will Jones, 1882-85; G. H. Almy, 1880-7; J. C. 
Wheeler, 1888; W. F. Creque, 1889. 

The officers for 1894 are as follows : Foreman, Isaac Holton ; first 
assistant, H. C. Gregg; second assistant, George Comfort; recording 
secretary, Henry Jewell; financial secretary, R. D. Sears; treasurer, 
J. K. Wheeler. 

cd'^ci^i.^.w- (G). ^-acL-d 


At the second meeting of the Board of Trustees measures were 
adopted to procure hose and other fire apparatus, but the formal organi- 
zation of the fire department did not take place until November, 1872, 
when an engine and a hook and ladder company were accepted by the 
board. J. N. Hood was subsequently appointed chief engineer, and 
Charles Clapp, assistant engineer of the department. In 1879 a special 
election was held to vote upon the proposition to build an engine 

In 1874 a board of engineers was organized and held their first meet- 
ing on May 25. The members were S. R. Wickes, chief engineer; J. 
K. Follett, first assistant. John Van Duyn, J. K. Follett, and Ira C. 
Johnson were appointed by the trustees as a fire committee, and D. 
H. Ayres was made clerk of this board, and M. A. Burdick, fire 

In September of that year the following were appointed a fire police : 
A. H. Pierson, D. J. Fritts, D, C. Quigley, G. H. Stewart, R. C. 
Tompkins, J. R. Emery, S. A. Sherwood, Lewis Goodyear and Walter 
Burr. D.S. Biggs succeeded Mr. Wicks as chief engineer, and the 
following have served as chiefs of the department: A. P. Coddington, 
J. T. Howe, E. Holcomb, S. C. Conde, J. C. Kirtland, R. H. Stewart, 
E. S. Stewart, G. P. Becker, G. H. Almy, M. R. Bennett, W. I. Sher- 

The following persons have served as presidents of the village since 
the incorporation : J. T. Howe, elected 1873; E. C. Gregg, 1874; John 
Van Duyn, 1875-7G-77; J. D. Bouton, 1878-79; Truman Boardman, 
1880-81; John C. Kirtland, 1882; F. D. Barto, 1883; H. L. Strobridge, 
1884; John C. Kirtland, 1885; O. M. Wilson, 188G; L. W. Carpenter, 
1887 resigned before qualifying, and H. A. Mosher appointed to the 
vacancy; R. H. Stone, 1888; L. E. Dake, 1889; Edward Camp, 1890; 
Samuel Almy, 1891-92; Frederick C. Biggs, 1893. 

The officers of the village for 1894 are as follows : Ezra Young, pres- 
ident; Edward Murphy, George A. Hopkins, Edwin P. Bouton, trus- 
tees; A. P. Osborn, clerk. 


The first "school" in Trumansburgh was established about 1800. 
It was a private enterprise and was short lived. The first public school 
building was on or near the site of E. M. Corcoran's present store. 


Some time in the twenties this building was sold and moved to the 
extreme east end of the village and a new two-story school building 
built on " McLallen's Hill." As the village grew this became too 
small, and the district was divided and another building erected next 
to what is now the agricultui-al works of Samuel Almy. 

About 1844 the- districts were reunited and the "Union School 
House" was built. This in ten years became inadequate to the grow- 
ing needs of the community, and a meeting was called June 29, 1854, 
to take into consideration the establishment of an academy and erecting 
a suitable building. A committee was appointed, and the matter was 
decided favorably. 

Hermon Camp was chosen first president. Subscriptions were ob- 
tained, and, September 5, 1854, a building was commenced. School 
was opened October 9, 1855. William Whittemore, a graduate of Yale 
College, was chosen principal, and Miss Felicia A. Frisbee, a graduate 
of Mount Holyoke, as assistant. Mr. Camp retained his position as 
president until March, 1878, when Hon. Truman Boardman was 

The Union Free School was established in School District No. 1, of 
Ulysses and Covert, by a vote of the inhabitants at a meeting held in 
school house at Trumansburgh, June 11, 1878. 

At a later meeting, "the Union School" in Trumansburgh having 
been, by a vote of the district, changed to a free school, an academic 
department has been established by the Board of Education. 

The original stockholders, or their representatives, have transferred 
to the district their interest in the property long known as the Tru- 
mansburgh Academy, making of the bvtilding and grounds, the philo- 
sophical apparatus and library, & free gift to the district. 

It is proposed to establish in the building thus acqiiired a school 
"which, in connection with the free school, shall give to the scholars 
of the district, and to such foreign scholars as may choose to avail 
themselves of its privileges, such advantages as will be commensurate 
with the age in which we live and in keeping with the advancement of 
the community in all respects. " 

The faculty is as follows : Daniel O. Barto, principal ; Mrs. Daniel 
O. Barto, assistant; Grammar School, Miss M. E. Swartwood, inter- 
mediate department; Miss Loxiise Hedger, primary department. 

Thus it followed that the "academy" and Union School, although 
in two buildings, were one and practically the same. The system. 



although inconvenient in many respects, was in the main satisfactory; 
yet it was becoming more and more evident that even with increased 
facilities the accommodations were inadequate, and it was becoming 
something of a problem as to the future. Accident, however, furnished 
the solution, for on February 17, 1892, the old academy was burned 
to the ground. On April 7, 1893, at a school meeting called for the 
purpose, it was resolved to btiild a new school building, and on June 
35 the Board of Education advertised for bids. 

This resulted in the building of the present edifice, at a cost of $30,- 
000, which is perhaps as complete a building for the purpose as can be 
found in Central New York. The structure is in dimensions 100 by 00 
feet, two stories high, supplied with a perfect system of heating and 
ventilating apparatus, and has a capacity of over 400 pupils. The old 
Union School building has been sold and all departments are now under 
one roof. 

The present Board of Education is B. F. Tompkins, Henry Rudy, 
jr., Albert F. Mosher, Richard H. Stone, Levi J. Wheeler, Chauncey 
P. Gregg, M. Truman Smith. 

Officers of the board: Levi J. Wheeler, president; M. T. William- 
son, secretary; Jonah T. Ilowe, treasurer; M. T. Williamson, collector. 

Faculty: E. Ernest Scribner, principal, Greek, mathematics, sciences, 
and Teachers' Class; Miss Clara Chapman, preceptress, Latin, German 
and literature; Miss Ada Weatherwax, assistant principal, French, 
English, mathematics, and Teachers' Class; Miss Edla Gregg, music 
and painting; Miss Anna Haft, Grammar School; Miss Lena Wagner, 
junior department; Miss Eva Farr, intermediate department; Miss 
vSara K. Bradley, primary department. 

Under the present management the school has attained a high degree 
of excellence, and although the expense was something of a burden on 
a small tax-paying community, no one now regrets the outlay. The 
standard of scholarship has been raised to a most satisfactory degree, 
owing largely to the efforts of the principal and faculty, whose every 
effort in this direction has been promptly seconded by the board. The 
influence of this school is now reaching far into the surrounding coun- 
try, and the number of foreign scholars is constantly increasing. 

Trumansburgh has suffered severely from several fires, the most 
disastrous of which took place on February 33, 1864. Before giving 
an account of this conflagration, we will quote from the Free Press 
pamphlet the following description of the place as it appeared just be- 
fore the fire ; 


It is within the memory of those now living when Main street presented a strag- 
gling and exceedingly uninteresting aspect ; there was no uniformity either in archi- 
tecture or grade ; every one built as it seemed to him best. The street west of the 
bridge previous to 1864 was several feet lower than at present, although it had been 
filled in several times ; yet it was at that time so low that it was seldom dry. Up 
to the time when the corner now occupied by the Camp Block was built upon, the 
dam covered most of the ground covered by that building, and at times even in mid- 
summer there was sufficient water to afford young America opportunity to indulge 
in aquatic sport. Crossing the dam on the site of the present stone bridge was a 
wooden structure of not more than one-half the width of the street and raised so 
high above the grade on each side a? to amount to quite a formidable hill, and yet 
its upper surface was much lower than now. All that portion of the street between 
the bridge and the foot of the McLallen Hill has been raised from eight to twelve 
feet, and the buildings on either side which are now on grade have in many instances 
their cellars where the original structures had their first- story, and even this story 
was reached by a long flight of steps from the board sidewalk below. Going east 
from the bridge the street was divided nearly in half from a point in front of the 
Page Block to the corner of Elm street by a wall, the south side of which was filled 
in to make a driveway to the residence of H. Camp, the building now occupied by J. 
D. Bouton, leaving a narrow roadway for ordinary traffic. The turnpike from Mc- 
Lallen's store northwest made a bend several rods further to the north than the 
present roadway, passing but a few feet from the James McLallen homestead. This 
hill was very steep, and with the depression at its foot gave the brick store the ap- 
pearance of being on a hill, as in fact it was, comjjared to the street below. It was 
not an unusual occurrence during the season of high water in the creek to see the 
street between the bridge and the hill submerged to the depth of several feet and 
remain so for several days. At almost all times the slack water from the dam ex- 
tended as far as where Bennett's livery barn now stands, and during the spring 
■floods the slightest gorge of ice in the dam flooded the whole lower part of the town. 
In 1843 the Baptist Society decided to build a new church, and the old one was sold 
to Abner Treman, who moved it on the corner lot now occupied by the Camp Block. 
The building was partially over the water and it was not until several years after 
that a substantial foundation was put under the east side. The property was sold 
several times, and finally fell into the hands of David Trembley, who added another 
store on the east overhanging the dam. At the time of the great fire, on Feb. 23d, 
1864, this building was owned by Lyman Mandeville, and as this conflagration re- 
moved all the ancient landmarks from this corner to the Presbyterian church, a de- 
scription of the burned district as it then existed will be interesting. The corner 
store where the fire started was occupied by Woodworth & Bowers, the next loom 
east was used by them as a store-room, then came the harness shop of J. S. Hunter. 
The first building across the creek was the harness shop of Mosher & Kelly ; this was 
on the lot now occupied by the Ostrander building; Dr. Clough had his dental rooms 
in the second story.' John Eber Thomas had a meat market next door. Next came 
a building occupied by Mrs. W. H. Teed as a dressmaking shop ; adjoining this was 
the saloon and restaurant of W. H. Teed, who also had his residence in the second 
story and in the rear ; then followed the cabinet shop of Fayette Williams. The first 
floor of the next building was occupied by John Blue as a jewelry store, and the sec- 


Olid story by Dr. L. Hughey as an office and residence ; next was the dwelling of 
Francis Creque. The saloon kept by Thomas Sarsfield came next, and on the corner 
stood a dwelling owned by S. G. Williams and occupied by Thomas Sarsfield; just 
below on the mill road was the blacksmith shop and residence of Samuel Williams. 
On Union street the first building from the corner was the shoe shop of Thomas 
Wells. The next building had a blacksmith shop on the first floor run by a Mr. 
Snow, a son-in-law of David Trembley, who had a paint shop in the second story ; 
then came Creque's foundry. Continuing up the hill, the next building was used by 
John Creque, jr., as a tin shop; then a dwelling house occupied by Jacob Creque; a. 
house owned by H. Camp and occupied by Jerry Johnson, and the Wolverton house. 
The first building east of the mill road and on Main street was a dwelling and saloon 
occupied by Peter Letts ; the next was the furniture and undertaking warerooms of 
C. P. Bancroft; the building occupied the lot where the stores of W. A. Fuller and 
E. Corcoran now stand ; there was also a millinery shop in the upper story. Mosher 
& Burch had a general store where the Stewart building now stands; next came the 
residence and store of J. R. Emery, on the same lot now occupied by him ; Wickes's 
drug store, and millinery shop kept by Esther Stewart, a dressmaking shop by 
Misses Jones & Hoag were next. There were also a. couple of small buildings be- 
tween this block and the Dr. Lewis Halsey homestead ; a large brick house owned 
and occupied at this time by David Trembley ; next to this was the Union House 
and barns; then the brick store of S. Allen; a small building formerly occupied by 
Eliphlet Weed, esq. , and later by Charles Lyon as a shoe shop, but at the time of 
the fire it was a millinery store ; then came the dwelling house and store of the 
Quigleys, and next to the church stood the new house of D. C. Quigley. With the 
exception of the Allen store, and residence of David Trembley, all of these buildings 
were wood, and for the most part old, although in good repair ; some of them had 
been altered over from residences into stores, and in some instances two had been 
united by a common front, introducing show windows, etc., giving the buildings a 
■pretentious appearance not borne out by a more careful examination of premises. 

The great fire was discovered about one o'clock in the morning of 
February 33, 1864, in the corner store, then occiipied by J. S. Hunter; 
There vsras no fire extinguishing apparatus of any kind in the village, 
the buildings were old and dry, and the flames spread rapidly. Lines 
of men and women were formed and buckets of water passed along to 
the devouring flames ; but little impression was made upon the confla- 
gration. Furniture and goods were removed in advance of theflame.'las 
far as possible. On Main street from the bridge to the Presbyterian 
church, and Elm street to the corner of Whig, the buildings were filled 
with household goods and merchandise, considerable of which was 
taken out to places of safety. Buildings were finally blown up in efforts 
to check the fire, and it looked at one time as if the fine church must 
go; but by heroic efforts it was saved. The heaviest loss was the 
destruction of the stone mill owned by J. D. Bouton, which had then 


recently been refitted and impi-oved. It was believed that the fire was 
the work of incendiary. 

This was a hard blow to the village, but the lesson was a salutary 
one, and resulted in the large district burned over being promply built 
up with a far better class of structures. 

Most of the original owners either had no disposition or were unable 
to rebuild. On the subject being agitated the lots were eagerly sought 
for on account of the desirable location. The first change was the pur- 
chase of the Lyman Strobridge lot by H. B. Jones. This was followed 
by^the sale of the triangular lot between the Strobridge lot and the dam 
to J. S. Hunter, and the lot on the east owned by H. Camp to Joseph 
H. Biggs. Building was commenced on these lots during the summer 
and in the fall they were occupied. Then followed the building of 
the brick block on the hill. Dumont bought the Union House 
lot and the Trembley lot and erected two stores; Wickes rebuilt 
on his lot; the Quigleys built a store next door, and Titus Hart built 
the store now occupied b}"^ J. S. Halsey; J. R. Emery rebuilt with 
wood on his original lot; Lyman A. Mandeville sold the corner lot to 
H. Camp, who also purchased from David Trembley the adjoining lot 
on Union street and that portion of the lot which had been taken from 
the dam on the east, and erected the present building. Subsequently 
S. Earle built his present store, having purchased from the Biggses a 
portion of their lot, and from Seneca Daggett all the ground now oc- 
cupied by the engine house, which he afterward sold to the corporation 
of the village. It will be seen that with but two or three exceptions 
none of the original owners rebuilt. Mr. Bouton rebuilt the mill, the 
community generously coming to his aid with substantial contributions. 

Some two years after this fire, while some of the buildings were un- 
completed, the sash, blind and door factory on Main street, on the lot 
now occupied by J. E. Hall's paint shop, was burned. 

Money was plenty at this time and rebuilding went on rapidly. New 
structures were erected on Union street, in which old boundary lines 
were largely obliterated. The site of the first building above the 
furnace, owned by John Creque, is now covered by the Pease block and 
adjoining structures. Morris Sarsfield's store is on a piece of land 
bought by H. Camp of David Trembley. John Van Auken's black- 
smith shop and barn occupy part of the old Furnace lot. Asher 
Wolverton built on his original lot. The result of the fire was to 
change the whole aspect of the village east of the bridge; but the alter- 



ation due to the next fire was still greater; the latter took place at two 
o'clock on the morning of May 22, 1871, starting in an alley between 
two stores. The buildings were of wood and there was little hope of 
saving them, while the Washington House, on the opposite side of the 
street, caught fire several times. After the flames had progressed for 
some time, some person suggested that the fire engine, had been 
purchased several years earlier, should be brought into use. This was 
done, it being found stored in a barn, and it served to aid materially in 
checking the flames; but not until a terrible work of destruction had 
been accomplished. The territory burned over extended from the 
bridge to the shop of Cuffman & Clark on the south, and from the Wash- 
ington Houss corner to, and including. Stone & Biggs's store on the 
south side of the street. ;The condition of this part of the village 
previous to the fire, and the changes wrought in the rebuilding, are 
thus described in the Free Press pamphlet : 

Prior to that time, commencing at the bridge on the south side of the street, was 
the market of George Wolverton, a small wooden building remembered as the place 
where for many years Asher Wolverton had done business. Originally this building 
was set high above the street, partially overhanging the dam, and approached by a 
flight of steps leading to a sort of platform. Next, and separated from it by a nar- 
row alley, was the " Bee Hive."' This was built and owned by H. Camp; it sya^ of 
wood, three stories high, and derived its name from the large number and variety of 
occupations carried on within its walls. There were two stores on the ground floor 
which, at the lime of the fire, were occupied by Jarvis Stone (who had just purchased 
the property), and Mrs. Giltner, milliner. The upper floors were used as living 
rooms, photograph gallery, and a large room in the northwest corner of the third 
story had been used as a band room for many years. Next was an alley, the right 
of way of which belonged to Wolverton ; next the store of Eber Lovell, formerly the 
hardware store of Wm. G. Godley ; next the store of Atwater & Tompkms, owned 
by Clark Daggett ; another covered alley in which also the Wolvertons held the title ; 
then came the hardware store of Pratt, Rumsey & Allen ; this building was the orig- 
inal shop of Uriel Turner, and had undergone many changes; a roof had been put 
on, uniting this with the building on the east, covering the alley; next west of the 
hardware was the old stand of John Jamieson, but which at this time (1871) was oc- 
cupied by Pratt, Rumsey & Allen as a store room, and as a residence by John Green ; 
then came a small building which had been fitted up as a saloon by A. V. Bush ; 
next to this was the building formerly owned by T. N. Perkins and used as a marble 
works, but at this time bcgupied by B. P. Sears as a grocery ; next were the sheds of 
the Washington House barn ; quite a space intervened between this and the black- 
smith shop of Douglass, with the livery stable of J. K. FoUett in the rear ; then came 
the wagon shop of Cuffman & Clark, with Fayette Williams occupying his present 
stand. On the opposite side of the street stood the Washington House ; next the 
jewelry store of Jacob Blue ; the shoe and leather store of S. A. Sherwood.; the store 


of Wm. H. Teed, and the Home Building, a fine block extending to the brick store 
of Stone & Biggs. The Home building was owned by Wm. Hv Teed and J. L. Stone, 
and had three stores on the ground floor ; the west one was occupied by Mr. Lieber- 
man as a clothing store, the center one as a bakery, and the east one by Mrs. Ban- 
croft as a millinery store ; W. A. Fuller lived in the second story, and the third was 
the Masonic Hall. Between this building and the store of Himrod there had been 
an alley, wide in front and narrowing toward the rear ; upon this lot Mr. Teed had 
erected the store which he was occupying at the time of the fire. 

The blow to the town was a severe one, and for a time seemed to paralyze the 
sufferers, yet the vitality of our people once more exhibited itself, and within twenty- 
four hours a new building was in process of erection on the site of the Douglass 
blacksmith shop by Pratt, Runisey & Allan, who occupied it until the present store 
of Biggs & Co. was completed. In rebuilding the burned district history was re- 
peated, old boundary lines were changed, lots were divided, portions of .some added 
to others. George Wolverton bought of W. J. Stone the alley between the old stores 
and erected the buildijig now used as a post-office. W. J. Stone sold the west half 
of the Bee Hive lot to G. H. Stewart; F. B. Stone built on the east half the store 
now occupied by C. L. Chapman; Stewart built a fine building on his lot, the west 
line of which is the center of the old alley-way which was surrendered by Wolverton. 
E. Lovell's Sons built on their lot and the west half of the alley. Clark Daggett re- 
built, as did Pratt, Rumsey & Allen. E. S. Pratt built on the Jamieson lot, and A. 
V. Bush on the Perkins lot. The Washington House lot remained vacant for some 
time, and is now occupied by W. H. Teed, the Farmers' Inn, and the L. H. Owen 
office. J. C. Kirtland built on the Blue lot, and also erected a brick store for W. H. 
Teed, who sold his interest in the Home building lot to Mrs. C. P. Gregg, who in 
connection with J. L. Stone and D. S. Biggs built the present Opera House Block. 
L. H. Owen built an office and store house on the south side of the street, which, 
with a temporary building erected for a roller skating rink, was destroyed by fire on 
May 3, 1885. The building which occupied the site of the present Page Block was 
burned August 28, 1872. 

Manufactures. — The early manufacturing operations in Trumans- 
burgh, as well as in other parts of the town of Ulysses, were chiefly 
confined to the grist mills, saw mills, and the various shops in which 
wagons, boots and shoes, furniture, domestic tinware, etc., were pro- 
duced. Several of these early industries have already been mentioned, 
and are described in later pages devoted to the other small villages of 
the town. 

Of some of the early industries the writer of the Free Press pamphlet 

Who has the honor of being the first metal worker to settle here is somewhat in 
doubt, but that David Williams found a blacksmith already at work is beyond ques- 
tion ; but probably Mr. Williams was the first to engage in what might be called 
manufacturing. A man named Holliday built and for some years operated a fur- 
nace located on the flat just below Bush's Hill. In 1812 a young Jerseyman named . 


John Creque, a blacksmith by trade, attracted by the favorable reports of the new 
country, shouldered his kit of tools and started on a tour of investigation. Some 
time previous to this a family of Updikes, with whom he was connected, had moved, 
into the country and founded what was known as the Updike Settlement, a few miles 
south of this village, and as was quite natural Mr. Creque sought out his old ac- 
quaintances. He saw no opening for him in that immediate locality and decided to 
try his fortunes at the " Holler," as Trumansburgh was then known. He had mar- 
ried a wife, Catharine Updike, in 1808, who with his family of three children, the 
youngest a babe, he had left in New Jersey. After deciding to remain, he went 
back for his family, and on his return rented a disused building near where the 
house of Linus Waring now stands, and after making such repairs as was necessary 
for comfort moved in. 

In those days blacksmiths were forced to do all manner of repairing 
of farm utensils. The plows then used were of wood, iron shod and 
steel pointed and made by blacksmiths. John Creque, who was a man 
of shrewd business capacity, heard of the first cast iron plows of Jethro 
Wood at Wolcott. He made a visit there and arranged to buy castings 
of Wood, which enabled him to also make the new plows. Soon after- 
ward he joined his friend, Lyman Strobridge, in partnership. They 
eontinited successfully in the business, buying their castings of Wood 
until about 1832, when Mr. Creque built a furnace nearly on the site of 
the present residence of John Van Auken. He put in a steam plant 
of primitive character, the engine having been made in Auburn prison. 
When his shop became too small Mr. Creque in 1836 built the furnace 
on the site of the first blacksmith's shop, which building was burned in 
the great fire of 1864. Besides Mr. Strobridge, Mr. Creque had as 
partners at different periods, a Mr. Hildreth, Benjamin Burgess and 
his sons, Washington and James, who in 1854 rented the works for five 
years. They were succeeded by Perrigo and Keeler, and William 
Douglass and John Van Auken. About the beginning of 1864 Wash- 
ington and James Creque proposed to buy the property, but the great 
fire prevented the consummation of the arrangement. Mr. Creque 
died November 2, 1866. 

The first mill by Abner Treman has been described. The fine water 
power of the creek naturally attracted early attention from the pioneers. 
Soon after 1800 a dam was built above the bridge at Rightmire's quarry, 
and at the end of the raceway on the west bank a saw mill was built. 
It was of great utility to the settlers in making lumber for early build- 
ings. A short time afterward a grist mill was built near that point, 
and later a plaster mill just below. In 1835 apart of this property was 
converted into an oil mill, which was operated many years. Albert 


Campbell built a dam above the one just described in early years, 
which supplied power to a small wood-working shop. About twenty 
rods above this John Campbell built a saw mill, and still farther up 
Peter Van Dervere had another. The next site above was owned by 
John Treman, who built a factory for wool carding and cloth making, 
which was operated by Samuel Smith ; Allen Pease purchased it later 
and changed it to a plaster mill. Just above this was A. B. Dicker- 
man's tub and pail factory. Farther tip still- Mr. Dickerman had a saw 
mill, and next above that David Williams established a trip hammer 
shop, where most of the axes used about here were made; this was 
subsequently changed to a woolen factory; later cloth-making ma- 
chinery was added, and a large business was carried on. Turner, 
Andrews & Company had a similar establishment on or near the site of 
the store of Biggs .& Company ; it was managed by Frederick Beck- 
with. There was another woolen mill at ''Podunk." 

Besides all these early industries, there were numerous asheries in 
the vicinity, which for many years were a source of considerable in- 
come. H. Camp probably had the first one soon after 1800. Albert 
Crandall had one, and James McLallcn another just west of the Trem- 
bley House barn, which was at that time a tannery. -It is said that 
between 1830 and 1850 more people in Trumansburgh were engaged in 
various industries than at any time since. 

Sometime between 1830 and 1830 Jonathan Treman, son of the 
pioneer, Abner Treman, built for two mechanics. Grant & Lockwood, 
the main building of what is now the agricultural works of Sarauel 
Almy. The property became locally famous over quite a section as 
"The Red Furnace," and during a half a century had various pro- 
prietors and met with periods of alternate success and failure. The 
original building was occupied early as a blacksmith shop in 
the basement, a wagon shop on the first floor, while David Will- 
iams lived in the upper story, and later William Chandler had a 
chair factory there. A succession of firms such as Grant & Stet- 
son, Grant & Campbell, Grant & King, and King & Lambert suc- 
ceeded that of Grant & Lockwood in blacksmithing, wagon work and 
building thrashing machines. Grant & Stetson introduced a metal 
working lathe, and moulding and casting, and a little later steain power 
was put in. Abram Andrus was then taken into the business to en- 
large its capital, but his interest was soon purchased by McLallen & 
Hesler, who, with George T. Spink and Stephen H. Lamport, formed a 


new firm. The next change was to the style of Spink, Lamport & 
Pease, Alvin Pease coming in with additional means. Various other 
changes followed, during which George Auble, Milo Van Dusen, Daniel 
Cooper, a Mr. Tobey, George Curry, Emmet Ayres, William Ogden and 
several others had more or less interest in the business. Ogden's admin- 
istration was succeeded by the firm of Rumsey & Almy, and this by 
Riimsey, Almy & Hunt. The present proprietor of the works, and who 
succeeded the last mentioned firm, is Samuel Almy, who makes barrel 
hoops by special machinery, and has otherwise improved the property. 

Grant & Lockwood and Qrial Turner were the pioneers in wagon 
making. Others who have been identified at different times with this 
interest are several of Mr. Turner's sons, William and Joseph Creque, 
Abraham Creque, D. P. Cuffman, David Trembly, Cuffman, Mosher 
& Rose, Mosher & Burch, Cuffman & Clark (J. G. Cuffman and John 
G. Clark), Cuffman & Son, Alanson Bean, Peter Jones, John Aiken, 
Harvey Pollay, M. Curry, Allen & Uhl, J. G. & D. C. Clark, J. H. B. 
Clark, William Douglass; Mosher, Bennett & Bates, and Mosher & 
Bennett. Urial Turner's shop was where Biggs & Company's store is 
now situated, and was occupied by him and his successors many years. 
William Creque and his successors had their shop on the lot now oc- 
cupied by Joseph Davenport, carpenter, and Mosher & Burch afterward 
occupied the same building, which later on was changed to a door, sash 
and blind factory, and was burned. Mosher & Bennett occupy the 
buildings made vacant by the failure of Allen & Uhl, and are now mak- 
ing platform spring wagons under Clark's patent as a specialty. J. G. 
& J. H. V. Clark occupy the building in wagon making and repairing. 

One of the early harness makers was Lyman Strobridge, whose settle- 
ment has been described. Ilis first shop was on Union street, next to 
John Creque's blacksmith shop, and the two became firm friends and 
subsequently partners in manufacturing plows. In 1831 Mr. Strobridge 
erected a building on Main street, on the lot now occupied by John 
Kaufman, where he carried on harnessmaking until his retirement in 
1850. He was prominent in politics as a Democrat, a Free Soiler, and 
finally a Republican; was presidential elector in 1830; was in the Leg- 
islature in 1845, and was postmaster in 1848-9. His wife was Sarah 
Potter, and they had four children. H. L. Strobridge is his grandson. 

Soon after the great fire of 1804 the Gregg Iron Works, which had 
been in operation at Farmer village, building agricultural implements, 
were i^emoved to Trumansburgh, and during more than twenty years 


added largely to the prosperity of the place. A. H. Gregg was a mem- 
ber of the firm, and through financial difficulties E. C. Gregg, the 
father, and C. P. Gregg, brother of A. H. Gregg, took the machine 
shop part of the plant. They purchased the'land where the works now 
stand, and in 1805 erected the present machine shop. After that ad- 
ditions were made as necessity demanded. The principal implement 
made was the Meadow King mower, but others were added, notably the 
Osborn sulky plow, Sharpe horse rake, Morse horse rake and lawn 
mowers. About 100 hands were usually employed. In 1887, owing to 
over-production and the failure of several of their customers, the works 
were forced to assign, which they did, to S. D. Halliday, of Ithaca. 
By consent of creditors he continued to operate the works. The as- 
signee sold the property at public sale to Dr. G. W. Hoysradt, of Ithaca, 
and from him it passed to the family of Mr. Gregg, and is still operated 
under the style of Gregg & Company. 

The firm of J. W. & C. W. Dean now operates a saw mill with gen- 
eral wood-working facilities attached, and a feed mill. L. H. Gould 
also does a lai-ge business in a similar line. At and near Halseyville 
are two excellent flouring mills, both by the roller process, one con- 
ducted by Eugene Dewey, and the other- by W. D. Brinkerhoff & Son. 

The quarrying of stone for building and flagging is extensively car- 
ried on at Taghanic Falls by vHomer Rightmire, who' has a large 
mill for stone dressing, and by D. S. Biggs & Sons. Cornelius Collins 
is postmaster at the Falls, the office having been established soon after 
the opening of the railroad. 

Post-Office. — -The first postmaster of Trumansburgh was Oliver C. 
Comstock, who held the office from 1811 to 1813. He was succeeded 
by H. Camp, who continued eighteen years, resigning in 1831, to be 
succeeded by James McLallen. The latter resigned in 1844, when for 
four years Lyman Strobridge had the office. Sanford Halsey was then 
appointed, and about a year later, in 1849, L. D. Bennett was appointed 
and continued until June, 1863. He was succeeded by Benjamin Allen, 
who retired August 10, 1801, and was followed by A. G. Stone. He 
held the office until April, 1871, and was succeeded by S. R. Wicks, 
who retired in 1873. C. P. Gregg was his successor, who resigned the 
office to D. S. Biggs. He was followed in July, 1885, by J. T. Howe. 
R. J. Hunt took the office under Harrison in March, 1890. Under the 
administration of D. S. Biggs the office was made a presidential office. 
J. T. Howe has recently been appointed postmaster. 



Cemetery. — In 1847, when it became evident that the old burial 
ground, owned by the First Presbyterian church, was insufficient for 
the needs of the community, meetings were held to consider the subject 
of providing a new cemetery farther from the village center. At one 
of these meetings held May 24, 1847, the Grove Cemetery Association 
was organized with the following trustees, who afterwards became in- 
corporators: Walker Glazier, George T. Spink, William Atwater, 
NicoU Halsey, F. S. Dumont, James McLallen, John Creque, James 
H. Jerome, and N. B. Smith. On the 30th of the same month the 
above persons appeared before Henry D. Barto, county judge, and 
acknowledged the execution of the articles of incorporation, and at a 
meeting called soon after, Nicoll Halsey was elected president ; N. B. 
Smith, secretary; and Walker Glazier, treasurer. The following Au- 
gust the association bought of Smith Durling eight acres of land, for 
which they paid $85 per acre. This land was a part of the present 
beautiful cemetery, and has been greatly improved. In 1858 seven 
acres more were purchased, and other additions have since been made. 
In 1861 the Presbyterian Society made a proposition to the Cemetery 
Association for the latter to assume control of the burial ground, and 
the arrangement was subsequently effected ; but the care of the grounds 
became a useless burden, interments there ceased, and in 1890 all the 
bodies were removed to the new cemetery. The present cemetery, 
with its beautiful landscape effects, a handsome receiving vault and 
other modern improvements, is an attractive and appropriate place for 
the repose of the dead. The officers for 1894 are Truman Boardman, 
president; L. P. Hand, vice-president; H. A. Mosher, secretary; James 
K. Wheeler, treasurer; executive committee, H. A. Mosher, Ephraim S. 
Pratt, Edward Camp. 

Mercantile Business. — Mention has been made of the first store in 
Trumansburgh, kept by Robert Henshaw at the beginning of the cen- 
tury. At that time Owego was a place of considerable importance, 
whence most of the supplies for the country between the lakes was 
received, and whither went much of the produce of this section. The 
firm of Camp Brothers were the leading merchants of that place, and 
their business brought them a knowledge of " McLallen's Tavern." 
In 1805 they made a prospecting visit in quest of a site where they 
might build up a large trade. The result was the purchase by them of 
Mr. Henshaw's store, which was placed in charge of Hermon Camp, a 
younger brother of the firm. This event was an important one for the 


village of Trumansburgli. The ample capital of the firm, and the ex- 
ceptional business ability of Hermon Camp were powerful factors in 
building up the place. The old store soon became too contracted for 
the business and a new one was built, a part of which has been recently 
used for Charles Thompson's market. To this store additions were 
made from time to time, as increasing trade demanded, and in 1820 
several clerks were employed, among whom was Daniel Ely. In 1833 
a partnership was formed between Mr. Camp and Mr. Ely. 

The following account of Mr. Camp's after life in Trumansburgh is 
taken from the pamphlet history of the place before alluded to : 

In 1825 occurred the most important event of Mr. Camp's life, namely, his sepa- 
ration and subsequent divorce from his first wife. The trial resulted in the political 
division of the town; two factions sprang into existence, old political lines were 
obliterated, and for many years candidates were nominated and elected on the basis 
of their position in the Camp-Ely embroglio. The feeling even extended into the 
jury box, and the animosities between former friends became as bitter as their 
friendships had been strong; this feeling was even handed down to the next genera- 
tion, and even to this day, when it is believed that all the actors in this lamentable 
affair are in their graves, it has not been obliterated. A man of lighter calibre would 
have succumbed under the pressure, but a fixed purpose, an iron will, and a deter- 
mination to live through and rise above social difficulties and alienation of friends 
was to him the stimulant for a more aggressive business policy. Mr. Camp was no 
saint ; he had his share of faults and social infirmities of primitive times. The moral 
code was not so well defined nor its provisions so well observed as at present ; the 
country was still little better than a wilderness ; society was in a chaotic state ; might 
too often made right; practices which would not now be tolerated were common. 
Mr. Camp simply adapted himself to his surroundings and made the most of his 
opportunities; he was no better nor worse than his fellows. He sold whisky as 
freely as molasses and with no more thought of committing a moral wrong; the use 
of one was as common as the other, and the man who did not drink was the excep- 
tion, and he did not drink, at least to any extent. In those days all merchants kept 
a jug of whisky behind the counter which was free to customers; no sale was con- 
sidered complete or barter consummated without the customary treat. Most drinkers 
are never so rich as when in their cups, and while reveling in imaginary wealth are 
prone to indulge in luxuries if they have the cash — or credit. Alas! the poor man's 
credit was too often to his discredit, a day of settlement must come, and his rum 
courage and whisky wealth vanished into thin air. If Mr. Camp profited by this 
condition of things, he certainly did no more than other merchants, but it must stand 
to his credit that he was also identified with the first temperance movement in this 
town. As early as 1830, at a meeting of the merchants and grocers called : or the 
purpose, he heartily endorsed a proposition to abolish the treating custom. Five 
years before this a move had been made to stop the licensing of groceries; whether 
this emanated from the tavern keepers or citizens does not appear, but it is evident, 
even at this remote period, that Trumansburgh had troubles over the whisky ques- 
tion. • 


During the revival of 1831 Mr. Camp was converted, and on February 6th of that 
year united with the Presbyterian Church on profession of faith. From this time in 
many respects he was a changed man. He resigned his position as postmaster 
rather than to obey the law of the department requiring the mails to be changed on 
Sunday; the light-hearted, open-handed, freethinking man became an austere and 
uncompromising Calvinist. He abandoned the sale of liquor and began the war 
against its use and sale which he fought to his dying day. He at once assumed, as 
if by right, a prominent position in the church and became its acknowledged leader, 
and he administered upon its affairs with the same uncomproinising purpose which 
characterized him in business. He would brook no opposition; everything must 
yield to his imperious will. He dealt with recreant members as with an unruly child; 
discipline and punishment swift and sure were certain to follow any infraction of the 
puritanical code which he had adopted. Such men as E. C. Gregg and Lyman Stro- 
bridge must confess it a sin to ride in a ^yagon on Sunday in order to reach their 
families from whom they had been separated for weeks or be disciplined ; they re- 
fused and left the church. Yet he was but following his nature, and in his heart 
believed he was doing God's service. He was active, persistent and consistent. He 
abstained from what he condemned in others, and there is no question but that to 
his skillful management of its affairs the Presbyterian Church owes much of its pres- 
ent prosperity. He gave his time and money without stint to deserving objects, he 
always being the judge. He prospered in business and waxed rich, built houses and 
stores, invested in stocks, was for many years president of the Tompkins County 
Bank. During the financial troubles of 1857, when all banks suspended Specie pay- 
ment, a mob of people collected in front of his house clamoring for their money. He 
came out to them demanding the cause of such a demonstration. " We want our 
money," cried some. "Go to your homes; you have my personal guarantee that 
every Tompkins County Bank bill you hold is good for its face in gold." They went. 
The bank might not be sound, but H. Camp was, and his simple word better than 
their bond. Mr. Camp was not an ostentatious bestower of charity, but he gave 
liberally to educational institutions, particularly to those for preparing young men 
for the ministry. He was instrumental in organizing the first temperance society 
called the Sons of Temperance, and in company with James McLallen circulated a 
temperance pledge through the village, making a personal application to every male 
person of suitable age in the place ; this was in 1835. He subsequently became very 
active in the temperance movement, was for some years president of the State Tem- 
perance Society, and was spoken of as a candidate for governor on a prohibition 
ticket. He obtained his military title for services in the war of 1813-14, having 
raised the only cavalry company in the State. This company was recruited mostly 
from this and adjoining towns; the drilling ground was the then open field now oc- 
cupied by the " PhcEnix Hou§e" and adjacent property. He marched his company 
to the Niagara River, which was the western frontier of the State, and did guard and 
picket duty along the river until close of the war. Although never in a general en. 
gageraent, they were constantly harassed by stray shots from the river, and the 
writer well remembers an address made by " Col." Camp to the first volunteers from 
this town in 1861 in which he described his sensations when listening to the whistling 
of bullets from unseen British soldiers from the other side. He was a hearty sup- 
porter of the Union during the late war, rendering substantial aid to the soldiers and 


their families. Mr. Camp's second wife was Caroline Cook, who died in 1840; his 
third wife was Catharine Cook, who died in 1847 ; in 1848 he married Sarah P. Camp, 
widow of his nephew Frederick M. , who survives him. Mr. Camp died June 8, 1879, 
aged ninety years and eight months. 

It is manifestly impossible in this work to follow the varied mercan- 
tile interests of Trumansburgh in past years. As a rule, the business 
men of the place have been enterprising, and at the same time have 
traded on conservative lines and in many instances with the most 
gratifying success. The various stores in the place at the present time 
will compare favorabl)' with those of any other similar village in the 
State. Such establishments as those conducted by Manning Atwater, 
Ezra Young, Biggs & Co., Mosher Brothers, Chapman & Becker, 
Mosher & Sears, H. S. Bates, and others, are a credit to their owners, 
and render it needless for citizens to go elsewhere for needed supplies. 

The Barto Bank, organized in 1803, to which allusion has been made, 
closed its offices in 1889. Since 1885 the banking business of the town 
has been done by the private bank of L. J. Wheeler & Co., the com- 
pany being James K. Wheeler. 

Personal sketches and biographical notices of most of the prominent 
citizens of the town will be found in a later department of this work, 
to which the reader is referred. 

Hotels. — As before stated, John McLallen kept the first public 
house in Trumansburgh. It was built of logs and a very primitive 
"hotel" in all respects. After a few years in this house he built a 
more pretentious structure on the opposite side of the street, which 
was called " McLallen's Tavern." This was afterwards demolished to 
make room for the Union block. 

Soon after 1800 a tavern was built on land including that now occu- 
pied by Owen Ferguson and Mrs. S. Earle. In 1811 this bore the 
name of " Schenck's Tavern," when it was the political headquarters 
and general resort. Later it was known as the " Bond's Hotel." In 
1819, when the building was owned by Allen Boardman and occupied 
by several tenants, some of whom had become obnoxious to their 
neighbors, it was demolished by a mob. The inmates escaped injury 
and fled. 

As early as 1815 there stood on the site of the Cornell House a build- 
ing which was afterwards remodeled by Dr. Lewis Halsey and kept by 
him as a tavern called the -'Union House." He was succeeded by 
Gilbert Halsey and perhaps a score of others, and the building was 


burned February 22, 1864. From this time to 1871 the lot was vacant, 
in which year it was sold by David S. Dumont to Leroy Trembley. On 
May 5, 1871, the second great fire occurred and the Washington House 
was burned. A building boom succeeded and hotels were conspicuous 
among the new structures. Leroy Trembley was then keeping a 
restaurant in the building now occupied by Owen Ferguson, which 
Trembley sold to Hiram Sawyer. Mr. Trembley was a veteran land- 
lord and thought he saw a good opening for a hotel. He accordinglj' 
purchased the vacant lot owned by David S. Dumont, as above stated, 
and on June 5, 1871, broke ground for the "Trembley House." The 
house was opened under promising auspices and was one of the finest 
hotels in the county, representing an investment of $30,000. In No- 
vember, 1881, Charles Plyer became owner of the house; leased it to 
James H Bowman, and the name was changed to " Cornell." Plyer 
sold the property to a Mr. Kennedy, of New York, who placed D. P. 
Peters in charge, expecting to so run the house that it would soon be 
filled with guests. In this he failed, and a year later retired. The 
house then remained vacant to 1886, except a short period when J. H. 
Covert was a tenant; Kennedy finally sold the property to Mrs. M. J. 
Bowman for less than one-fourth its original cost, and it is now kept 
as a first-class public house. 

In 1836 P. H. Thompson, who was a son-in-law of John McLallen, 
bought a piece of land on Main street nearly opposite the site of the 
first log tavern. There he erected what was perhaps the first brick 
hotel between Owego and Geneva, The formal opening of this house 
took place on the 4th of July, 1837, and was made an event of great 
local importance; but in spite of energetic management, Mr. Thomp- 
son did not meet with the success he had anticipated, and in 1846 the 
property was transferred to John Markham. From this time on sev- 
eral landlords, among whom were Dr. Benjamin Dunning, James Race, 
James Bradley, William and Stephen De Mund, William Jones, and 
others, tried the business, all probably losing money. In 1854 several 
attachments were issued against the property, leading to tedious litiga- 
tion; J. De Motte Smith was appointed receiver, and by the final 
decision of the Court of Appeals he was ordered to sell the property. 
He had' already rented it to George Hoyt, who retained it under the 
purchaser, David Jones. The entire property brought less than $2,000 
at the sale. On January 24, 1863, the property was sold to Joseph 
Giles (who had kept a hotel at Havana) for Leroy Trembley. A few 


years later Corydon Burch purchased an interest, and the firm became 
Trembley & Burch. In 18G7 Trembley sold to Halsey Smith, and 
Burch to Almeron Sears, who were in possession when the building 
was burned in the great fire of May 32, IST'l. Mr. Sears then purchased 
the John McLallen homestead and fitted it up for a hotel, which he 
and his son opened as " The Phoenix," and kept it until the following 

Immediately after the fire Mr. Sears bought the old McLallen store, 
altered it materially, and fitted it up for a hotel. There was then 
developed a craze for building, and the fine business blocks of the vil- 
lage and the Trembley and the Central Hotels were erected. Many of 
these structures proved to be in advance of the needs of the community. 
The Central Hotel, as it was named, did not pay, became involved in 
litigation, and passed rapidly under the management of half a dozen 
persons successively, and in 1881 was sold to Leroy Trembley. He 
made the house popular aiid tolerably successful. June G, 1887, it was 
partly burned. Soon afterward, as a result of negotiations with J. B. 
Hamilton, a shoe manufacturer of Farmer village, a company purchased 
the hotel of Mrs. Trembley and furnished funds to start a shoe factory 
here. L. E. Dake afterwards came into the firm, and the business was 
continued for a time and finally closed out. 

In the spring of 1888 Mrs. Trembley bought the Phoenix Hotel, be- 
fore mentioned, of A. V. McKeel, refitted itj and has since conducted 
it as a temperance house. 

In the summer of 1877 Hiram Sawyer purchased a lot of L. H. Owen 
on Main street and built a two- story structure, which he occupied Jan- 
uary 1 following. He gave it the name of " Farmer's Inn," which he 
has conducted ever since. 

Albert Crandall, who has been mentioned as a pioneer of 180G, built 
a structure in 1808 on Main street between the site of the Barto Bank 
and J. D. Bouton's residence, and in part or all of it kept a tavern 
many years. His son Minor was the landlord here for a time. 


The first church in the town of Ulysses was of the Presbyterian faith 
and was organized January 10, 1803. A few families of this denomi- 
nation had settled in the town from 1796 to 1800, among whom were 
Jabez Havens, Burgoon Updike, David Atwater and Cornelius Hum- 


phrey. The church organization took place at the house of Mr. At- 
water, when the four persons mentioned and their wives were con- 
stituted the First Presbyterian Church of Ulysses by the Rev. Jedediah 
Chapman, a missionary who remained in charge two years. The first 
meeting house was built at the "Updike Settlement," about three 
miles south of Trumansburgh. It was of hewn logs, and twenty-five 
by thirty-five feet in size. A burying ground was established adjoin, 
ing the church, and there many of the pioneers were interred. 

The first church in Trumansburgh village stood on the site of the 
present Presbyterian church, and was begun in 1817 and finished in the 
summer of 1819. In 1833 the first Sunday school was formed imder 
the pastorate of Rev. M. M. York, by Dr. William White. Wm. Hay 
was the first superintendent, and Treman Hall, Francis E. Crandall 
and James McLallen were teachers. In 1848 the original church build- 
ing was demolished, and the present structure was completed in Janu- 
ary of the next year and dedicated January 10, 1850. The following 
pastors have served this church : The Rev. Mr. Chapman was followed 
in 1805 by the Rev. Garrett Mandeville; Rev. Wm. Clark, 1810; Rev. 
John Alexander, 1813; Rev. Stephen Porter, 1816; Rev. Lot B. Sulli- 
van, 1817; Rev. Charles Johnson, 1819; Rev. Wm. F. Curry, 1825; 
Rev. John H. Carle, 1820; Rev. Hiram L. Miller, 1834; Rev. John H. 
Carle, 1839; Rev. Hutchins Taylor, 1844; Rev. D. H. Hamilton, 1865; 
Rev. Lewis Kellogg, 1801, Rev. Alexander M. Mann, D.D., 1865; 
Rev. Wm. N. Page, 1809; Rev. Ova H. Seymour, 1887; Rev. Reuben 
H. Van Pelt, 1888, who was succeeded the same year by Rev. Lee H. 
Richardson, who was installed on January 15, 1889. The church is 
now supplied by Rev. Dr. Wm. Niles. 

The Baptist church at Trumansburgh was organized in the log meet- 
ing house at the Updike Settlement August 26, 1819, under the name 
of " The Second Baptist Church of Ulysses," as the town then included 
the town of Covert. The first clerk was Daniel Barto, and Oliver C. 
Comstock was the fii^st pastor. Services were held in various places in 
the vicinity. In August, 1821, the pastor, then William Ward, with 
Josiah Cleveland and Allen Pease were appointed a committee to meet 
other churches and form an association to be called " The Seneca Bap- 
tist Association." Dr. O. C. Comstock, while in Congress, became 
deeply interested in religion, and on his return began preaching, con- 
tinuing his medical practice at the same time. Under his ministrations 
the church increased in membership in eight years from twenty-six to 


one hundred and eight. In lb24 a church building was erected on the 
site of the present structure. In 1846 it was removed to make way for 
a more commodious building, which was burned March 19, 1840. The 
present church was dedicated on the Gth of February, 1851. Dr. Corn- 
stock was succeeded as pastor by Rev. Aaron Abbott in 1827, who re- 
mained until 1834. From that year until 1838 the pulpit was supplied 
until Rev. Wm. White was licensed, but on January 1 of that year Rev. 
Thomas Dowling succeeded, and the succeeding pastors have been 
Revs. P. Shedd, 1836; Wm. Lock, 1839; Howell Smith, 1843; Mr. 
Woodworth as supply, and Rev. Wm. Cormack to 1850, when C. L. 
Bacon came; I. Child, 1865; D. Corey, 1866; G. A. Starkweather, 
1869; E. S. Galloup, 1874; J. J. Phelps, 1877; D. D. Brown, 1883; J. 
G. Noble, 1884; and Rev. J. B. French, 1886. The present pastor is 
Rev. R. W. McCullough. 

In the spring of 1894 the church building was thoroughly repaired 
and refurnished, and rededicated March 4, 1894. 

Methodist Churches. — When in 1828 Rev. Alvin Torrey, a .Meth- 
odist preacher, was laboring in this vicinity, he was urged by the 
people of Trumansburgh to extend his work to this field. Gen. Isaiah 
Smith was foremost in this movement. Mr. Torrey accordingly or- 
ganized a class in Kingstown, now in the town of Covert, which was 
visited by various preachers from time to time, some of whom came to 
this neighborhood where they were assisted by Alexander Comstock 
and Richard Goodwin. On the 4th of January, 1831, a meeting was 
held in Trumansburgh to effect a church organization, with Rev. Wm. 
Jones as moderator. Josiali Smith, R. M. Pelton, Frederick M. Camp, 
John Wakeman, James McLallen, F. S. Dumont and Abner Treman 
were chosen trustees, and James McLallen clerk. These liien were not 
all Methodists, and some were not members of any church. A lot was 
soon purchased from Mr. Treman, and a church building costing $1,800 
was finished in December, 1831, and dedicated January 3 following. 
When this building became too small it was sold to the Catholics and 
the present edifice was erected and dedicated April 15, 1857. The 
succession of pastors, as nearly as now known, has been as follows : 
Revs. Wm. Jones, James Durham, Delos Hutchins, Isaiah V. Mapes, 
Ira Smith, D. S. Chase, H. K. Smith, J. M. McLouth, Calvin S. Coats, 
Joseph Anisworth, Ralph Clapp, R. T. Hancock, Thomas Tousey, S. 
L. Congdon, N. Fellows, Mr. Cranmer, A. Southerland, De Witt C. 
Huntington, William Manning, J. W. Wilson, Thomas Stacey, W. B. 



Holt, Martin Wheeler, J. L. Edson, G. C. Wood, M. S. Wells, Dwight 
Williams, F. Devitt, B. H. Brown, McKendree Shaw, R. T. Morris, A. 
N. Damon, J. E. Rhodes, L. S. Boyd. 

Episcopal Churches. — On the 6th of January, 1871, at a meeting 
held in Dumont's Hall for the purpose of organizing a Protestant Epis- 
copal church, there were present: Rev. T. L. Randolph, who presided; 
P. H. Thompson, W. B. Dumont, Benjamin Dunning, H. D. Barto, 
John Willis, Isaac Murray, and Stephen Clough, the latter acting as 
secretary. Adjournment was had to January 25, at which time an or- 
ganization was perfected and the following parish officers elected: 
Senior warden, H. D. Barto; junior warden, William Willis; vestry- 
men, John Willis, W. B. Dumont, Edward Pearsall, Warren Halsey, 
Benjamin Dunning, Clark Daggett, John Woodworth and J. S. Halsey : 
treasurer, David Dumont; secretary, Stephen Clough. The church 
received its name from the festival of the Epiphany, which occurred 
on the day of the first meeting. At a meeting held June 38, 1871, a 
committee was appointed to purchase a parsonage. It does not appear 
that this committee effected anything, for it was not until January 8, 
1873, at a regular meeting of the vestry, Mr. H. D. Barto made a 
formal donation of the property now occupied by the church and par- 
sonage to the society for church purposes. This was a magnificent 
gift, as this property was valued at that time at nearly $5,000. On 
March 10, 1873, the church was put in possession of, and accepted a 
bequest of $9,000, by the last will and testament of John Carr, and it 
was determined to build a church immediately. To this end plans and 
specifications were obtained of Mr. William Dudley, a celebrated archi- 
tect of New York; bids. were advertised for and many were submitted. 
Mr. Randolph resigned May 23, 1874, and on August 1 the contract for 
the stone work was let to John Blackball. On August 8, 1874, a call 
was extended to Rev. Mr. Van Winkle, who resigned in April follow- 
ing, and was succeeded by the Rev. Charles De L. Allen, and he by 
the Rev. A. H. Ormsbee on April 5, 1877. All this time the people 
had been worshiping in the chapel, the church edifice was drawing near 
to completion as far as the exterior was concerned, but the building 
committee found themselves without the necessary funds to complete 
the interior and furnish the building. Mr. Barto had died in the mean 
time, and by his death the church lost one of its strongest supporters. 
His widow, however, most generously replenished the depleted treas- 
ury with a donation of $4,000; she also purchased a piece of land in the 


rear of the church lot for something like $G00 and donated the same to 
the society. The affairs of this church were now in such a condition as 
to justify them pushing the building to completion, which was done. 
Mr. Ormsbee having resigned on September 16, 1878, the Rev. J. 
Everest Cathell was sent here the same month, and entered into the 
work of finishing the church with a vigor and energy which character- 
ized the man. He accepted a formal call in February, 1880, and re- 
mained until July, 1882. During his pastorate the church enjoyed a 
high degree of prosperity; he was a man of indomitable will and 
perseverance ; a fine preacher and ripe scholar, and under his ministra- 
tions the church was largely increased in membership and financial 
strength. He was succeeded by the Rev. Thomas Berry, who resigned 
in September, 1884. The pulpit was filled with supplies until the Rev. 
James P. Foster was sent here as minister in charge. Mr. Foster re- 
sided in Geneva and did not think it desirable to move his family to 
this place, although frequently desired to do so by the vestry, who 
thought the wants of the parish required a resident pastor, and to this 
end a call was extended to Rev. W. E. Allen on September 24, 1888, 
which was accepted. 

At the present time (1804) the church is without a pastor, and 
services are conducted by Prof. E. E. Scribner. 

Catholic Church. — Catholic families were comparatively late comers 
to this neighorhood, and in 1848 there Were only three families of that 
faith here. They were occasionally visited by Rev. Father Gilbride, 
of Waterloo, down to 1853, when he was succeeded by Rev. Father 
Gleason, under whose administration a site for a church was purchased ; 
this was exchanged for the building now occupied by them, which was 
dedicated by Bishop Timon, April 18, 1857. Rev. Father McCool 
served the parish about six years, and was succeeded by Rev. Father 
Farrell for four months, and he by Father Tooley, who continued five 
years. Finally the growing Catholic community felt the need of a 
permanent place of worship, and the old Methodist church was pur- 
chased and refitted to meet the new wants. Rev. Father Gilbert was 
the first resident pastor, and remained to 1879. Rev. Father Angelo 
came next and was succeeded by the present pastor. Rev. Father M. 
T. Madden, under whose administration the parish has greatly pros- 

There is a Methodist church at Jacksonville, noticed on another page, 
and a Methodist Mission is supported at Waterburg. There is also a 
Presbyterian Mission in School District No. 15. 


Jacksonville. — This hamlet was early known as "Harlow's Corners," 
and is situated on the Ithaca and Geneva turnpike, about seven miles 
from Ithaca and near the center of the town of Ulysses. The name of 
the place was changed 'after the battle of New Orleans, in 1815, in 
honor of " Old Hickory." The first post-office here was established in 
1832. The present postmaster is E. C. Almy, who also has a store. 
The settlers in this locality have been mentioned in foregoin}^ pages. 
There has never been much manufacturing. A lead pipe factory was 
in operation about ten years from 1830, and potash was manufactured 
in early years. John Kerst is proprietor of the second store. 

A Methodist class was formed at Jacksonville in 1803, of which 
Richard Goodwin was leader; and in the following year a second one 
was formed, with Benjamin Lanning leader. The Methodist church at 
this place was made a .separate charge in 1842, under Jonas Dodge, 
presiding elder. The church was built in 1837. The present pastor is 
Rev. J. M. Warner. 

Waterburg. — This is a hamlet in the southwestern part of the town 
where there has been a post-office many years, and a small mercantile 
interest and shops. The present postmaster is William Steittenroth. 
James H. Moss operates a grist and saw mill. A small store is con- 
ducted in connection with the post-office. 


The town of Dryden lies on the east border of Tompkins, extending 
westward to near the center, and contains 54,567 acres, of which about 
45,000 acres a,re improved. The town is bounded on the north by the 
town of Groton, on the east by Cortland county, on the south by the 
towns of Caroline and Danby, on the west by Ithaca and Lansing. It 
is the largest town in Tompkins county, and is number 23 of the town- 
ships of the military tract. It was named in honor of John Dryden, 
the English poet. 

Dryden was taken from Ulysses February 22, 1803. A section was 
taken from Danby and annexed to this town in 1850 (see session laws 


of that year), and in 1886 seven o£ the eastern lots in the southern tier 
of the town were set off and annexed to the town of Caroline. These 
lots were numbered from 94 to 100, inclusive, and embraced an area of 
3,840 acres. 

The first town meeting was held at the house of George Robertson 
March 1, 1803, at which time the town was a part of the county of 
Cayuga. The surface of this town is hilly or rolling. The eastern 
part forms the watershed between the Tioughnioga River and Cayuga 
Lake. In the southeastern part is a lofty ridge which rises to 1,800 
feet above tide-water. Fall Creek flows southwesterly through the 
central part, and is the principal stream, affording several good water 
power sites. Cascadilla Creek and other minor streams rise in the 
southwest part and flow into Cayuga Lake. Dryden Lake, lying two 
miles southeast of Dryden village, is a small sheet of water, chiefly 
artificial, and caused by the building of a dam at its outlet. The Dry- 
den Mineral Springs, near the village, are strongly impregnated with 
sulphur, magnesia and iron, and have wide-spread fame for the allevia- 
tion of disease. In the north part of the town is a swamp covering 
several hundred acres. 

The soil of Dryden is exceptionally good for agricultural purposes. 
It is a fertile, gravelly loam on the highlands, while in the valley' of 
Fall Creek a rich alluvium prevails. Grain and stock growing and 
dairying are the principal occupations of the farmers. 

This town was formerly covered largely by forests of white pine, 
which in early years supplied timber for extensive lumber business 
and brought considerable revenue to the inhabitants. The census of 
1836 reported fifty-one saw mills in the town, by far the larger part of 
which have disappeared. A large part of this town was awarded to 
soldiers of the Revolution in lots of 640 acres each, which were dis- 
posed of, often for ridiculously insignificant prices, to' speculators or 
other buyers who intended to settle on their purchases. It is suscep- 
tible of proof that lots were sold often for from five to ten dollars; 
one, it is said, was disposed of for a coat, hat, drink of rum and one 
dollar; while another transferred lot number 9 for one great coat. 
Some of the lots were sold by unscrupulous persons to more than one 
person, which, with other causes, led to much costly and annoying 
litigation, an experience that characterized all sections of the military 


The purchasers of the lots in Dryden were more widely dispersed 
than those who settled other parts of Tompkins county, as will be 
noticed in succeeding pages ; but they enjoyed facilities for reaching 
their lands which, if not all they could have desired, were much 
superior to those in other localities. During the years 1793-95 Joseph 
Chaplin, of the town of Virgil, cut out and constructed a rude roadway 
from Oxford, Chenango county, to Ithaca and to Kidder's Ferry. His 
contract only called for a road to Ithaca, but he disregarded its terms 
so far as to first open the road to the ferry (it being represented to him 
that more settlers lived there than at Ithaca). In consequence of this 
action the Legislature refused to settle with him until he fulfilled his 
contract. He accordingly continued the road from a point in the town 
of Virgil through Dryden to Ithaca. This was given the name of "The 
Bridle Road " in this town, which to some extent clings to it yet. Over 
this early highway came the pioneers of the town. 

The first of these, as far as known, to settle permanently in the 
town was Amos Sweet, who in the spring of 1797 came in and settled 
on the site of Dryden village. There he built a log house ten feet 
square and began life in the wilderness with his wife and two children. 
He was accompanied also by his brother. About the year 1801 Mr. 
Sweet was compelled to leave his land, through some difficulty (as con- 
tended by some of the pioneers) with Nathaniel Shelden. Mr. Sweet 
died soon afterward and was buried on the opposite side of the road 
from the Dryden Springs Hotel, where lie also the remains of his 
mother and two children. 

In the fall of 1798 a yoke of oxen drew a rude sled from the Chenango 
River, laden with household goods and a few implements, a distance of 
sixty miles to this town. With this team came on, some riding, but 
more walking much of the distance, Ezekiel Sanford, his wife and son ; 
David Foot, his wife and four daughters; and Ebenezer Clausen, his 
wife, son and two daughters, fourteen persons, who settled at "Willow 
Glen." Sanford built his log house opposite where Elias W. Cady 
lived; Foot opposite where Joshua Phillips formerly lived; and Clau- 
son on the opposite corner, formerly owned by Samuel Rowlands. 

In the summer of that year (1798) George Robertson began clearing 
on lot 53, which he had previously bought and paid for. He built a 
small log house, returned home to Saratoga, and early the following 
spring he brought in his wife and two small children, and was accom- 
panied by his brother, Philip S. , and Jared Benjamin, two young men 


whom he had employed. Mr. Robertson was a carpenter and earned 
the money to pay for his lot by working at his trade in Saratoga. They 
came westward up the Mohawk Valley to Utica, on to what is now Au- 
burn, thence along Cayuga Lake to the site of Ithaca, and from there 
by the Chaplin road to their home. In the season of 1799 and the suc- 
ceeding one, Mr. Robertson raised crops of wheat, which had to be 
carried to Ludlow's Mill (Ludlowville) to be ground. Mr. Robertson 
had the title of " Captain," and his father, Philip, was a soldier of the 
Revolution. George Robertson was the first supervisor of the town, and 
for many years enjoyed .the entire respect of the community which he 
was so conspicuous in founding. Mott J. Robertson, his youngest son, 
succeeded to the homestead, and was one of thirteen children. 

George Knapp, who had first stopped in the town of Lansing, came 
to Dryden with his brother-in-law, Daniel White, in 1798. Knapp set- 
tled on lot 14. Mr. White's settlement had an important bearing on 
the condition of his fellow pioneers, for he gave them the first grist 
mill, thus saving them long and toilsome journeys. His mill was fin- 
ished in 1802, and stood a little northeast of where the Freeville bridge 
crosses Fall Creek. He was a practical miller and made the grinding 
stones from a rock formed in a field, which he split and dressed. These 
stones were in use until 1818, when they were displaced during a re- 
construction of the mill. Mr. White was prominent in the early 
Methodist church, and preached several years on the Cayuga circuit. 
He had a family of eleven children, most or all of whom are dead. His 
son Abel lived a long life at Freeville. 

Aaron Lacy, from New Jersey, settled at Willow Glen in ■1799. He 
subsequently removed to the corner, afterwards owned by Jacob 
Stickles, whose residence there gave the name of "Stickles Corners" 
to the place. 

Lyman Hurd came from Vermont in 1800 with his wife and several 
children, and settled on the corner opposite Lacy. Mr. Hurd brought 
the first span of horses into the town. He raised a crop of corn and 
oats that season. The story has come down to us that one of Mr. 
Hurd's horses died early in the spring, and a man in his employ tramped 
through the woods to Tully and brought an ox, which was harnessed 
up with the other horse, and this ill-matched pair served for plowing, 
going to mill and other farm work. 

In the year 1799 Peleg Ellis, who had previously settled in Herki- 
mer county, traded his land there for lot 84 in Dryden, and removed 


here in 1800. When a call was made for troops in'lSia, he marched 
out on the 36th of August, 1812, in command of the Dryden company 
for the frontier. The entire company, instead of waiting to stand the 
draft, volunteered, except one who was unable to go. This company 
took part in the fight at Qucenstown, and Captain Ellis was taken 
prisoner, but was soon afterwards paroled. He was afterwards com- 
missioned major in the old militia. He died in 185!(, aged eighty-four 
years. He had twelve children, the homestead descending to John J., 
his son, Warren D. was another son, and a daughter married John M. 
Smith, of Dryden. 

John Ellis, brother of Peleg, settled early in the town of Virgil, but 
came to Dryden about the same time, or a little before, his brother, 
and settled near the site of Malloryville. They were from Rhode 
Island; and both became conspicuous in the affairs of this town. John 
Ellis promptly advanced to a prominent business and official position. 
He was made one. of the first judges of the Court of Common Pleas ; 
like his brother, went to the frontier in command of a second company 
of soldiers in 1813, and served to the close of the war. It is said that 
after his company had departed there were only fourteen men left in 
the town, who were liable to military duty. Judge Ellis was supervisor 
of the town for twenty-eight years, and in 1831 and 1832 served in the 
State Legislature. 

Joel Hull was a settler in 1801, coming from Massachusetts. He 
located, on land afterwards owned by the Rowland family. Mr. Hull 
was a practical surveyor, a man of intelligence, and was elected the 
first town clerk. He was made ensign of the first military company in 
the town, and kept a store, first in an addition built on his house. He 
subsequently removed to Pennsylvania. 

Five brothers, Richard, Thomas, Daniel, Benjamin and James Lacy, 
came from New Jersey in 1801. Richard settled west of the village 
and was the first owner of the Dryden Springs. In early years the 
springs were known as " Lacy's Deer Lick," and it was believed that 
salt might be found there ; but after considerable effort by the brothers 
its was abandoned. Thomas Lacy settled half a mile south of the vil- 
lage, and Daniel a little farther south. The latter was the first school 
teacher in the town. Benjamin settled within the present village 
limits on the south side of the " Bridle Road," and James located in 
the vicinity of the lake. Four of the brothers removed from the town, 


but Benjamin remained and became prominent in the community. 
John C. Lacy was one of his sons. (See biography of John C. Lacy). 

Peter and Christopher Snyder came into the town in the spring of 
180.1 from New Jersey and purchased lot 43 of William Goodwin. Soon 
after he purchased it, Henry Snyder, son of Peter, and George Dart, 
son-in-law of Christopher, came with the others, and the four chopped 
the timber on six acres and then returned to their former homes. In 
the fall the two brothers, with George Snyder and Dart, came back and 
cleared the land and sowed it to wheat, returning again to New Jersey. 
In the fall of 1803, Peter, with his family and household goods, came 
with two wagons to their new home. His sons, William, John and 
Abraham, drove twenty-five cows the whole distance. Christopher 
came also with his family, and HenryNaile, wife and child, and Jacob 
Crutts and wife. The whole party included thirty-two persons. Their 
joui-ney was replete with incident and covered eighteen days. Choos- 
ing each one-half of the land by lot, the eastern half fell to Christopher, 
the western to Peter. The latter subsequently purchased the whole of 
lot 43 (640 acres), of which he gave 106 acres to each of his sons and 
fifty-three acres to each of his daughters, They had numerous descend- 

William Sweazy settled early half a mile north of Varna, and a Mr. 
Cooper located as early as 1801 half a mile south of Etna; Jesse Bar- 
tholomew, father of Caleb, settled at Etna in April, 1813, where he 
purchased 180 acres. Andrew Sherwood, a Revolutionary soldier, and 
his son Thomas, came from Poughkeepsie in 1803 and settled on lot 9 
in the northeast corner of the town. Andrew lived to the age of ninety- 
nine years. Thomas served in the war of 1813, was a miller, and had 
a family of eleven children. ^ 

Edward Griswold, another Revolutionary soldier, with his wife and 
son came from Connecticut to lot 39 in 1803. He became a prominent 
citizen. Charles Griswold 'was born in the town in 1800. He was 
father of Leonard Griswold, and was a soldier of 1813 and captain. 
He died in 1834. 

Seth Wheeler and his sons, Seth, jr., and Enos, from New Hamp- 
shire, settled a little south of the village in 1803. 

Jacob Primrose, from New Jersey, settled at West Dryden (Fox's 
Corners) in 1803. He was father of Henry and Lewis. The latter 
was constable in the town nearly fifty years. 



Joseph Hart, from New Jersey, settled near Judge Ellis's in 1805. 
His father was a Revolutionar}'' soldier. 

Thomas Southworth, with his son John, then ten years old, came 
from Herkimer county, N. Y., and settled at Willow Glen in 1800. 
The father was a man of enterprise, bought a small farm, established 
an early tannery, and kept a tavern. He lived to ninety-four years. 
John Southworth married a daughter of Judge Ellis, and became a 
large landholder and one of the wealthiest men in this section. He 
died at the age of eighty-two. (See biography.) 

It is, of course, impossible to follow all the later settlements in this 
town to later times. Those already mentioned were not only the earli- 
est pioneers, but many of them and their descendants have been among 
the most prominent citizens of the town and contributed largely to its 
growth and prosperity. Many others are mentioned in the personal 
sketches relating to the town. Between 1800 and 1810 settlement was 
rapid, more so than in some of the other localities, and among other 
names which appear in records during the period mentioned are the 
following: William Garrison, Lewis Portner, Wm. Harned, Joseph 
Schofield, Jacob Snyder, Samuel Hemingway, Amos Lewis, Isaiah 
Giles, David Lewis, Benjamin Jennings, Obadiah Brown, John Conk- 
lin, Samuel Clark, Wm. Smith, Job Carr, Peleg Carr, Caleb Carr, Na- 
than Legg, James McElheny, Daniel Ogden, Israel Southwick, Morris 
Bailey, Peter Bush, Nathaniel Luther, Enoch Pixley, Ichabod Barnes, 
Israel Brown, John Waldron, John Wickham, Richard White, Jonathan 
Luce, Asahel Bouton, Obadiah Brown, jr., Joel George, John Cornelius, 
Henry Teeter, Benjamin Genung, Ichabod Parmeter, Samuel Girvin, 
Zephaniah Brown, Geo. Gray, Stephen and James Yeomans, Nicholas 
Hile, Abraham Hoagland, Benjamin Fulkerson, John Mineah, Johia 
Horner, Luther Weeks, Abner Carpenter, Aaron Case, Wm. •Miller, 
Ithamar Whipple, Elijah Dimmick, Timothy Owens, Abraham Wood- 
cock, and others, many of whom are mentioned in Part III of this 
work. Most of these were in the town prior to 1807-8. 

The war of 1813 caused a slight check in immigration, but succeed- 
ing that event the influx of population continued unabated. 

John Hiles, from New Jersey, came to the town in 1814, settled on 
Fall Creek, but afterwards located at the foot of Dryden Lake, where 
ha built and operated one of the largest saw mills in this section. He 
was father of Andrew Hiles, and died in 1865. David J. Baker came 
from Homer, Cortland county, and located at Dryden village in 1816, 


and became somewhat conspicuous. Rice Weed, from Connecticut, 
settled in Chenango county, but removed to Etna in 181G where he 
was postmaster and justice of the peace. 

Elias W. Cady came in from Columbia county, N. Y., in 181G and 
settled on the farm where he lived many years. He was of English 
ancestry. Mr. Cady became one of the most successful farmers in this 
county and owned about '^00 acres. He was also prominent in all pub- 
lic affairs, was supervisor two terms, served in the State Legislature 
in 1850 and 1857. 

Paul Ewers, a Revolutionary soldier, came to Dryden from Cayuga 
county in 1813 and settled where members of his family lived in recent 
years. He was father of Paul, jr., who spent a long life in the town. 
Other later settlers were Jacob Lumbard, 1822; William Hanford, 
182.3; Captain John Gardner, 1823; Jacob Stickles, 1833; George B. 
Guinnip, James W. Montgomery, Jeremiah W. Dwight and others, 

Isaac and John Teers, brothers, settled early in that part of Dr)'den 
called "Irish Settlement." Isaac was the father of Henry Teers, a 
blacksmith at Mott's Corners, and at one time supervisor of Caroline. 
He went to Michigan and died there. John Teers eventually moved 
to near Ithaca, where he died. He was father of William Teers. 

About the year 1832-3 two brothers named Elliot (one of them being 
Henry) settled in Dryden, aftd in the spring of 1835 Horton Hunt 
settled in the same locality. Michael Overacker was about the first 
settler in that neighborhood, and all of these were from Rensselaer 
county. There were only two or three cleared fields in that section 
when Mr. Hunt came in. 

John McGraw was born in Dryden May 22, 1815, and in early life 
entered into business connection, with his brother and John Southworth. 
It has been written of him that he was distinguished for his rare busi- 
ness qualities and his comprehensive grasp of large and complicated 
enterprises. Careful in planning, the most minute details were not 
overlooked in his estimates, and when he once formed his plan no 
ordinary obstacle could thwart him in its execution. As a merchant 
he was a success ; as an extensive land owner and operator he had no 
rival. Early engaging, in connection with his father-in-law, John 
Southworth, in the lumber business, he established extensive mills, 
and they became the owners of a large tract of pine timber lands in 
Allegany county, N. Y., from which they accumulated a very satis- 
factory estate for ordinary business men, but John McGraw's resistless 


and untiring energy kept pace with his increasing financial prosperity 
and he invested and handled hundreds of thousands of dollars up to 
millions with the ease and sagacity and with less fret and wear to his 
evenly poised and balanced mind than usually attends the investment 
of a few thousand dollars by other men. He seldom became excited 
or hurried. He kept his business always in hand, and controlled and 
directed the largest operations with but slight friction. In a word, 
John McGraw was, in military parlance, a financial general, and having 
formed his plan of battle he moved his troops with the skill of a field 
marshal, and usually to a successful victory over every obstacle inter- 
cepting his line of march. Discomfitures which would have disheart- 
ened other men did not seem to divert him or retard his more resolute 
action in his onward advance. 

His marked characteristics were not demonstrative. He was kind, 
affable, bold, resolute, but cautious, of great force and sagacity, and 
with it all his heart was as sympathetic and tender as a woman's. 
Honest, prompt in decision and action, his presence inspired hope. He 
made few professions, but his fidelity to a friend was the test of a char- 
acter anchored in truth and honor. 

His large investments in Western lands and productive property left 
an estate at his death (which occurred at Ithaca, May 4, 1877, at the 
age of sixty-two) of over two millions of' dollars. But no tribute to 
his memory can add to the monument his munificent gifts to Cornell 
University erected on the campus — the McGraw Building, at an ex- 
pense of $'250,000. So long as a student attends the university, as the 
long roll of honor receivep new accessions, each will bear to his dis- 
tant home, with fondest recollections of his alma mater, the cherished 
name and memory of John McGraw,. the donor of that grand library 
building, within whose alcoves shall be accumulated the best literature 
of the world, and the fountain from which shall flow the grand streams 
of knowledge and the highest culture of the land. 

Mr. McGraw married Miss Rhoda Southworth, eldest daughter of 
John Southworth,. a lady of most amiable character, brilliant endow- 
ments of intellect, refinement and culture. She died in 1847, leaving 
an only daughter surviving her. Miss Jennie McGraw, the inheritor of 
the peculiar amiability, generous impulses, and intellectxial graces of 
her mother. Miss McGraw became, at the death of her father, John 
McGraw, the sole heiress of a princely fortune, which, during her life, 
she dispensed in most munificent charities. Of a most delicate and 


frail constitution, she sought health by foreign travel, and for several 
years spent a great portion of her time in England and on the con- 
tinent in pursuit of health, but in all her protracted suffering the 
warmth of her heart never cooled, nor did she forget her home or the 
host of friends she left behind her. On her last visit abroad she was 
married to Professer Willard Fiske, of Cornell University, and after 
spending a year abroad she returned home. It was hoped that her 
njitive air would i^estore her to health, but the fondest wishes of those 
who knew her best and loved her most were doomed to disappointment, 
and she died surrounded by the friends of her youth and in the midst of 
the scenes and associations where in life she most loved to dwell. 
Her remains repose beside the ashes of her father in Ithaca's sacred 

The munificent gifts of the father and daughter to Cornell University 
and other charitable bequests will be a grander memorial than marble 
sculptured shaft or monumental vim. No words can add to their 
memory, while on their forehead has fallen the golden dawning of a 
grander day, and though friendship, when it recalls their names, gets 
no answer from the voiceless lips of the unreplying dead, yet faith sees 
their risen star, and listening love, standing by their graves, shall hear 
the flutter of a wing above their silent and honored dust. 

In closing this hasty review, we will not omit the name of Hon. J. W. 
Dwight, another of the prominent citizens who, for many years, was 
one of the most prosperous and sagacious business men, conduct- 
ing for years an extensive store and business with success, wielding a 
large and influential power in the prosperity of the town. Commencing 
his political life as supervisor of his town, he represented the county in 
the State Legislature in 1.860 and 1861, and the twenty-eighth district in 
the forty-fifth Congress — 1877 to 1879 — and was returned to the forty- 
sixth Congress. He was elected for a third term to the forty-seventh 
Congress by a largely increased majority. (See biography). 

Biographical and personal sketches of a great number of the prom- 
inent dwellers in this town, both living and dead, will be found in the 
second and third part of this work. 

In comparatively recent times the town of Dryden has been one of 
the most progressive in this county. Its agricultural communities have 
been prosperous and quick to adopt improvements and advanced meth- 
ods, while its business men have been generally conservative and suc- 
cessful. The opening of the Southern Central Railroad conferred upon 


the people as a whole large. benefit, giving the producers easier access 
to markets and better facilities to business men for importing their 
wares. Educational and religious institutions have been established to 
meet the enlightened sentiments of the people. 

In the war of the Rebellion this town was behind no other in its spirit 
of patriotism and its activity in response to the calls of the imperiled 
government for volunteers. One hundred and forty-nine brave men 
went forward to do battle for the Union, many of whom gave up their 
lives for the cause. The town paid about $90,000 in bounties. 

The first town meeting was held at the house of George Robertson, 
March 1, 1803, where the following officers were elected: Supervisor, 
George Robertson ; town clerk, Joel Hull ; assessors, John Ellis, Joel 
Hull, Peleg Ellis; constable and collector, Daniel Lacy; poormasters, 
William Garrison, Philip S. Robertson; commissioners of highways, 
Lewis Fortner, Ezekiel Sandford, William Harned ; fence viewers and 
overseers of highways, Amnah Peet, Ebenezer Clauson, David Foot, 
Joseph Schofield; poundmaster, John Montgomery. 

Following is a list of supervisors of the town from its organization 
to the present, as far as they can be obtained. The town records were 
burned in 1877, and the list had, therefore, to be made up partly from 
other sources : 

1803. George Robertson. 1849. Hiram Snyder. 

1804. John Ellis. 1850. Charles Givens. 

1805. William Miller. 1851-53. Smith Robertson. 
1806-12. John Ellis. 1854-56. Hiram Snyder. 

1813. Jesse Stout. 1857-58. Jeremiah W. Dwight. 

1814. John Ellis. 1859-61. Lemi Grover. 

1815. Parley Whitmore. 1862. Caleb Bartholomew. 

1816. John Ellis. 1803-65. Luther Griswold. 

1817. Parley Whitmore. 1866-71. John M. Smith. 
1818-34. John Ellis. 1872-73. James H. George. 
1835-37. Joshua Phillips. 1874. E. R. Wade. 

1838. John Ellis. 1875-79. Harrison Marvin. 

1839. Joshua Phillips. 1880-81. James H. George. 
1840-41. Elias W. Cady. 1882-88. George M. Rockwell. 
1842-43. Henry' B. Weaver. 1884-85. James H. George. 
1844. Jeremiah Synder. 1886-87. George M. Rockwell. 
1845-47. Wessels S. Middaugh. 1888-94. John H. Kennedy. 
1848. Albert J. Twogood. 

Following are the officers of the town for 1894 : John H. Kennedy, 
supervisor, Dryden; John M. Ellis, town clerk, Dryden; Everett F. 


Weaver, collector, Etna; George E. Underwood, justice of the peace, 
Varna; James C. Lormor, constable, Dryden; Everett F. Weaver, 
constable, Etna; Francis E. Ellis, constable, Varna; Alonzo Hart, 
constable. West Dryden; Herman A. Strong, constable, Freeville. 

Statistics. — The supervisors' report for 1893 gives the number of 
acres in this town as 58,192; assessed value of real estate, including 
village property and real estate of corporations, $1,051,895; total as- 
sessed value of personal property, $75,054; amount of town taxes, 
$4,394.12'; amount of county taxes, $4,272.92; aggregate taxation, 
$12,948.80; rate of tax on $1 valuation, .0113. Corporations— Southern 
Central Division Lehigh Valley Railroad Company, assessed value of 
real estate, $41,270; amount of tax, $466.35. E., C. & N. Railroad 
Company, $55,250; amount of tax, $624.33. D., L. & W. Railroad 
Company, $1,980; amount of tax, $22.38. American Telegraph and 
Telephone Company, $2,650; amount of tax, $28.82. W. U. Telegraph 
Company, $660; amount of tax, $7.46. N. Y. & P. Telegraph and 
Telephone Company, $450; amount of tax, $5.08. Barnard Washing 
Machine Company, $500; amount of tax, $5.65. Farmers' Dairy 
Dispatch, $300; amount of tax, $3.39. .Dryden Opera House Com- 
pany, $100; amount of tax, $1.13. 


The researches of Charles F. Mulks (now of Ithaca) give us the fol- 
lowing memoranda of the four lots which included the site of Dryden 
village. They were lots 38, 39, and 48 and 49. 

Lot 38 was drawn by Andrew Fink, captain in the First Regiment, 
and was claimed by him without contest. 

No. 39 was drawn by Bartholomew Van Denburgh, ensign in the 
Second Regiment. Fifty acres were sold by the surveyor-general to 
William Gilliland and claimed by him and John Dickinson. Fifty acres 
sold by the surveyor-general to Robert McClallan. The title is de- 
duced by patent from the surveyor-general to William Gilliland and 
John Dickinson for fifty acres on southeast corner of this lot. 

Lot 48, drawn by Walter Brooker, Second Regiment;' claimed by 
John Lawrence; certificate of patent for 600 acres. Deed from Walter 
Brooker to Alexander McDougal (major-general), November 24, 1785, 
recorded in secretary's office. Same title deduced to John Lawrence 
and awardedjto him. 


Lot 4!), drawn by Elias Larraby, Second Regiment ; claimed by 
Samuel Dexter, jr. One hundred acres sold by the surveyor-general 
to James Fairlie, of Kinderhook. He sold his land to Stephen Hoge- 
boom the year after the war for eight pounds. Certificate of patent 
9th of July, 1790, 500 acres. There was litigation over this claim by 
Larraby. Deed of 500 acres from Jeremiah Van Rensselaer and Abra- 
ham Ten Eyck to Samuel Dexter, jr., 10th December, 1799. Deed 
for 500 acres from Elias Larraby to Edward Cunipton, December, 23, 
1783, proved by Rymer Vischer, who knew the grantor. Award not 

Lot No. 63 was drawn as a gospel and school lot. At the annual 
town meeting in 1818 it was voted that the whole amount of money 
belonging to this lot be applied to the common schools, except six 
cents, and that be paid when called for the support of the gospel. 

The pleasant and enterprising village of Dryden is situated on the 
south branch of Fall Creek in the eastern part of the town and the 
Owego and Auburn branch of the Lehigh Valley Railroad. The 
village has always been prosperous, considering its size, and has been 
the home of several of the most distinguished citizens of Tompkins 
county. The site of the village was originally mostly owned by Ben- 
jamin Lacy, Edward Griswold and Nathaniel Shelden, whose settle- 
ments here have been described. Amos Sweet built the first dwelling 
on the village site. 

In the early years there was considerable strife as to whether this 
point or Willow Glen should be the site of the principal village of the 
town. Quite a number of prominent and enterprising settlers had 
located at the latter point, and it was, of course, important to them to 
build up the nucleus of a village there. To this end Joel Hull opened 
a store there in 1802, which was the first one in the town. He was a 
practical surveyor and a man of considerable influence in early years. 
By the energy and activity of the settlers on the site of the present 
village, shops, stores and taverns were established and the tide of 
settlement turned this way. So deeply interested in this matter was 
Edward Griswold that it is said that he gave a blacksmith forty acres 
of land to locate his shop here. Mr. Griswold was also instrumental 
in establishing a store which was managed for a time by Parley Whit- 
more. The other early settlers before mentioned were equally zealous 
in efforts to bring business and population to this point. These im- 
provements and the building of the Presbyterian church in 1821 settled 


the fate of Willow Glen. A school was opened in Amos Sweet's dwell- 
ing in 1802, and the Baptist religious society was organized in 1804. 
Nathaniel Shelden was a physician, the first one to locate here, and 
Dr. John Taylor came soon afterward. The first marriage is believed 
to have been that of Ruloff Whitney to Susan Glenny, of Virgil, in 

The growth of the young village was. of course slow, but it was 
steady and encouraging. Ruloff Whitney had a saw mill in operation 
early, and Hooker Ballard was keeping the tavern in 1816. Among 
others who had become resident in the village by the year 1816 were 
James H. Hurd, cabinetmaker; Dr. John Taylor, David Foote, farmer, 
half a mile east of the village. Nehemiah Tucker, farmer; Abraham 
Griswold, farmer; Ruloff Whitney, saw mill; Thomas L. Bishop, saw 
mill; Jesse B. Bartholomew, distiller; Benjamin, Richard and James 
Lacy, brothers, farmers. Deacon Wheeler, farmer, lived half a mile 
northwest of the village. Timothy Stove, cabinetmaker; Edward 
Griswold, farmer, half a mile north of the village. Ebenezer Tuttle, 
carpenter and builder; Daniel Z. Vleit, farmer; Joshua Holt, groceries; 
Parley Whitmore, merchant and postmaster; Michael Thomas, half a 
mile south of the village. Dr. John Phillips; Nathan Goddard, farmer ; 
Jedediah Phelps, brickmaker, and David J. Baker. Selden Marvin 
lived one mile north of the village. 

Besides the numerous saw mills that were early established in the 
town, other manufactures were begun. The father of John H. and 
William Kennedy established a large tannery in 1835, which has con- 
tinued in operation ever since, being now conducted under the firm 
name of Kennedy Brothers, with John H. Kennedy as surviving 
partner. The tannery was transferred from the father to the sons in 

A woolen mill was started in the village at an early day, and was re- 
established in 1863 by Erastus Rockwell. This mill long had an ex- 
tended reputation for the production of fine cloths, and turned out 
60,000 yards annually. E. S. Rockwell and George M. Rockwell are 
sons of Erastus, and the mill passed to their control in 1870, under the 
firm name of E. S. Rockwell & Brother. The senior of the firm pur- 
chased a large mill at Tiffin, O. , in 1883, and the business in Dryden 
continued under the style of G. M. Rockwell & Co. (E. S. Rockwell 
constituting the company) until 1891, when the Dryden Woolen Com- 
pany was incorporated; capital, $50,000. In December, 1892, the 


business failed, owing to the depressed and uncertain condition of the 

Mercantile operations had meanwhile been extended in the village 
to meet the needs of the surrounding country. The reader will find 
among the personal sketches pertaining to this town, in another part 
of this work, the names of many past and present merchants who have 
carried on business with success in Dryden, and some of whom were 
well known throughout Central New York. 

The post-office at Dryden was established about the year 1815, and 
in 1817 the mail was carried through from Oxford, Chenango county, 
over the Chaplin turnpike to Ithaca by a footman. The first stage began 
running between Homer and Ithaca, passing through Dryden, about 
the year 1824. The present postmaster is W. H. .Sand wick. 

In 1857, when the population of the village had reached about 400, 
measures were inaugurated for its incorporation. A petition signed by 
Thomas J. McElheny, I. P. Ferguson, George Schenck, Lewis Barton, 
Freeman Stebbins, H. W. Sears, W. W. Tanner, David J. Baker, N. 
L. Bates, Abraham Tanner, J. W. D wight, and fifty-eight others, was 
presented to Hon. S. P. Wisner, then county judge of Tompkins coun- 
ty, and on the 3d of June, 1857, he issued an order that all the territory 
described in the petition (said to embrace 999 J^ acres) be declared an 
incorporated village called Dryden village, if the electors should assent 
thereto. It was also ordered that Edwin Fitts, John B. Sweetland and 
.S. D. Hamblin should be authorized to call an election and act as in- 
spectors. The election was held July 7, 1857, and the whole number 
of votes cast was 112, of which seventy-eight were in favor of incorpo- 
ration. The first election of village officers was held on August 15, 
when the following persons were chosen : David P. Goodhue, Rochester 
Marsh, William W. Tanner, John B. Sweetland and Isaac Ford, trus- 
tees; Augustus H. Phillips, Orrin W. Wheeler, John C. Lacy, assessors; 
Godfrey Sharp, collector; Horace G. Fitts, treasurer; Thomas J. Mc- 
Elheny, clerk ; Godfrey Sharp, poundmaster. 

David P. Goodhue was elected the first president of the village. 

The charter of 1857 remained in force until 1805, when a reincorpora- 
tion took place under a special act of the Legislature. (See Session 
Laws of that year, chapter 302). 

The officers of the village at the present time are: President, George 
E. Goodrich; trustees, Frank D. Hill, C. D. Hill, E. Davis Allen, 
George Cole, Charles B, Tanner, George H. Hart; assessor, J. E. Mc- 


Elheny; treasurer, J. H. Pratt; clerk, D. T. Wheeler; water commis- 
sioners, J. H. Kennedy, George E. Monroe, A. M. Clark. 

Following is a list of the presidents of the village from 1857 to the 
present time : 

1857-58. David P. Goodhue. 1878. Rochester Marsh. 

1859. Freeman Stebbins. 1874-75. G. H. Sperry. 

18G0. Lewis Barton. 1870. Harrison Marvin. 

1861. Freeman Stebbins. 1877. George E. Goodrich. 

18G2. John C. Lacy. 1878. John E. McElheny. 

18GB. John Perrigo. 1879-80. John H. Pratt. 

1804. John W. Phillips. 1881. John H. Kennedy. 

1805-00. Rochester Marsh. 1883-8ii. Erastus H. Lord. 

1807. Eli A. Spear. 1884-85. Daniel R. Montgomery. 

1808. D. Bartholomew. 1880. Albert J. Baker. 

1809. George H. Washburn. 1887-88. John H. Kennedy. 
1870. Alvin Cole. 1889-90. Daniel R. Montgomery. 
1871-73. John Kennedy. 1891-94. George E. Goodrich. 

The first newspaper published in Dryden was called Rumsey's 
Companion, and was started in 185G by Henry D. Rumsey; this paper 
and its successors is described in an earlier chapter of this work. 

For many years the educational facilities of the village were limited 
to the common schools. The town at large was divided into fourteen 
school districts by the school commissioners on September 34, 1814. 
These commissioners were Joshua Phillips, Peleg Ellis and John 
Ellis. In all of the present school districts of the town there are 
comfortable school houses. In 18G3 a building was erected by Profes- 
sor Graves in the southeast part of the village, wherein the ' ' Dryden 
Academy " was conducted with good success for about ten years. After 
the introduction of the Union Free School system in 1871, the building 
was purchased by the Board of Education. The Union School and 
academy are now imder the principalship of Prof. M. J. Fletcher, who 
has supplied the following brief comparative statistics for the years 
1888-89 and 1893-94: The population of the district during this period 
has remained about stationary, and the school attendance in the lower 
grades has been generally uniform. In the academic department the 
fall term of 1888 opened with 23 pupils and without an academic assist- 
ant; the fall term of 1893 opened with 53 pupils, a teachers' training 
class and two academic assistants. The total number of pupils enrolled 
during the first two terms of 1888-89 was 35, of whom 13 were non- 
resident; total number enrolled the first two terms of 1893-94 was 76, 


of whom Jrl were non-resident. Total non-resident attendance in 
whole school during first two terms of 1888-89 was 17; total during 
same time in 1893-9-1 was 50. The total of tuition bills for first two 
terms of 1888-89 from non-resident pupils was $208 ; during the same 
time 1891, $158. To this must be added an income of $190 for teach- 
ers' training class, while the Regents' literature fund has increased 
from fUl in 1888, to $232 in 1893, The number of students graduated 
during the six years from 1883 to 1888 was 13; the number during the 
six years from 1888 to 1894 inclusive was 27 (counting five graduates 
for present year — 1894). 

The fire department in Dryden was established in 1874 by the pur- 
chase of a fire engine, and reorganized to adopt itself to the new water 
sui^ply in November, 1893. There is now a fire company in three divi- 
sions, and with the following officers: Chief engineer, D. K. Mont, 
gomery; foreman, J. Dolph Ross; first assistant, George Wickham; 
second assistant, David Odell; president, James C. Lorimer; secretary, 
Clarkson T. Davies ; treasurer, John H. Pratt. There are, besides the 
engine purchased in 1874, three hose carts, 1,500 feet of hose, ladders, 
etc. The village hall building was erected on South street in 1870, and 
accommodates the fire apparatus, a lock-up, hall, etc. 

Within the past few years the citizens of Dryden village have shown 
an enthusiasm and public spirit which might well be emulated by other 
similar places. The project of supplying the village with water had 
received considerable discussion prior to 1892, in which year it took on 
definite shape. The project involved bringing a supply of pure spring 
water by gravity through a pipe from a point about two and a half 
miles northeast of the village, the piping of the streets and erection of 
hydrants. A commission was formed in the spring of 1892, with John 
H. Kennedy, president (an office which he has since held), and the 
enterprise was rapidly and successfully pushed ahead to completion. 
The cost was about $25,000, and at the present time there is scarcely a 
building in the corporation that is not protected from fire by a hydrant, 
while the citizens and their families have an ample supply of excellent 
water for all necessary purposes. The other members of the water 
commission are George E. Monroe and A. M. Clark. In this connec- 
tion, it should be stated that the public square is being handsomely im- 
proved, and a fountain is to be erected at a cost of $1,250, the generous 
gift of Andrew Albright, a foi'mer i-esident of the town, and one of a 
family who have long been prominent. 


Another important addition to the attractions of tlie village is a new 
opera house, built in 1893, by a stock company, in which most of the 
leading citizens became members. 

SouTHwoRiH Lihrary. — This beneficent institution is the result of 
a gift made in 1881 by the late Jennie McGraw Fiske, of liii:50,000, for 
the erection of a suitable building and maintenance of a public library. 
The following were named as the trustees: Jeremiah W. Uwight, J. J. 
Montgomery, M. D. McElheny, J. E. McElheny. The library was 
incorporated April 35, 1883, under the name of the Southworth Library 
Association, with the following officers: J. W. Dwight, president; J. 
E. McElheny, vice-president; H. B. Napier, secretary; H. B. Lord, 
treasurer. In 1884 the trustees bought the Merritt Baucus property, 
wliicli they remodeled for a library building. This was used until 
1893, when the trustees purchased the H. W. Sears property on Main 
street, and contracted to have erected a handsome stone structure, to 
cost $15,000, including the cost of the real estate. The present board 
of trustees are J. E. McElheny, president; J. J. Montgomery, vice- 
president; John W. Dwight, G. M. Rockwell, D. R. Montgomery, D. 
E. Bower, D. Willard Fiske. H. B. Lord is treasurer, and Cora L. 
Holden, librarian. The building will be completed during 1894. The 
library has now about 5,000 volumes, and the income of the remaining 
$15,000 will be expended annually in the purchase of additional books. 
This library is of inestimable benefit to the village. 

At the noted Dryden Sulphur Springs a sanitarium has been con- 
ducted more than a quarter of a century by Miss S. S. Nivison, M.D., 
where a large and well appointed building has been the temporary 
home for invalids from all parts of the country, and large numbers 
have gone from it cured of obstinate maladies. 

Mkrcantile Intkrksts. — The village of Dryden has always liberally 
supported several good stores, the proprietors of which have carried on 
business in an enterprising and at the same time a prudent manner. 
Business failures have therefore been of very rare occurrence. The 
former firms of Sears & Baucus, Edward Fitts, Bower & Miller, and 
others, have in past years furnished excellent examples of successful 
country merchants. At the present time D. T. Wheeler & Co. carry 
on a large trade in the store formerly occupied by Sears & Baucus. J. 
B. Fulkerson and O. J. Hill are successful general merchants. Cyrus 
French, who long conducted an extensive hardware trade, recently 
sold out to French Brothers ; and the Baker Brothers are large dealers 
in groceries. 



A niaiiufacturing business which promises success has recently been 
inaugurated by Barnard & Allen for the production of the Barnard 
washing machine. 

The old Dryden House, which was successfully conducted for a great 
many years by Peter Mineah, is now in the hands of Henry Wavle. 
In the year 1870 J. H. Cole built the Grove House, and has successfully 
conducted it ever since. 

Agricultural Sociiltv. — The Dryden Agricultural Society was or- 
ganized in 1856, and its success has been much more pronounced than 
that of most similar town organizations. A spirit of emulation has 
been developed among the farmers of the town which has brought 
forth excellent results in the raising of stock and the growing of vari- 
ous products. The first officers of the society were : Elias W. Cad)-, 
president; Jeremiah Snyder, vice-president; David P. Goodhue, treas- 
urer; Otis E. Wood, secretary. The grounds are situated in the eastern 
part of the village and comprise eighteen acres, with suitable build- 

Following is a list of the principal officers of the society from the 
beginning : 




Elias W. Cady. 
Smith Robertson. 
John P. Hart. 
John P. Hart. 
Alviras Snyder. 
P. V. Snyder. 
Chas. Givens. 
Chas. Givens. 
Jacob Albright. 
Nathan Bouton. 
Nathan Bouton. 
C. Bartholomew. 
Luther Griswold. 
Robert Purvis. 
A. B. La Mont. 
Charles Cady. 
Lemi Grover. 
Lemi Grover. 
R. W. Barnum. 
O. W. Wheeler. 
G. M. Lupton. 
G. M. Lupton. 


Otis E. Wood. 
Otis E. Wood. 
Alviras Snyder. 
Alviras Snyder. 
Luther Griswold. 
M. Van Valkenburg. 
A. F. Houpt. 
A. F. Houpt. 
Simeon Snyder. 
W. S. Moffat. 
Henry H. Houpt. 
C. D. Bouton. 
Alviras Snyder. 
Alviras Snyder. 
John H. Kennedy. 
George E. Monroe. 
George E. Monroe. 
Alviras Snyder. 
W. E. Osmun. 
W. E. Osmun. 
W. E. Osmun. 
W. H. Goodwin. 


D. B. Goodhue. 
D. B. Goodhue. 
T. J. McElheny. 
T. J. McElheny. 
T. J. McElheny. 
Eli A. Spear. 
Eli A. Spear. 
Eli A. Spear. 
D. P. Gardner. 
Eli A. Spear. 
Eli A. Spear. 
Eli A. Spear. 
Eli A. Spear. 
Eli A. Spear. 
Eli A. Spear. 
Eli A. Spear. 
Walker Marsh. 
I. P. Ferguson. 
I. P. Ferguson. 
I. P. Ferguson. 
I. P. Ferguson. 
W. I. Baucus. 




1878 G. M. Lupton. 

1879 G. M. Luptou. 

1880 G. M. Lupton. 

1881 G. M. Lupton. 

1882 G. M. Lupton. 

1883 Martin E. Tripp. 

1884 G. M. Lupton. 

1885 G. M. Rockwell. 

1886 John H. Kennedy. 

1887 Theron Johnson. 

1888 Benjamin Sheldon. 

1889 Benjamin Sheldon. 

1890 Chester D. Burch. 

1891 Chester D. Burch. 

1892 Chester D. Burch. 
' 1893 Chester D. Burch. 

1894 Chester D. Burch. 


W. II. Goodwin. 
W. H. Goodwin. 
W. II. Goodwin. 
W. H. Goodwin. 
W. H. Goodwin, 
(jeorge E. Monroe. 
George E. Monroe. 
A. M. Clark. 
Jesse B. Wilson. 
Jesse B. Wilson. 
Jesse B. Wilson. 
Jesse B. Wilson. 
Jesse B. Wilson. 
Jesse B. Wilson. 
Jesse B. Wilson. 
Jesse B. Wilson. 


W. 1. Baucus. 
W. I. Baucus. 
David E. Bower. 
W. I. Baucus. 
W. I. Baucus. 
J. B. Fulkerson. 
J. B. Fulkerson. 
David E. Bower. 
David E. Bower. 
David E. Bower. 
David E. Bower. 
Dewitt T. Wheeler. 
Dewitt T. Wheeler. 
Dewitt T. Wheeler. 
Dewitt T. Wheeler. 
Dewitt T. Wheeler. 
Dewitt T. Wheeler. 

Jesse B. Wilson. 

Dryden Lodge, No. 471, F. and A. M., was organized March 20, 
1850. This lodge has alw^ays had a large membership among whom 
have been numbered most of the leading citizens of the town. The 
omccrs for 1894 arc as follows: W. M., J. Dolph; S. W., Adelbert 
M. Clark; J. W. , Frank S. Jennings; treasurer, Isaac P. Ferguson; 
sec, O. J. Hill; S. D., Jesse B. Wilson; J. D., Chester D. Burch; 
chaplain, M. E. Tripp; tiler, Chas. B. Tanner. 

Dryden Lodge No. 390, L O. O. F., was organized May 15, 1875. 
The officers for 1894 are: N. G., Wm. McKee; V. G., D. Clarke 
Ballard; ace, C. D. Griswold; treasurer, R. M. West; permanent sec, 
H. F. Pratt; chaplain, Daniel Bartholomew; past grand. Dr. G. L. 

Etna Viluage. — This small village is situated oh Fall Creek, a little 
west of the center of the town, and is a station on the E. , C. & N. Rail- 
road. It was known in early years as " Miller's Settlement " from 
William Miller, who settled here about the beginning of the centur}'. 
Later it was called "Columbia," and retained that name until the post- 
office was established. A grist mill and saw mill have been in opera- 
tion here many years, and now carried on by George H. Houtz. There 
are two hotels in the village, one of which is under proprietorship of 
John E.-Coy, and the other of Hiram A. Root. A store is kept by Coggs- 
well Brothers. There are the usual complement of shops, and a church 
noticed elsewhere. 


Freeville. — This is a small incorporated village on Fall Creek and 
• at the junction of the E., C. & N. and the Southern Central Branch of 
the Lehigh Valley Railroads. A small mercantile business, a mill, 
and ordinary shops, with a hotel, constituted the business of this place 
imtil the building of the railroads, when a period of greater activity 
began. Otis E. Wood became the owner of a large tract of land and 
other property here and made great efforts to bring on a period of growth 
which might result in a prosperous village. It cannot be said that his 
anticipations have been fully realized. Mark E. Holton built and has 
long conducted the Junction House, a prosperous hotel, and the older 
hotel, for many years in the hands of the Shaver family, is now con- 
ducted by George I. Shaver. Stores are now kept by Albert L. Willey, 
as successor of Samuel B. Willey, the first merchant; Roe & vSutfin es- 
tablished a store in L880 (H. W. Roe and W. E. Sutfin). 

James M. Carr is postmaster. A manufactory of cathedral window 
glass was established a few years ago by C. Tondeur, which is now in 
operation, and has met with a fair degree of success. The following 
village officers were elected March 20, 1804: President, W. J. Shaver; 
trustees, A. L. Willey (two years), S. S. Hoff (one year); treasurer, 
F. R. Willey; collector, David Robinson; police justice, N. Tl. Thompson. 

Vauna. — This is another hamlet on Fall Creek, near the western 
border of the town, and a station on the 15. , C. & N. Railroad. A grist 
mill has been in operation here many years and passed through many 
hands. It is now operated by the Crutts Brothers, sons of Jacob Crutts, 
one of the early settlers. A grocery is kept by P. W. Mynard, and 
Robert vSmiley is postmaster. A general store is kept by Eugene Van 

Malloryville is a hamlet in the northeast part of the town on Fall 
Creek. It is not a post village. The old red mill is located a little 
below the place, and a pail factory is now operated by Elijah Watson. 
A firkin and tub factory is carried on by Elder E R. Wade, and an- 
other was established by George E. Watson, now of Freeville, which is 
conducted by his son, G. M. WaLson. 

West Dryden is a small hamlet in the western part of the town with 
a post-office. 


The First Baptist church of Dryden was organized February 29, 
.1804, at the dwelling of William Miller in Etna. The Httle hamlet was 


known as "Miller's Settlement." Samuel Hemmingway was chosen 
deacon, and John Wickhara, clerk. Among the original members were 
Francis Miller, Elijah Dimmick, Silas Bi^own, Ebenezer Brown, Nathan- 
iel Luther, Job Carr, Ziba Randall, Timothy Owens, Jonathan Dun- 
ham, Henry Dunham, Joshua Jay, Abraham Woodcock, Nathan 
Dunham, Joel Whipple, Samuel Skillinger, Morris Bailey, Orpha 
Luther, Asher Wickham, Mehi table Carr, Betsy Brown, Abigail Dim- 
mick, Mary Owens, Lucy Dunham and Katie Woodcock. 

Services were held in various places until 1832, when a union edifice 
was erected. This society has had no services for some time past, but 
they are to be renewed soon. 

On the 17th of February, 1808, the Rev. Jabez Chadwick, assisted by 
Elder Ebenezer Brown, organized the Presbyterian church of Dryden 
village. The names of the corporate members were James Wood, 
Stephen Myreh, Benjamin Simons, Derick Sutfin, Abraham Griswold, 
Juliana Turpening, Aseneth Griswold, Isabell Simons, Rebecca Myreh, 
Sarah Wood, Elizabeth Tappen, Jerusha Taylor (as they appeared in 
the record). During the first nine years there was no regular pastor or 
stated supply, but various ministers and missionaries occupied the pul- 
pit. In 181G Rev. Jeremiah Osborn became pastor. The first meet- 
ings were held in Thomas Southworth's barn at Willow Glen, and in 
1818 in Elias W. Cady's barn. The church building was begun in 1821, 
and when it was finished Rev. Reuben Hurd was installed pastor. It 
has been changed and improved in later years. About this time the 
society changed from the Congregational to the Presbyterian form. 
The present pastor of the church is Rev. Fred. L. Hiller. 

A young Methodist itinerant, who was passing through Dryden in 
1816, stopped and was induced to hold services in the school house. 
He did so, and went to several dwellings, exhorting the people. This 
was the beginning of Methodism in the town. His name was Rev. 
Alvin Torrey, and his zeal soon resulted in the organization of a class. 
Selden Marvin, Edward Hunting, and Abraham Tanner were among 
the original members. The conference of 1831 organized a new cir- 
cuit from the Cayuga, Caroline and Berkshire circuits, naming it the 
Dryden circuit, and Revs. Mr. Colbourn and M. Adams were appointed 
preachers. A great revival followed and the house of worship was 
built in 1832. The next conference made the circuit a station, and 
Rev. J. T. Peck became the first pastor iii charge. The pastorate has, 
of course, changed numerous times since, and Rev. J. W. Terry is the 



present pastor. The church built in ] 832 was burned in December 23, 
1873, and the present edifice was erected in the following year at a cost 
of about $11,000. 

The First Methodist church of Etna was organized April 13, 1835, 
and the meetings were held for a time in the village school house. In 
1837 the church edifice was built at a cost of about $2,000. The first 
trustees were James Freeman, Alvah Carr, Michael Vanderhoof, Rich- 
ard Bryant, Thomas J. Watkins, Oliver Baker and John H. Porter. 
The present pastor is Rev. P. J. Riegel. 

The First Methodist church of Varna was formed January 5, 1842, at 
the village school house. Hoffman Steenburg, William Cobb, Robert 
C. Plunt, Benjamin Davenport, George Emmons, John Munson and 
Isaac Seamans were chosen the first trustees. At the next regular 
meeting it was determined to build a church. A subscription paper 
was circulated, and in 1843 the building was finished at a cost of $1,500. 
It was repaired in 1874 at a cost of $400. The present pastor is Rev. 
P. J. Riegel. 

The Methodist church of West Dryden was organized from a class 
which had been formed in 1811. This class was composed of Samuel 
Fox and his wife, David Case and wife, Selden Andrus and wife, and 
one other person. The first meetings were lield in the house of Sam- 
uel Fox, and later in the large school house at Fox's Corners. Circuit 
preachers occupied the pulpit. In 1832 the church was built at a cost 
of $2,200. The first trustees were Lemuel vSperry, Thomas George and 
William George. The present pastor is Rev. Thomas C. Roskelly, 

The Methodist church at Freeville was formed at an early day, but 
a reorganization was effected in 1870. The church was built in 1842 
and a parsonage in 1878, Rev. Thomas C. Roskelly is the present 



On the 4th of August, 1791, John W. Watkins, Royal Flint and their 
associates, mostly resident in and about New York city, filed with the 
secretary of state a proposal to purchase all the ungranted lands of the 
State lying between the military townships on the north and the town- 
ship of Chemung on the south, the Owego River on the east, and the 
pre-emption line on the west. The pre-emption line was the east line 
of the lands granted to Massachusetts in settlement of a long dispute 
over State boundaries. 

The offer was accepted by the commissioners of the Land Ofifice, a 
board consisting of the principal State officers and of which Governor 
George Clinton was at that time president. A survey was directed to 
be made under the supervision of the surveyor-general, whose return 
was filed April 7, 1794. 

His arithmetic made the territory amount to 330,880 acres. Several 
reservations were made, but their area was not included in the above 
aggregate. A patent therefor was issued, dated June 35, 1794, to John 
W. Watkins, who very soon conveyed by deed to Royal Flint and 
associates their respective shares in the deal, as interest appeared. 
The names of Watkins and Flint having been first affixed to the formal 
proposal to purchase, the tract took the name of the Watkins and Flint 
purchase and comprised a tract thirty-five miles in length by fifteen in 
width. The price paid by the syndicate was three shillings and four 
pence per acre. 

Very soon after the deal had been consummated, two men named 
Johnson became the proprietors of a very large part of it, probably 
nearly or quite one-third, and including most or all that part of it now 
in Tompkins county. They were Robert C. and Samuel W. Johnson, 
of Stratford, in Connecticut. The "Johnson Lands," as they were 
called, included, with some few reservations, the towns of Caroline, 
Danby and Newfield, or the southern tier of the county of Tompkins. 

James Pumpelly, a surveyor from Connecticut, settled at Owego and 


became their resident agent and business manager in the laying out, 
subdivision and mapping of the territory for sale to actual settlers, 
and in some instances in considerable quantities to smaller speculators. 
Many large purchases were conducted in this manner, notably those 
of the Beers in Danby, and the Speeds, Boyers, Hydes and Patillos in 
Caroline, who thus bought in the aggregate a number of thousand 

The name of Samuel W. Johnson was borne on the annual tax-rolls 
of one or more towns until some time in 1840-30, and Johnson was an 
occasional visitor to the region and would return east with a small drove 
of live stock taken in payment for land, as the great majority of set- 
tlers bought by "article," so called. Of James Pumpelly, the cele- 
brated land agent of this region iu pioneer days, it may be said that he 
was of Italian descent. His dealings with the settlers were always 
honorable, courteous, and very methodical and exact. His land office 
in the stone building close beside the Susquehanna at Owego was a 
famous place in its day. 

The town of Caroline occupies the southeast corner of Tompkins 
county and contains 34,523 acres.' Its surface is upland, broken bj' 
irregular ridges running northeast and .southwest. The soil is gravelly 
and calcareous loam, the latter chiefly in the southern part, and is 
adapted to grazing and grain growing. The dairying interest in the 
town has been extensively and profitably developed in recent years. 
The streams are Six Mile Creek and Owego Creek, the latter forming 
the eastern boundary, and their branches. The deep valleys of these 
streams are generally bordered by lofty and steep hills. 

This town was organized February 22, 1811,* when it was set off 
from Spencer, but did not become a part of Tompkins county until 
March 23, 1823. It received its name in honor of a daughter of Dr. 
Joseph Speed, one of the pioneers. 

Settlement in Caroline was begun by Captain David Rich, originally 
from the western part of Massachusetts, but 'later from Vermont where 

1 January 1, 1887, seven lot.s of (iOO acres each were taken from Dryden and added 
to Caroline, making the area as aliove. "* 

2 In 1810, the year before the division, Spencer contained 3,128 inhabitants. In 
1814, three years after the division of Spencer into five separate towns, the popula- 
tion of each was as follows: Caroline, 905; Danby, 1,200; Newfield, 982. These 
were set off to Tompkins county. Candor, 1,098; Spencer, C70; the last two remain- 
ing a part of Tioga county. 


he had kept a tavern, who came to the east part of the town in 1795, 
by way of New Jersey (where he made a short stay), Apalachin (Tioga 
county), and thence up the Owego Creek. He purchased between 100 
and 200 acres, and his deed is tlie first recorded to an actual settler in 
Caroline. He had been a tavern keeper before his removal to this 
town, and followed the same business here, first in a lot>- house and 
later wliere his son, Orin P. Rich now lives. He held several town 
offices, and died, aged ninety-two, in 1853. 

In 1795 Widow Earsley came into the town with her ten children, 
and at the same date with Captain David Rich. The maiden name of 
Mrs. Earsley was Maria Johnson. Her native country was Holland, 
from which she came to tliis country witli her parents when twelve 
years of age. She married Francis Earsley, who was born in Ireland 
of English parents and was by trade a weaver. He lived at Roxbury, 
Essex county, N. J., after arriving in this country, and became a 
farmer. He served with one of his wife's brothers during the Revolu- 
tionary war, and died in 1790, leaving him surviving a widow and ten 
children, the youngest of whom were two twin girls only nine months 
old. In company with her brother and her eldest son she set out on 
horseback to find a new home in the summer of 1794. In her travels 
she met one Simmons Perkins, a surveyor who made a map of Town- 
ship No. 11, of the Watkins and Flint purchase. In company with 
Perkins and six others, among whom were her son, her son-in- 
law, and her brother, Zacheus Johnson, she prospected for land. They 
camped out in the woods nights. One day as they were crossing the 
little brook which still meanders through the fields, Mrs. Earsley said, 
"This is my home." She bought the land, 100 acres, at $IJ.OO per 
acre. They removed from New Jersey to Union, remained there four 
weeks, and went to Apalachin, where they lived till coming to this 
their new home. During this time the eldest daughter, Nelly, married 
Beniah Barney. In the fall the eldest son, John, came and built a 
cabin on the land. Mrs. Earsley traveled over the route between her 
new home in the forest and the old one in New Jersey twice. She 
rode in all over 500 miles on horseback. The family when it left New 
Jersey consisted of the mother and ten children, five boys and five 
girls, the eldest of whom married and remained at Apalachin. In the 
spring they came .with oxen and sleigh, the snow being quite deep. 
They arrived on the gi-ound March 4, 1795. 


Mrs. Earsley was the first to locate and make preparation for a home, 
but Captain Rich was the first to arrive on the ground in the sprinj)-, 
which he did one week previously. His land joined hers on the east. 
The two settled in what was at that time the extreme northeast limit 
of the old township of Owego, in Tioga county. 

The next settlers in the town were Thoinas Tracy and his son Ben- 
jamin, who, in 1797, located near the site of the Charles P. Tobey 
dwelling. They were from Western Massachusetts originally, but 
came here from near the present village of Apalachin. After seven or 
eight years Thomas Tracy sold out to Samuel Rounsvell, who kept 
bachelor hall here many years, and Rounsvell sold to Walter J. Thomas 
about 1832. The son returned to their old home near Apalachin and 
reared a family. General B. F. Tracy, ex-secretary of the navy, is his 
son. A brother of Thomas Tracy, named Prince Tracy, also settled 
in Caroline a few years later than Thomas, but after the War of 1812 
sold out to the Schoonmaker family and left the town. 

The next settler in Caroline, and a member of a family who became 
very conspicuous, was John Cantine, jr., a son of General John Cantine, 
of Ulster county, N.Y. The Cantine family were from Marbletown, 
Ulster county, and of Huguenot descent. General Cantine gained his 
military title by honorable service in the militia of the Revolution. He 
also was at times member of the Assembly, of the State Senate and of 
Congress, and was associated with most of the eminent men of New 
York State of those stirring times. The last few years of his life were 
passed at the home of his son, John, and a married daughter (Mrs. 
Chambers) at Brookton (Mott's Corners), where he died April 30, 1808. 
He became as early as 1707 identified with the then wild lands of the 
province of New York. After the close of the Revolutionary War, 
many adventurous parties from Eastern New York penetrated the in- 
terior wilderness and settled along the Susquehanna, Chemung and 
Tioga Rivers in advance of all surveys and allotments of the lands. 
Many of them were entitled to military bounty lands, and some con- 
flicts arose over titles. In 1788 the Legislature appointed commission- 
ers to settle all these disputes in this region, (General Cantine, General 
James Clinton and John Hathorn were nanied, and were known as the 
" Chemung Commissioners. " In laying out and surveying the lands 
of Chemung township (before Tioga county was formed), they made 
large selections of land in this and other localities for themselves and 
their friends. One of these selections was a tract of 3,300 acres, now 


in the town of Caroline, known locally as "Tlie Cantine (5reat " and 
the "Cantine Little Locations." The law required tliat such selec- 
tions of land should be made in square tracts, and General Cantine se- 
cured large sections in the valley of Six Mile Creek, without including 
much hill land, by laying out several squares adjoining each other 
along the valley. He made tliree separate "locations," two of 1,200 
acres each and one of 800 acres. He made also several locations on the 
site of the village of Wilseyville, now in Tioga county. 

The Cantine great and little locations in Caroline include the terri- 
tory where Slaterville and Brookton (Mott's Corners) stand, with 
adjacent lands. His certificates of location for the land were filed with 
the secretary of state March (!, 7 and 21, 1703, and the patents were 
issued in the same month. General Cantine had located the lands upon 
the claims of militia soldiers called class men, who were entitled to 100 
or more acres each. Many of these he had bought in advance, and 
others were assigned to him for location in large parcels, he afterwards 
reconveying them to the proper persons. 

When John Cantine, jr., came to Caroline in 1798, as stated, his 
father gave liiinhis choice of the land, where he finally settled, in Caro- 
line, or of another tract which included the site of the city of Elmira. 
The son chose the Caroline tract for its superior water privileges on 
Six Mile Creek at Brookton. There he built a log house, which he oc- 
cupied several years. His wife was a daughter of a Frenchman, who 
was driven out of his country in the reign of terror and who fled to 
America. His name was Cartd. He opposed his daughter's marriage 
to Cantitie, and an elopement followed. The father disowned his 
dau.ghter, but in after years, when she was the happy mother of a fam- 
ily, he relented and sent her children presents. One of the sons of 
Cantine was named John J. Cart^ Cantine, and a former boy had been 
named John Marat Cantine. 

Two years later (1800) General Cantine built a grist mill for his son 
at the falls, Brookton, the first real grist mill this side of Owego. A 
saw mill was added, the care of which and the clearing of his farm oc- 
cupied Mr. Cantine's time while he lived in Caroline, 1708 to 1828. 
The pioneer lodge of Free Masons (the Eagle Lodge) in the county 
was organized in 1808 at his house, which is still standing, and the 
meetings for a time were held here and alternately at the inn of Luther 
Gere in Ithaca. Mr. Cantine's old home, built in 1804, and long called 
"The Mansion House," was the first frame dwelling erected in Caro- 


line. He was an active, public-spirited man, held several local offices 
and had a large family, who are all dead. In 18'iS he sold his property 
in Caroline to his brother Charles and removed to Ithaca, where he 
lived at 73 North Cayuga street until his death in 18:]4, aged sixty-six 

Hartman (or Hartmore) Ennest, with three others, came from Mar- 
bletown in 1800 and settled on the old Sullivan place. Ennest had 
made other previous improvements on the old Deuel farm, but sold out 
to Dr. Joseph Speed. Joseph Chambers, Richard Bush and Oakley 
Bush came probably in 1800 from Marbletown. Soon after his arrival 
Richard Bush built a large square house of hewn logs, a little west of 
where the Velotus Stevens residence stands, on the south side of the 
road, and began keeping tavern — the first public house in the town. 
This was long known as the "Old Bush vStand." Oakley Bush lived 
at first a near neighbor to Ennest, but later went over on the present 
John Rightmire farm, southwest of Slaterville. 

Richard Bush and Joseph Chambers were both grantees of General 
Cantine and settled, the former near B. F. Mead's,, and the latter on 
Michael C. Krum's farm. Chambers sold out to Krum in 1838, and 
went to Illinois with his sons. Bush died about 1815, but his widow 
and her family lived on their old place a great many years. It has 
since been much subdivided. Widow Bush continued the tavern after 
her husband's death. 

Benoni Mulks was a millwright by trade. He was a soldier in the 
army of General Gates and took part in the first and second battles of 
Saratoga, but was prevented from witnessing the final surrender through 
the following circumstance: General Burgoyne's army having burned 
the mills at Schuylerville, Mr. Mulks, being a millwright, was detailed 
from the ranks with a squad of men to rebuild them to grind corn for 
the American army. This occurred three days before the final sur- 
render of the British at Saratoga. 

In 1800 he came to Caroline to build the Cantine grist mill, where 
Brookton now is. One Sunday going up the Six Mile Creek hunting 
and fishing he for the first time passed the flats about Slaterville. A 
tract of 325 acres here was owned by two merchants at Chemung and 
was for sale. It had originally been a part of Cantine's location. On 
the premises was a fine large spring of water near the bank of the 
creek. It was then he for the first time conceived the idea of purchas- 
ing the land and removing thither. Three of his old neighbors from 


the east had just settled near by, one of whom, Joseph Chambers, was 
his brother-in-law. When, early in the fall, his son John came in with 
General Cantine and a party of young men to prospect the locality, the 
father and son decided to purchase it, and did so. Their deed bears- 
date of September ;J0, 1800, 325 acres for $1,000. 

They erected a log house by the spring the same fall, in readiness for 
their coming the next season. Early next year (1801) Levi Slater, 
John Robison and Lemuel Yates, arriving a little earlier, occupied the 
log house with their families until they could build one for themselves 
on their lands near by. The Mulks party came in June, arriving on 
the 15th of the month. There were eight souls in the party, the eldest 
being the aged grandmother of seventy, and the youngest an infant of 
six months. The first season (1801) they cleared off six acres in 
readiness for winter wheat, and during the following winter and spring 
seven acres more for corn. At the same time they brought with 
them, among other liVe stock, thirty sheep, which were taken to Lans- 
ing (Egypt*) and let on shares for a few years until they could keep 

Two or three years later another son, Moses, came and also a mar- 
ried daughter, Mrs. Daniel Newkirk. John Mulks lived in Caroline 
twenty-five years. He built a grist mill, saw mill and distillery on his 
farm. In 182G he went west. He was a pioneer in four different 
States — Central New York in 1801 ; Michigan Territory in 1826 ; Indiana 
State in 1833, and Wisconsin Territory in 1838. In each case he set- 
tled in a new, undeveloped country, and the last three times on gov- 
ernment land. He lived to the age of eighty-four, and died in White- 
water, Wis., in 1864. 

Levi Slater, a Yankee schoolmaster, came to this town with General 
Cantine in the summer, and having a knowledge of surveying, used the 
instruments owned by John Cantine in laying out land in this vicinity. 
In the spring of 1801 he. built and settled in a log house on the site of 
Slaterville (named from him), which stood where W. J. Carns's house 
now stands. He had' bought of General Cantine 100 acres at $3.75 per 
acre. He brought his wife and child, the latter of whom was the late 
Justus Slater, of Jersey City. When Mr. Slater arrived here he found 
two men from Chemung running a large sugar bush on the flats owned 

' Among the old settlers to the east of the lake country it was much called Egypt 
as they went there to buy corn until they could raise it. This similitude had 
reference to Joseph and his brothers in Egypt, where they went to buy corn. 


in late years by John Boice. They were about to go away and left their 
kettles and utensils. Mr. Slater took up the work and made for him- 
self quite a quantity of maple sugar and molasses. The next few years 
were spent in clearing land and its cultivation, and by 1813 he had 
most of the land in and around Slaterville under improvement. He 
also taught school at intervals in winter mohths. A few years after- 
wards his brother Thomas, and brother-in-law, Joseph Goodrich, moved 
here from the east, the latter settling where John Schutt now lives, in 
the town of Caroline, but till recently in Dryden. In the war of 1813 
Mr. Slater was captain of the local company, and when the British 
burned Buffalo, he and and his company were prdered to the frontier. 

For a few years after the locality around Slaterville was settled by a 
number of families,, a small party of Indians came each fall to hunt in 
that vicinity. They were Oneidas and were led by one whom the settlers 
called Wheelock. Their visual camp was on the farm now owned by 
Aaron Schutt, first settled by Matthew Krum in 180G. This Wheelock 
was killed in the war of 1813, while fighting with the Americans; after 
that the Indians came to the town no more. 

The first sale of land by Mr. Slater was to Isaac Miller in 1810, aboiit 
three acres, owned in later years by D. B. Drummond. Miller built a 
store and started in trade, but died soon after, and Mr. Slater succeeded 
to the business. Within the lapse of a few years a hamlet gathered 
around at that point and took the name of "Dutch Settlement." A 
post-office was opened in 1833, with John Robison as postmaster, and 
the name of Slaterville was given to it. Mr. Slater became a leading 
man and interested with his sons in various enterprises. About 1838 
he failed, and his real estate passed to James Hall, of New York. Mr. 
Slater was supervisor five years in early times, and died at the age of 
seventy-eight years. 

John Robison, grandfather of Henry, came in 1801 from Marbletown 
and settled next east of Slater, where C. H. Deuel's house now stands ; 
and in the same year Lemuel Yates came in and settled where Robert 
G. H. Speed now lives. ' ' 

To the eastward of Slaterville a number of pioneers from New Eng- 
land gathered, giving it the local name of "Yankee Settlement," by 
which title it was distinguished from the "Dutch Settlement," as the 
locality where Matthew Jansen settled. Jansen came in 1803 and was 
a blacksmith. He brought a few slaves into the town. Benjamin 
Tracy, son of Thomas, who had settled the Charles P. Tobey farm, in 


the same year, and Daniel Newkirk, a tailor, about the same time. 
Daniel Newkirk was the son-in-law of Bcnoni Mulks. He settled on 
the Stilwell farm in 1803 and lived there till 1814, when he exchanged 
farms with Isaac Stilwell, of Hector, and Mr. Stilwell then moved on 
to the farm, where he lived most of his life. * He has descendants in 
Caroline. Rev. Garrett Mandcvillc, from Ulster county, settled in 180;! 
near the site of Mott's Comers, on the William Personius farm (Brook- 
ton), and was a prominent citizen, and left several descendants in the 
town. He was the founder of the Dutch Reformed church of Caroline 
back in the twenties. 

-The first settlers at what became known as " Tobey's " were from 
New England. One of them was George Vickcry, who came in 1804 
and located where the widow of N. M. Tobey lives. Edward and 
Thomas Paine, the latter a Revolutionary soldier, and Dr. Elisha Briggs 
and Dr. James and Simeon Ashley were others who settled early in 
that section; also five brothers by the names of Abiathar G. , Samuel, 
William, Sylvester and Bradford Rounsvell, all of whom settled along 
the turnpike on farms which they cleared up. They all came before 
the war of 18 r2. William was the first supervisor. The Rounsvells 
were a vftluable addition to the new country, and were from Bristol 
county, Mass. 

Two brothers, Nathaniel and Samuel Tobey, were early settlers in 
Caroline, coming from Massachusetts. Nathaniel came in 1810, having 
been married a short time previous. He settled first on the Levi 
Goodrich farm, west of " Rawson Hollow," lived there one year and 
then moved to what has been called the Widow Rounsvell farm, where 
Abiather Rounsvell lived in early times. Later Mr. Rounsvell and 
Mr. Tobey traded farms; they where brothers-in-law. Mr. Tobey 
kept a tavern many years on the turnpike. Mr. Tobey had two sons, 
Nathaniel M. and Charles P., and several daughters. The father died 
in the early years of the late war, and both sons died in 1885. Samuel 
Tobey was a younger brother of Nathaniel, and came to town at a 
later date. At his death he left three sons, Austin, Edwin and Will- 
iam. Austin and William learned the printing trade at Mack & An- 
drus's office in Ithaca. 

In 1800 John Rounsvell (sometimes spelled " Rounsville ") settled 
on the farm which became the Dr. Speed homestead. He was from 
New Hampshire, and with him came Joel Rich. Rounsvell was the 
father of the late Charles J. Rounsvell, who was a member of assem- 


bly in 1849. His daughter Harriet has repeatedly been stated to have 
been the first white child born in the town. This is not true. David 
Rich, jr., was the first, born Januar)^ 18, 1797, as shown in the family 
record. Harriet Rounsvell was not born till 1801. There were also 
four others named Rounsvell who settled in the town, all brothers. 

Robert Freeland was an Irishman and a carpenter. He came to 
Ca:-oline in 1801 with the family of John Robison, who was his father- 
in-law. He bought the farm (now the T. B. June place) about 1804, 
and adjoining parcels later, and owned nearly 400 acres at one tiine. 
He was well educated and one of the leading men of his day. 

Jonathan Norwood, son of Francis Norwood, came to the town prob- 
ably at a later day than his father. He lived to a great age. 

Henry Quick was tlie first of that name to settle in the town. He 
took the farm now owned by his son, Daniel H., about the year 1804. 
His brother Jacob came later, and also others of the name. Henry 
Quick married a daughter of Widow Earsley. 

Moses Higgins told Charles F. Mulks, ' in an interview in 1883, the 
following reminiscences: The Reeds, Moses, Daniel and Belden, three 
brothers from Rhode Island, were early settlers in Caroline. Moses 
was the eldest, and came first and bought the present Higgins farm, 
east of Slaterville, together with a part of the Tobey farm lying on the 
south side of the turnpike. He first settled on the Tobey part, lived 
there a few years, cleared about five acres, when he traded with the 
senior J. J. Speed. Mr. Speed built a dwelling and a store in a block 
house and lived there several years. It is still called the old Jack 
Speed place. Daniel Reed, who was a minor, joined Moses, and for 
several years the family consisted of the two brothers and their step- 
mother. Upon her death John Higgins, a brother-in-law of the Reeds, 
came with his family, a wife and two or more children. He came from 
Ulster county, N. Y., and lived with Moses Reed, who was a bachelor. 
The Higgins family arrived in the town in the spring of 1808. Daniel 
and Belden Reed went to live together on land now owned by Moses 
Bull, on the hills south of the turnpike. When Moses Higgins came 
to the town there was no house between the Roe farm below Mott's 
Corners and the Cantine mill and Mansion House. From there it was 
all woods until they reached Chambers's, where M. C. Krum now lives. 
From Krum's up past Slaterville it was much cleared and quite thickly 

' These interviews, when had with Mr. Mulks, were committed to paper at the 
time, and are not from memory merely. 


settled, and nearly all by old Dutch neighbors from Ulster county. 
Samuel Rounsvell was then living where Charles P. Tobey now lives. 
Thomas Tracy had lived on the place, but had sold to Rounsvell. The 
first school attended by Mr. Higgins was kept by John D. Bell in the 
old Mulks log house, the family liaving just built a new frame house. 
He afterwards attended tlie Lyman Cobb school. The first man to 
enlist from this town for the war of 1812 was Richard Robison, son of 
Capt. Ebenezer Lewis Robison. Capt. John Cantine raised a volunteer 
artillery company for three months' service. John J. Speed was keep- 
ing a small store when Higgins came, and also a post-office called 
Speedsville on the turnpike. The mail was brought up by a post rider 
from Ithaca in a small bag. From the turnpike Mr. Speed removed 
to the " city " lot, and subsequently to the Morrell farm, as elsewhere 

The Speed family, who were to become conspicuous in the history of 
the town and county, were from Mecklenberg county, Va. Dr. Joseph 
Speed studied medicine with the celebrated Dr. Benjamin Rush, of 
Philadelphia, where Dr. Speed practiced a few years before coming to 
what was then the town of Spencer, Tioga county. De Witt Clinton 
visited this region in 1810, as before noted, and in his journal of Au- 
gust 10, of that year, he wrote: 

"Fourteen miles southeast from Ithaca, in the town of Spencer, 
Tioga county, there is a settlement of Virginians called Speed ; they 
are all Federalist. " 

Caroline was then a part of Spencer, and Dr. Joseph Speed was the 
most prominent of the little colony alluded to by Clinton, the members 
of which came in between the years 1805 and 1808. So far as known 
their names were John James Speed, William Speed, brothers, who 
came in 1805, and were followed three years later by their father, Henry 
Speed, and Dr. Joseph Speed also in 1806, with his brother John, 
cousins of the two brothers above named; Robert H. Hyde came in 
1805, and two years later was followed by Robert's father, also named 
Robert, and by John and William Patillo and the family of Thomas 
Heggie. Robert H. S. Hyde, the lawyer, was the son of Robert H., 
and was born in town some years later. Augustine Boyer came from 
Maryland in 1803, and purchased through the agency of James Pum- 
pelly 1,000 acres of land of the Johnsons, who were the eastern pro- 
prietors under the Watkins & Flint syndicate. The other southerners, 
of whom we have spoken, also bought largely of wild lands in the town, 


and nearly all of them brought slaves with them, who were held until 
the institution was abolished in 1827. 

The senior John James Speed had been a merchant in Virginia, and 
had owned slaves, as had also others of this colony. He was a man of 
noble bearing and lived to about ninety years of age. He removed to 
Ithaca in 1833, and a little later to Cortland village, where he was con- 
nected with paper making. After other removals, he died in the State 
of Maine in the fall of 18G0. 

In Caroline, John J. and William Speed opened a small store in 1805 
in a log house half a mile east of the site of Slaterville, and therein 
1800 secured a post-office, with John J. as postmaster, the office being 
named " Speedsville. " A few years later, when John J. Speed, sr. , left 
the turnpike, he removed to a place now called the "City Lot." This 
was about the time of the war of 1813-15. He built a little collection 
of log and plank-sided houses, and families lived in a part of them. 
He also built a small grist mill and a saw mill on the little streams of 
that neighborhood and moved his store and the post-office there. The 
settlers gave it the name of "The City;" but Mr. Speed soon aban- 
doned his project and moved upon the hill and lived there several 
years, conducting a large farm, since subdivided, but the homestead of 
which now belongs to F. C. Cornell, of Ithaca. When he left there it 
was to live for a time with his son, John J., on the Caroline Center road, 
whence he removed to Ithaca. The Speedsville post-office had traveled 
across the town, and up the hill and down the hill without hindrance 
until about 1833, when the younger Mr. Speed was its custodian. At 
that time the citizens of Jenksville wished to have it removed to their 
little hamlet and the name changed to Jenksville. This Mi-. Speed, jr., 
opposed, and his influence prevented such action. While he cared 
nothing for the post-oiBce, he did wish that the name should be per- 
petuated. A compromise was effected by which the name was retained ; 
the Speeds resigned the office, and another postmaster was appointed 
at Jenksville, which was thenceforth called " Speedsville." This office 
was supplied in early days by a horseback rider, whose regular weekly 
round trip was from Ithaca to Danby; thence via vSpencer court house 
to Owcgo, and returning by way of Berkshire and Speedsville. The 
site of Speedsville when the ' ' City Lot " was booming is now a back 
pasture on the Cornell-Morrell farm. 

John J. Speed, jr., became very prominent in the history of the 
county. While still living in Caroline he was elected to the Assembly, 


and after engaging in business at Ithaca was a presidential elector and 
a candidate for Congress. Betweeia 1830 and 1840 he exchanged his 
property in Caroline for the mercantile business of the late Stephen B. 
Munn, jr., on the northeast corner of State and Cayuga streets, Ithaca. 
He continued business there a few years, and was conspicuous in the 
company which established the Fall Creek Woolen Mills, a project 
which was highly tiseful, but destined to failure. Mr. Speed failed, 
and afterwards was associated with Ezra Cornell in building early tele- 
graph lines, retrieved his fortunes, and paid all the debts incurred 
before his failure. * 

Aaron Bull came here in 1800 from Ulster county, N.Y. , but was 
originally from a locality on the Housatonic River, Connecticut. He 
had gone to Ulster county, lived and married there before moving to 
Caroline. His children, Moses, Henry W., Mathew, Justus and John 
are still living. John has been a merchant and a miller at Slaterville 
for several years, and supervisor of his town. Matthew Krum, a 
brother-in-law of Aaron Bull, settled in the same year just north of 
the latter. Other early settlers were Moses Reed, Joseph Goodrich, 
Moses Cass, who had an early store ; Josiah Cass, brother of Moses, and 
who built a tavern about 1815 where H. S. Krum now lives; it passed 
three years later to Aaron Bull, who kept it nearly thirty years; Aaron 
Cass, father of Moses and Josiah, who was the pioneer on the present 
Hasbrouck farm, a soldier of the Revolution, and in Captain Ellis's 
company in 1812, and killed at the. attack on Queenstown; Isaac Miller, 
an early merchant: Nathan Gosper on the Edward J. Thomas farm; 
Joseph Smith on the Willcy farm; Marcus Palmerton on the Hollister 
farm; John Doty on Chauncy L. Wattles farm; Captain Alexander 
Stowell at Caroline Center, and others. 

1 Following is an extract from the last will of Henry Speed, of Caroline, which re- 
lates to slavery in the town : 

"I also give to her [his daughter Polly] my negroes, to wit, Lukey, Liza and John 
(called Jack). I also lend her my horse Bulow, and one her choice of my feather 
beds and furniture. This land and premises, negroes, horse and bed, etc. , I desire 
that she, my daughter, Polly (Hvde) may have and enjoy during her natural life ; 
and after her decease I desire that this estate above lent to my daughter Polly Hyde 
may be given to her child or children that may arrive at lawful age. I give unto 
Robert H. Hyde (her husband) my good wishes, and pray that his soul may rest 
happy with God, and desire him to treat the negroes committed to his care with 
lenity and try to teach them the fear of the Lord." 

[This slave Eliza was the most conspicuous figure in quite a celebrated law suit, 
which is alluded to on page 74.] 


It is interesting to record that the effects of the war of 1812-15 were 
felt in this town, for Captain Levi Slater was then in command of a 
local company of Caroline militia. When the British burned Buffalo 
in 1813 the militia was very generally ordered out, as before stated. 
Captain Slater recei v'ed his orders and there was much local excite- 
ment. The company departed, but after a march of a day and a half 
reached Canandaigua, where they received notice that the danger was 
passed and they could return. Several of the Virginian settlers before 
described, notably Dr. Joseph and John J. Speed, were members of 
the company, and, being Federalists, were opposed to the war. They, 
however, furnished substitutes, as did also Augustine Boyer, whose 
substitute received a gun, knapsack, and $20 cash, which proved excel- 
lent remuneration for the short trip to Canandaigua. 

After the war of 1812, and between that and 1820, the town filled up 
quite rapidly. Abraham Boice, jr., came in from' Ulster county in 
1810 and first cleared lands in the town of Dryden, and later on the 
farm owned in recent years by Edward J. Thomas, east side of Dryden 
road. It was from the Boice family that " Boiceville," a hamlet west 
of Slaterville, took its name. Dr. James Ashley came in 1814, with 
wife and two sons, Samuel P. and James, jr., from Massachusetts, and 
located on the Charles B. Higgins farm. Simeon Ashley, a brother of 
Dr. James, came in seven years later. Deacon Isaac HoUister, from 
Ulster county, settled near the site of Caroline Depot. George N. At- 
wood married one of his daughters; and Mr. Hollister had sons, 
Kinner, Timothy and Justus. In 1816 Jonathan Snow, from Wor- 
cester county, Mass., settled on the farm where the late Simon V. 
Snow lived. James H. and Jonathan W. Snow were his sons. 

In an interview with Charles F. Mulks in 1879, and then written down, 
Eli Boice gave the following information : Eli came in when thirteen 
years old with his father, Abraham. The latter bought out Captain 
Robison, who lived on the Smiley farm.* Old Henry Quick and Moses 
and Simeon Schoonmaker were then living near; Moses where his son 
Jacob now lives, and Simeon on the McWhorter place. Prince, brother 
of Thomas Tracey, had lived up there previously but had gone away. 
vSpencer Hungerford was then living on the present Camp Reed farm, 
but afterwards moved to the place named after him. John Mulks's 
first log house was then standing, and Ben Eighmey, father of Thomas 

1 The reader must bear in mind that these references to farms and localities refer 
to the year 1879, fifteen years ago. 


and Philip, was then living in it. Moses Cass was living on the pres- 
ent Norwood farm. John Miilks was then engaged in building his 
grist mill, borrowing most of the money for the purpose. He and his 
son Daniel did most of the mill work. He also operated a distillery. 
The Sloughtcr family lived on the hill on what is now the south part 
of John Rightmire's farm. The Sloughters sold to Tiiomas I^ush, 
when the latter ran the saw mill, one hundred splendid pine logs for 
an old bull's-eye watch, worth now perhaps $2.50. Charles Mulks, 
brother of John, was noted for raising large crops of fine wheat. Eli 
Boice bought the Norwood farm from the younger John James Speed. 

John Taft, of Worcester county, Mass., a soldier of the war of 1812, 
settled in 1820 in the south part of the town, where he died in 187(3. 
His son, William H., was second lieutenant in the 137th Regiment in 
the late war, and died of fever at Harper's Ferry. 

An interview written by Mr. Mulks and had by him with T. M. 
Boyer in 1879, furnishes the following reminiscences: When Augus- 
tine Boyer came north in 1803 he came on horseback and alone. Mr. 
Boyer left home in May and in August purchased 1,000 acres of land 
of Mr. Pumpelly, the agent of Samuel William Johnson, of Stratford, 
Conn. Mr. Boyer hired Elisha Doty to build him a log house, and 
then started for his home in Maryland. The journey required eight 
days; this was in August, 1803. He came back in the fall with a 
horse and cart and a negro boy named Jerry Blackman; they passed 
the winter together in the log house. When Mr. Boyer settled here 
he was unmarried, but in 1805 married into the Comegyes family, of 
Maiyland. Hugh Boyer, a distant relative, came in with Augustine 
and located on what became the Brink farm. The first land sold by 
Mr. Boyer from his original 1,000 acres was to James Livermore within 
a few years after the first purchase. This was at Caroline Center, and 
Livermore's cabin was built a few rods in rear of the site of Sharrad 
Slater's house; he sold out a few years later and went west. Mr. 
Boyer acted for a time as land agent for S. W. John.son, and in that 
capacity sold to Jonas Rhoode his land on Brearley Hill (elsewhere 
mentioned). About the time of the war of 1812, when T. M. Boyer 
was six years old, there was a small frame school house in the corner 
formed by the turnpike and the level Green road at Tobey's, where he 
attended school to Abiathar Rounsvell. He also attended at a school 
kept by Rev. Mr. Mandeville near Caroline Center in what was called 
" the Old City, " from the fact of the several houses built near each 



Other by J. J. Speed, sr. The "New City" was where Mr. Speed 
built some mills. Mr. Boyer attended school in 1830 to Benjamin 
Walter in the school house above mentioned on the turnpike. One 
day when the elder Mr. Boyer was going through the woods from his 
house to the lower place where he afterwards lived, he saw a bear 
standing on his hind legs pulling down wild cherry limbs and eating 
the cherries. Although Mr. Boyer had a loaded gun with him, he for- 
got for a moment to use it; he hallooed at the bear and the animal ran 
away. Deer were also very plentiful, but Mr. Boyer would never kill 
one of them, 

George Blair, Nathan Patch, Sabin Mann, and a few others, were all 
from near Worcester, Mass. , and settled on new land before the war of 
1812, which they cleared. Blair settled- there in 1809, as a single man, 
and also did Sabin Mann. Mann was drafted in the war and killed, 
and Blair married his widow. Austin Blair, Michigan's war governor, 
and William H. Blair were his sons, the latter recei,ving the family 

Reuben Legg, from Massachusetts, was the ancestor of the Legg 
family, and settled on the Stearns farm below the hill from Speedsville. 
He had seven sons. 

Lyman Rawson came from Vermont, as did also the father of Lyman 
Cobb. Timothy Tyler, father of Hiram W. Tyler, was also from Ver- 
mont, and a brother-in-law of Rawson. 

The Widow Jemima Personius Vandemark came to Caroline and 
settled with a large family on land bought by herself on Bald Hill and 
owned in late years by one of her grandsons. Her husband had been 
killed about a year before by the accidental discharge of a gun while 
on the way to join the army in the war of 1812. She lived on Bald Hill 
until her death in 1855. 

Silas Lason was the early settler on the present James Mandeville 
farm. He lived there many yeai'S and reared a family of sons. The 
family removed to Virgil, and were succeeded on the farm by 
Cornelius Terwilleger, from Ulster county. He also had a number of 

James Personius, a Revolutionary soldier, was the ancestor of the 
Personius family of Caroline, coming to the town late in life. The 
names of his sons who were early residents in the town were 
Ephraim, Isaiah, Isaac. Cornelius and James, jr. The latter was a 
soldier in the war of 1812. The Widow Vandemark (elsewhere men- 


tioned) was a daughter of the elder James Personius, and settled on 
Bald Hill after the war of 1812. Cornelius Personius was a noted 
hunter and is said to have shot two deer at one shot, eighty rods dis- 
tant, with a rifle which he borrowed of Benoni Mulks. 

Henry Krum, sr., in a written interview informed Mr. Mulks in 1879 
that old Aaron Cass, who lived first on the Hasbrouck farm and after- 
wards on the Mc Master farm at Ellis Hollow, whence he was drafted 
into the war of 1812 to return no more, was the father of a large family. 
Of the sons there were Josiah, Aaron, jr., Moses and John. One 
daughter married Solomon Freer, and was the mother of G. G. Freer ; 
another married Milo Hurd, and another Isaac Teers. Josiah Cass 
built the tavern so long kept by his uncle, Aaron Bull. Aaron and 
John Cass went to Canada. Moses Cass operated a distillery and made 
whisky on the farm. John James Speed also had a distillery on the 
Sam Jones farm near Speedsville; and a man named Isaac Kipp oper- 
ated one at Rawson Hollow. There were two William Motts. The 
first was a large man and lived at " Tobeytown. '' He was the father 
of Harry Mott and of Mrs. Abram Krum and Mrs. Landon Krum. 

Erastus Hiniiphrey gave in 1884 the following reminiscences to Mr. 
Mulks, which the latter wrote at the time: Roswell Humphrey, sr. , 
the father of a large family, came to Connecticut Hill, near Speedsville, 
from Connecticut, in December, 1812. He settled on 100 acres of land, 
part of the Livingston tract, which he bought of Laban Jenks. The 
latter had owned 400 acres in one tract, which he sold off to several 
purchasers. A daughter of Roswell Humphrey had married Luman 
Case, who settled on what is now G. M. Bull's farm, on Connecticut 
Hill in the spring of 1811. Roswell Humphrey died in 1838 at the age 
of seventy-three years. He had ten children, one of whom was Eras- 
tus. Some of them became quite prominent in various ways. 

Dana and Lyman Crum settled on Connecticut Hill in the spring of 
1811 at the same time with Luman Case; they were the first to locate 
there. These Crums spelled their names with a "C," while other 
families of the name spelled it with a " K. " 

Samuel Leet, father of a large family, also came from Connecticut 
and settled on Connecticut Hill. There were eight sons and four 
daughters in the family. 

Two brothers, Laban and Elisha Jenks, and Michael Jenks, a cou^sin 
of these, all from Worcester, Mass., settled early on Owego Creek, near 
Speedsville, and their descendants were once numerous, and of whom 


some remain in the town. They probably arrived here about 1800. 
Samuel Jenks, of the same stock, came in the year after the Hurnphi-eys 
(1814). Laban Jenks settled first below Speedsville on the Berkshire 
side of the creek. This land he traded for 400 acres covering most of 
the site of Speedsville. There he opened a little store and began to 
barter with those around him, thus gathering a little hamlet which \yas 
called " Jenksville," The transition of this name to Speedsville is else- 
where described. Mr. Jenks had a large family of boys. He removed 
to Michigan about 1825. 

Moses and Simeon Schoonmaker were brothers who came from Ulster 
county and settled in the Schoonmaker district probably not far from 
1812. Moses was the father of Jacob and lived where the latter did in 
late years. Simeon lived on the David McWhorter place and was the 
father of Garrett and De Witt Schoonmaker. 

Moses Roe told Mr. Mulks in 1880 that his great-grandfather, William 
Roe, settled below Mott's Corners about 1800, and for their first milling 
they went to Owego; that was before the Cantine mill was ready. 
William Roe was in the Revolutionary war, after which he was a mer- 
chant oh Long Island, and later bought land in this town, about 400 
acres, or half of Hinepaiigh's location of 800 acres. He had sons, Isaac, 
William, Gamaliel and John. Gamaliel was the father of Philip Roe, 
and the descendants of William have reached four generations. 

According to statement of John Brearley, his father, Joseph Brearle)', 
was among the first to settle on Brearley Hill, coming there from 
Lansing in 1811. He located a mile above Jonas Rhoode, who settled 
three )'ears earlier ; he was from Massachusetts. 

Philip D. Hornbeck said in 1879 that William Mott 3d, so long a 
leading business man of Mott's Corners, tuid who was then living at 
Watkins at the age of eighty years, learned the carpenter's trade 
of Ira Tillotson, of Ithaca, who built the Methodist ohurch on Aurora 
street and the Tompkins House. William Mott afterwards owned 
six saw mills along Six Mile Creek and also several farms. He did 
a large lumber business, but eventually failed. The lower mill at 
Mott's Corners was bixilt by him, and afterwards burned down. He 
afterwards bought the old Cantine Mill at the falls, and turned the old 
mill into a plaster mill, and built a large grist mill on the site on the 
north side of the falls, which he operated a number of years. In later 
years Mr. Mott removed to Ithaca and lived on State street, and re- 
moved from there to Watkins. 


Caroline has the honor of being the home of Lyman Cobb, author of 
Cobb's Spelhng Book, which is well remembered by persons fifty years 
old and upwards. Mr. Cobb taught school at Slaterville in a small 
school house which stood on the farm of Charles Mulks, now owned by 
John Boice. Mr. Cobb taught there about two years, and during that 
time compiled his spelling book, the first edition of which was issued in 
1819. Several of the neighboring farmers helped him to publish the 
book, among whom were Levi Slater, Erastus Benton, of Berkshire, 
Isaac Stillwell and Charles and John Mulks. Mack & Andrus, of 
Ithaca, were the publishers for New York and the Middle States, and 
millions of copies of the book were printed in this and other States. 
Cobb sold the copyright to several parties in New England, the South- 
ern and Western States. Mr. Cobb afterwards compiled other school 

Peter Lounsbery, father of Cantine, Edward and Richard Lounsbery, 
came from Ulster county in 1820 and settled where Richard's widow 
now lives. He was a prominent citizen, member of assembly in 1844, 
etc. Charles Cooper came in 181(3 and settled on a farm. His sons 
were William, J. A. D., and Hiram Cooper. 

About the year 1828 a Mr. Terry lived on the corner where Smith 
Stevens now lives, about half a mile" west of the site of Caroline depot. 
Mr. Terry was made postmaster in about 1835 by the President, 
and the post-office was named " Terryville;" it was probably the first 
post-office between Ithaca and Owego. Mr. Terry was removed by 
President Jackson, as a result of a petition gotten up by William Mott 
charging Terry with being what is now-a-days termed an " offensive 
partisan." The office was, therefore, removed to " Mott's Hollow" 
about a year after it was established and named Mott's Corners, and 
William Mott 2d was the first postmaster. Eugene Terry, of the sur- 
rogate's office in Ithaca, is a grandson of Postmaster Terry. 

A man who, with his descendants, exerted considerable influence 
upon the toWn of Caroline was Charles H. Morrell. He was an early 
settler in the town of Lansing, near Lake Ridge, and eventually died 
there. He went there fi-om New Jersey. About "1832 he bought of 
John J. Speed, sr., two large farms in Caroline. In his lifetime Mr. 
Morrell, and his sons after him. were noted for successful sheep hus- 
bandry and were the most extensive sheep breeders and dealers in 
Central New York. In his will Charles H. Morrell bequeathed his 
large sheep herd, about 2,000 head, to his sons and daughters; 800 to 


Henry K. , of Caroline; 500 each to Lewis A. and Charles H., jr., of 
Lansing-, and 200 to his daughter. To his son Henry K. he also willed 
the vSpeed farm in Caroline, now owned by F. C. Cornell. To his 
daughter, wife of J. J. Speed, jr., he gave a large farm in Caroline. L. 
A. Morrell became very active and prominent in sheep husbandry, and 
was the author of a valuable work on that subject. Henry K. Morrell 
removed from the town about J8(iO. 

Marlin Merrill came from Connecticut in 1830 and settled first at 
Mott's Corners, and afterwards on the farm where Charles Bogardus 
lived. Michael C. Krum came in from Ulster county in 1838 and set- 
tled where he now lives. In the same year Eleazer Goodrich, father 
of Levi L. Goodrich, came in from Berkshire, Tioga county, where he 
had settled in 1830. George Blair, father of Austin Blair, settled early 
on the Blair farm. The names of many other early and later residents 
of the town will be mentioned in the account of the villages and in the 
biographic department of this volume. 

T. M. Boyer told Charles F. Mulks in 1880 that the winter of 1835-G 
was remarkable for its deep snow. It began snowing January 1 and 
continued four consecutive days. During the winter not less than ten 
feet of snow fell. There were many deer about Shandaken and a man 
named Gilman hunted them on snow shoes. He went to Ithaca and 
contracted to deliver there six or eight deer within a .specified short 
time, the Ithacans not believing he covild fulfill and thinking they 
would have a joke on him. He delivered the deer on time and de- 
manded his money. 

The Six Mile Creek rises in Dryden and its whole course is about 
sixteen or seventeen miles. There have been twenty-three mill sites 
on the stream since the country was settled, including saw and grist 
mills. There have been fifteen saw mills, seven grist mills, two or 
three woolen mills, a gun factory, and a few .small cider mills operated 
at sundry times. There are now only two or three saw mills and one 
grist mill, water and steam being used in some cases. 

The " Bottom Mill," so called, on the upper Six Mile Creek, was a 
saw mill built by by Elijah Powers in 1808 and was one of the fii'st saw 
mills built on that stream. Powers lived on the Chauncey L. Scott 
farm, which after him was owned by a Mr. Haskins. The Bottom Mill 
passed into the hands of the Van Pelts, who operated it a long time 
imtil it was worn out. The mill stood at the upper branches of Six 
Mile Creek. 



At the first town meeting held in Caroline, at the tavern of Richard 
Bush, as directed by the act forming the town, in April, 1811, the fol- 
lowing officers were chosen: William Rounsvell, supervisor; Levi 
Slater, town clerk; Ephraim Chambers, Nathaniel Tobey and Laban 
Jenks, assessors; John Robison, Nathaniel Tobey and Moses Reed, 
commissioners of highways; Charles Mulks, collector; John Robison 
and Joseph Chambers, overseers of the poor; Richard Chambers and 
Robert Hyde, constables; Dr. Joseph Speed, Charles JVIulksand Robert 
Freeland, fence viewers; Richard Bush, poundmaster. 

Following is a list of supervisors of Caroline from 1811 to the present 
time, with dates of service : 

1811-12. William Rounsvell. 
1813. John J. Speed, sr. 
1814-15. John Robison. 
1816-17. Robert Freeland. 

1818. Augustine Boyer. 

1819. Robert Freeland. 

1820. Augustine Boyer. 
1821-25. Levi Slater. 
1826-28. Robert Freeland. 
1829-31. William Jackson. 
1832-34. Samuel H. Dean. 
1835. Henry Teers. 

.1836-37. Spencer Hungerford. 
1838-42. Lyman Kingman. 

1843. James R. Speed. 

1844. Lyman Kingman. 

1845. John Chambers. 

1846. Vr. Daniel L. Mead. 

1847. Lyman Kingman. 
1848-49. Samuel E. Green. 

1850. William Cooper. 

1851. Henry Krum. 

1852. Michael C. Krum. 

1853. Edward Hungerford. 
1854 Robert II. S. Hyde. 
1855. Herman C. Reed. 

1850-57. John Bull. 

1858. Charles J. Rounsvell. 

1859. John J. Bush. 

1860. Peter Loun.sbery. 

1861. William H. Blair. 

1862. William Curtis. 
18G3. James H. Snow. 
1864-65. Samuel E. Green. 

1866. Sharrad Slater. 

1867. Samuel P. Ashley. 

1868. Lyman Kmgman. 

1869. Sharrad Slater. 
1870-73. JohnWolcott. 
1874-76. Chauncey L. Wattles. 
1877-78. Epenetus Howe. 
1879-80. Smith D. Stevens. 
1881. James H. Mount. 
1882-83. James Boice. 
1884-87. R. G. H. Speed. 
1888. James Boice. 

1889-92. Fred E. Bates. 

1892. Seat contested by Fred E. 

Bates and John Bull, and 
given to the latter. 

1893. John Bull. 

1894. William K. Boice. 

At the town meeting of 1817 it was voted " That whoever kills a fox 
in this town shall be entitled to a bounty; for killing a wolf, $5; for 
killing a wild-cat, $1." 

At the town meeting in 1816 it was " Resolved, That Lyman Raw- 
son be prosecuted for retailing ' speerits ' without a license." 


Ephraim Chambers, John Robison, Abrani Blackman and Dr. Joseph 
Speed were the first justices of the peace in this town, appointed by tlie 
Board of Supervisors and judges of Common Pleas jointly. The office 
was made elective by the people in 1837. The first justices elected 
were Dr. James Ashley (one year), Milo Heath (two years), Aaron 
Curtis (three years), and Silas Hutchinson (four years). 

When Caroline was set off from Spencer and separately organized in 
1811, all the preliminaries were satisfactorily agreed upon, but the 
people could not agree upon the name. It was proposed and assented 
to that the spelling book should be taken and opened and the first 
female name they should find should be the name of the town. At the 
same time John Cantine and Dr. Speed agreed that the first girl that 
should thereafter be born in the family of either should be named 
Caroline. Diana Caroline Speed became Mrs. Vincent Conrad, and 
Caroline Cantine a Mrs. Giddings. Both have been dead many years. 

In 1813 there was still a large part of the town assessed and taxed as 
non-resident lands. The largest of these non-resident owners vvas 
Samuel W. Johnson, of Stratford, Conn. He owned 1800 acres in one 
solid body in the southwest corner, embracing the whole of the lands 
since known as the Pugsley, Ridgway, Lane, and several lesser farms. 

In roinid numbers the assessed valuation of residents was, in 1813, 
$88,553; and of non-residents, $27,828. This was the second year after 
the town was organized. 

Following is a list of the principal officers of this town for 1894: 
William K. Boice, supervisor, Slaterville Springs; Charles E. Meeks, 
town clerk, Brookton; William P. Rich, collector, Caroline; George 
H. Nixon, justice of the peace, SpeedsviUe; Charles Lewis, constable, 
Spcedsville; John E. Van Etten, constable, Brookton; Adelbert M. 
Dedrick, constable, Slaterville Springs; Elnathan H. Card, constable, 
Slaterville Springs. 

Statistics. — The number of acres of land in Caroline, as given in 
report of Board of Supervisors, 1893, is 34,747. Assessed valuation 
of real estate, including village property and real estate of corporations, 
$851,495. Total assessed value of personal property, $33,550. Amount 
of town taxes, $3,330.09. Amount of county taxes, $1,518.53. Aggre- 
gate taxation, $5,370.39. Rate of tax on $1 valuation, .0001. Corpo- 
rations — D., L. & W. Railroad Co., assessed value real estate, $40,000; 
amount of tax, $344. E., C. & N. Raili-oad Co., assessed value of real- 
estate, $45,000; amount of tax, $374.50. N. Y. & P. Telegraph and 


Telephone Co., assessed value of real estate, $500; amount of tax, 
|3.05. W. U. Telegraph Co., assessed value real estate, $300; amount 
of tax, $1.83. Town andits, 1803, $1,056.38. 

Slaiervili.e. — This small village is situated on vSix Mile Creek, on 
the northern line of the town. The derivation of its name and most 
of the early settlers have been already mentioned. Others who may 
properly be mentioned as residents early and at later time in that 
vicinity wei-e John Robison, Robert Freeland, Lemuel Yates, Francis 
Norwood and others. 

With the establishment of the early mills and mercantile stores, and 
the organization of churches and schools, most of which have been de- 
scribed, the hamlet grew to a few hundred inhabitants and remained 
in about that condition many years. The post-office was established 
in 1823, with John Robison as postmaster; he also kept a tavern at the 
time. The present official in the office is Mrs. E. M. Wattles, who has 
had it continuously since 1872. 

In 1816 or 1817 John Robison and Mr. Hedges built a tannery and 
operated it a few years ; it stood on the site of the present barn of 
Carns's Hotel. Robison and Hedges were succeeded in the business 
by Milo and James Heath, who continued it many years. The Heath 
family, father and brothers, came from Connecticut originally, but re- 
moved to Caroline from Delhi, N.Y., in 1818, and were long influential 
men in the town. 

About the same time Isaac Miller built a frame store across the road 
from the tannery and began trade; he died soon afterwards. 

Levi Slater was his successor, and carried on trade there about eight 
years. Between 1816 and 1820 the little village saw its greatest pros- 
perity, at least until the discovery of the merits of the Magnetic Springs. 
This event took place about 1871, when a well wassunk by Dr. William 
Gallagher. The waters of these springs contain a large percentage of 
mineral constituents, and have proved efficacious in the cure of many 
diseases. The Slaterville House was a hotel built many years ago and 
kept at various periods by Zophar T. McLusky, James Hall, Richard 
Freer, S. Edward Green, George Clark, Josephus Bullman, Josephus 
Hasbrouck, and perhaps others. When the springs began to be devel- 
oped, and the reputation of the waters became known, W. J. Cams 
took this house, renamed it the Magnetic Springs House, enlarged 
and improved it, beautified the grounds, drilled for a supply of the 
water, and opened it to the public. He has kept the house ever since. 



The Fountain House was built by Hornbeck & Benjamin Brothers 
in 1872, and in 1875 was sold to Moses Dedrick. Mr. Cams is now 
also conducting this house, having purchased it of Harrison Halstead. 

A flouring mill was built at Slaterville in 1820 by Solomon Robison, 
who rebuilt it in 183G. It was burned in 18G3, and three years later 
the second mill was erected by Jason D. Atwater. This mill was 
burned down in 1891 and not rebuilt. 

In 1818 an old frame school house stood on the land of Charles 
Mulks. It was partly demolished and rendered useless by a party of 
mischievous boys, and in the next winter school was taught in the old 
Freer log house in Slaterville, and in the following year (1828) the 
" Red School House " was built. 

A store is now kept by John Bull, and W. D. Post deals in hardware. 

Speedsville. — The settlement of this small village and the events 
connected therewith have been already described. The place was 
known in early years as " Jenksville," from Laban Jenks, an early 
settler. About the year 1835 a movement was started to secure a post- 
office there under that name, the inhabitants not taking kindly to the 
removal of the office which had already been opened under the name 
of Speedsville down to the old road whither John J. Speed had removed. 
The inhabitants finally succeeded in forcing Mr. Speed into a com- 
promise, under which the office was taken back to "Jenksville," but 
under the name of Speedsville, which Mr. Speed was desirous should 
be retained. Leroy W. Kingman was the first postmaster after the 
removal and was appointed February 4, 1835. Other succeeding post- 
masters have been Isaac L. Bush, Samuel P. Ashley, G. H. Perry, 
Josiah Lawrence, Isaac L. Bush, D. B. Gilbert (who held the office 
more than fifteen years), and was succeeded by W. S. Legge and Mrs. 
Dr. Johnson. The present postmaster is J. I. Ford. 

Many of these carried on mercantile business in connection with their 
official business, and A. N. Ford, D. B. Gilbert & Son, Asa Phillips, 
and others, formerly kept stores. The present merchants are J. I. 
Ford and E. L. Freeland. Trout Brook Creamery is in this village, 
owned and operated by Truman & Thompson, of Owego. About 500 
pounds of butter are made here daily. 

A small grist mill is now operated by S. Hart about two miles from 
the village, and S. H. Akins has a planing mill and crate factory. 

Mott's Corners. — This place was known in early years as Cahtine's 
Mills, and its name was changed from Mott's Corners to Brookton in 

TOWN or CAROLINIi;. 21)1 

recent j'ears. The village is situated on Six Mile Creek, near by sta- 
tions on tlie Elniira, Cortland and Northei'n Railroad and Caroline 
depot on the D. , L. & W. Railroad. The settlement of Gen. John 
Cantine here, as well as others, has been quite fully detailed in pre- 
ceding pages. The building of the early mills at this' point deter- 
mined its locality as a site for a village. The Upper Grist Mill, as it 
has been known, stands nearly opposite the site of the old Cantine Mill, 
which was built about the year 1800, and was burned in 1862, while 
owned by Joseph Chambers. The present mill was built by George 
White in 1805, and was sold by him to F. C. Cornell. This mill is not 
now running. It was at one time owned by William Mott 3d, as was 
also the mill on the present Voorhis site several years previous. The 
latter mill was destroyed by fire and rebuilt by David C. Roe in 1850. 
It passed through several hands to the Voorhises, father and sons, and 
was burnt in 1890 or 91. Fred E. Bates then became proprietor of the 
site and built thereon the present mill, and very soon after resold it to 
the Voorhis brothers. Daniel M. White and Fred E. Bates have two 
saw mills here. 

There were formerly two woolen factories in operation at this place. 
A man named Losey for many years owned and carried on a gun fac- 
tory below Brookton. The business was originally started at Ta- 
ghanic Creek in Ulysses and removed to Brookton. They were followed 
by Mr. Lull and son, who changed the establishment into a factory for 
the manufacture of blankets. After a few years this was discontinued. 

Former merchants here were George T. Sanders and John J. Bush. 
Stores are kept at present by Frank F. Mulks and E. M. Mills. Frank 
F. Mulks is postmaster. 

Caroline Post-Office. — This is a hamlet in the northeast part of 
the town, and is the locality that was first settled, as before described, 
by Capt. David Rich, Widow Earsley, Dr. Joseph Speed, and others. 
It was first known as "Yankee Settlement, " and later as "Tobeytown," 
from Nathaniel Tobey, an early settler, who was the father of Nathan- 
iel M. Tobey. The post-office was first established here about 1819, 
and Dr. Speed was the first postmaster. Wallace W. Conrad is the 
present official and carries on the only store. 

A saw mill was built here in 1822 by Henry Morgan and Isaac 
Goodale, which passed to possession of N. M. Tobey in 1865, and he 
rebuilt it. The present grist mill was built and is now operated by 
Francis Earsley. 


The upper mill was built by Mr. Tobey in 1835, on the west branch 
of Owego Creek. Mr. Tobey also built a steam grist mill there in 
185J:, which he successfully operated until 18G3, when it was burned by 
an incen'diarj' and not rebuilt. 

Caroline Center. — This hamlet is situated near the center of the 
town, which fact gives it its name. It was in that vicinity that the 
pioneers Augustin and Hugh Boyer, William Jackson, Calvin Clark, 
Jonathan Snow, James Livermore, Alexander Stowell, John Taft, Abel 
Gates, Ezekiel Jewett, John Grout, Joel Rich (brother of Capt. David 
Rich), Jeremiah Kinney, Israel Paine, and others settled and lived; 
man)' of them have descendants still living in the town and county. 

The post-office was established here about 1839, with Hiram S. Jones 
as postmaster. The present official is John Davis. There has never 
been any manufacturing of much account here. Robert E. Brink is 
the merchant. 

Caroline Depot post-office was established in 1859, the year preceding 
the building of the depot there. Alvin Merrill, who was .station agent, 
was the first postmaster. Slaterville, Brookton, and Caroline Center 
receive their supplies chiefly from this station. A store is kept by 
Dayton Conrad, and William B. Krum is postmaster. 

There is a post-office in the town called White Church, over which 
William Hart presides. 

Caroline Lodge, No. 681, F. & A. M., was instituted in November, 
1807, with twenty-eight charter members. W. C. Gallagher, M.D., 
was the first W. M. ; Moses Mtmson, S. W. ; Job Norwood, J. W. ; R. 
G. H. Speed, secretary; R. M. Wood, treasurer. The charter was re- 
ceived in June, 1868, when some slight changes in the list of officers 
occurred. The present chief officers are: Richard Leonard, W. M. ; C. 
L. Davis, S. W. ; C. J. Hamilton, J. W. ; W. K. Boice, treas. ; H. A. 
Davis, secretary; Leroy Heffron, S. D. ; Bowne Mulks, J. D. ; George 
Aldrich, S. M. C. ; Leroy McWhorter, J. M. C. ; R. G. H. Speed, chap- 
lain; George E. Vandemark, marshal; Thomas Gibbs, tyler. 

Speedsville Lodge, No. 2G5, F. & A. M., was institiited June 11, 
1851, and worked under a dispensation until Jtine 19, 1852, when its 
charter was issued and thirteen members enrolled. The first W. M. 
was Robert H. S. Hyde; S. W., Thomas Band; J. W., Lyman King- 
man; secretary, Leonard Legg; treasurer, Robert E. Muir. The 
present chief officers are: Nelson Slater, W. M. ; R. F. Abbey, S. W. ; 
G. H. Nixon, J. W. ; S. H. Boyer, treasurer; H. S. Akins, secretary; 


W. L. Keeny, S. D. ; J. I. Ford, J. D. ; A. Bostwick, chaplain'; Collins 
Cartright, S. M. C. ; F. M. Baker, J. M. C. ; C. A. Clark, marshal; Mildan 
Mead, tyler. 

Rei.ioious Oroanizations. — n^he first chnrch organization in the 
town of Caroline was of the Dutch Reformed faith and was due to the 
efforts of Rev. Gerrit Mandeville. The date was some time in the year 
1812; the early records of the church are not accessible, but among the 
original members were Joseph Chambers, Oakley Bush, the Widow 
Earsley, and others. Mr. Mandeville remained with the church nearly 
twenty-five years. A house of worship was built about 1830, which has 
been demolished, and the society is extinct. 

The First Mkthodist Church of Caroline. — This church is in 
vSlaterville and the class which preceded it was formed in 1813 with 
eight members, only one of whom was a man. The first pastor was 
John Griffin. The church organization was effected November 28, 
1831, under the title, "The Garretson Society of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church," but its subsequent incorporation was vmder its present 
name. The first regular pastor was Rev. George Harmon. The church 
building was commenced in 1832 and dedicated in 1834. It has been 
since enlarged and repaired. Rev. William H. Strang is the present 

The Methodist Church at Caroline Center. — This society was 
organized about 1820, with thirteen members, by Rev. George Har- 
mon, above mentioned. In 1825 the society built a church at a cost of 
$1,000, which sufficed until 18f](i, when it was superseded by the pres- 
ent church. A. F. Brown is pastor. 

The Mkthodist Church at Si'eedsville. — A class was formed at 
Speedsville about the year 1820, which was followed in 1851 by a church 
organization. A house of worship was erected in the same year during 
the pastorate of Rev. William Lisbee. 

A church was built at Speedsville in 1828 b)' the Methodists, Presby- 
terians and Universalists, who used it jointly until 1851. The Meth- 
odists now worship in their own church, and Rev. A. A. Brown is 

St. John's Protestant Episcopal Church of Speedsville. — This 
society was originally organized as a church of the same name at Rich- 
ford, whence it was removed to Speedsville in 1842. Rev. George 
Watson was called as missionary, and Hir^m Bliss and Towner Whiton 
were made wardens. Rev. C. W. NcNish is pastor. 


In 18!)1 an Episcopal Society was organized at Slaterville, and in the 
spring of 1894 they finished a beantifiil church at a cost of $3,500. 
Memorial windows were presented by Moses Bull in memory of his wife 
and daughter; by Mrs. Mary F. Tobey, in memory of Simon and Sally 
Andrews (her father and mother) ; and by Mrs. William P. Speed, in 
memory of her husband and her sons, Joseph and Daniel. The pastor 
is Rev. C. W. McNish. 

Thr Univeusalist Church. — A Universalist vSociety was organized 
April 30, 1827, with twenty-seven members and Rev. N. Doolittle 
pastor. A new organization was effected in 1870 under the name of 
the " Universalist Church of Speedsville," with forty-three members 
and Rev. A. O. Warren pastor. The original society joined with the 
Methodists and Presbyterians, as before stated, in building a church. 
The Universalists eventually purchased the building. 

The First Baptist Church of Caroline. — This society was organ- 
ized in 1814 with fourteen members and Rev. Pliny Sabin pastor. In 
1848 a house of worship was erected; this was removed in 18().'i and a 
neat building erected at Brookton, which was dedicated January 11, 
18G4; its cost was $3,500. The society also owns a parsonage. The 
pastor is Rev. William A. House. 

In 1893 a Methodist Society was organized at Caroline, and a church 
was built in 1894 at a cost of about $1,500. Rev. Charles Northrop is 

Congregational Church. — This society is at Brookton and was or- 
ganized March 38, 1808, and incorporated in the following month. The 
original membership was fifty-five, a number of whom were from the 
Methodist Society of that place and the Reformed church. The first 
pastor was Rev. William S. Hills. In 1808 a handsome church was 
erected at a cost of about $5,000. The pastor is Rev. Sherman More- 

In 1814 a Baptist (Old School) church was organized, over which 
Rev. John Sawyer was pastor. The house of worship was built in 
1843. This society is not now in existence. 



The reader of the preceding history of Ithaca in this volume has 
learned of the coming to that place in 1789 of the Dumonds arid Yaples 
from Ulster county, and their primitive improvements on land to which 
they supposed their title would continue to be good and sufficient. In 
that supposition they were mistaken ; for through the non-payment of 
taxes in Albany by an agent they lost their title, and in 1795 the party, 
consisting of Isaac and John Dumond and Jacob and John Yaple, 
formed some kind of a partnership agreement and pushed on into what 
is now the town of Danby and there took up farms. The partnership 
continued several years after the first settlement. Many others of the 
pioneers of the northern and northwestern parts of this town were also 
from Ulster county and vicinity, while many of those who located at 
what became the so called " Beers Settlement " at South Danby were 
from Fairfield county, Conn. The Dumonds and Yaples, undismayed 
by their discouraging experience at Ithaca, plunged energetically into 
the task of making new homes. They were met by numerous obstacles, 
of course, being forced to cut their way through the woods to the lo- 
cality, to construct their own roads, and to build their log houses with- 
out the aid of neighbors. The tract where those worthy pioneers 
settled is included in the farms now or recently owned by John Sea- 
man, James Comfort, the widow of Henry Yaple, and a son of David 
Yaple. Several descendants of both the pioneer families are now resi- 
dent in this county. Isaac Dumond, son of John, was the first white 
child born in the town, August 12, 1796, and lived on the homestead 
to a venerable age. 

The pioneers in the "Beers Settlement" district (South Danby) 
were Dr. Lewis Beers, one of the very early physicians of the county, 
and his brother, Jabez Beers, who came in from Stratford, Fairfield 
county. Conn., in the spring of 1797. They settled on the farms now 
owned by E. L. B. Curtis and John Hall respectively. Mr. Curtis is 
a grandson of Dr. Beers. The doctor was accompanied by his wife 


and two indentured young men named William R. Collins (afterwards 
for many years a prominent citizen of Ithaca), aged sixteen years, and 
Joseph Judson, aged fifteen. The latter was a prosperous farmer of 

Jabez Beers had a wife and family, and his daughter named Harriet 
became the wife of John Scott, of Ithaca. 

Dr. Lewis Beers became a conspicuous figui-e in the early history of 
the county. He built the first frame house in the town in 180J.. He 
was chosen the first justice of the peace of the town, receiving his war- 
rant in 1807 from Governor Daniel D. Tompkins. In the same year 
he was appointed first judge of the Court of Common Pleas. In this 
office he was succeeded by his brother Jabez. The latter was also 
elected to the Assembly at a later date. Dr. Beers was the first and 
only president of the old Owego and Ithaca Turnpike Company, assum- 
ing the office in 1812 and continuing in it until the road became a pub- 
lic highway in 1841. He was founder and first pastor of the " New 
Jerusalem Church," or Swedenborgian, which faith he adopted about 
1813. After a long, honorable and useful life he died September -t, 
1849, at the age of eighty-one years. 

In the spring of 1805 Dr. Beers returned to his former home and 
brought back his aged parents, who were called for by him until their 
death. His father died in Danby, January 3, 1810, and his mother 
April 10, 1817. 

In 1796 Elias Deyo became a resident of the town and for ten years 
was the only settler of foreign birth. He was a, German. 

David Clark located in the Beers Settlement neighborhood in 1801, 
and Lewis Beardsley in 1 803, on the farm now occupied by vStockton 
B. Judson. Benjamin Jennings came in the latter year. Oscar Jen- 
nings was his son, and the late Benjamin Jennings his grandson. He 
was from Cornwall, Conn. , and settled on the farm now occupied by 
the family of William Buckland. Benjamin Jennings was member of 
assembly in 1827 and 1837, and a prominent and useful citizen. 

Deacon Hezekiah Clark, John Pumpelly and Philo Hawes came to 
the town in 1803, and Benijah Ticknor in 1804. Abner Beers, jr., 
came in 1804, and Nathan Beers in 1805. In the latter year Joseph 
Judson purchased the farm which remained in the family many years. 

Cpmfort Butler, Nathan and Seymour II. Adams, and David vSmith, 
with their families, came to the town in 1800 and became reliable 
citizens in the growing community. Seneca Howland came in 1807. 


Settlement in the town continued steadily, though not rapidly, until 
the war of 1812-15. Elbert Curtis, M.D., came from Stratford, Conn., 
in 1809, and settled where his son, E. L. B. Curtis, now resides. He 
later boujjht the Jabez Beers homestead and lived there to 1857, when 
he removed to Ithaca and died there November 3, 1860, at the age of 
sixty-nine years. He was a prominent and useful citizen; was mem- 
ber of assembly in 1838, and held various town offices. 

Selick Bates and Charles Wright settled in the town in 1812. The 
former removed to the town of Caroline; his daughter married Charles 
Wright's son, Abraham. 

In the northern and northwestern parts of the town, returning to 
the year 1804, we find that Thomas, John, William, Abraham, James 
and Samuel Swarthout located there. They were from Ulster count)'', 
N.Y. , became useful citizens, reared families, and still have many de- 
scendants in the town. 

Peter Davis and his son William arrived in the same year (1804) and 
soon afterwards John Masterson, Spencer Eaton and Jacob Wise. 
John Miller came in 1805. John Elyea, the pioneer of this name in 
the town, came in 1813. 

Moses Barker settled in the western part of the town in 1814 on the 
farm owned in recent years by his son-in-law, G. A. Todd. A few 
years later James Briggs settled on a farm about half a mile from 
West Danby post-office, and his brother Isaac located about a mile 

In the southern part of the town Moses Banfield settled in 1802 on 
the farm occupied in recent times by George J. Bratt. His son Isaac 
was a leading citizen of the town. Aaron Bennett came to this part of 
the town in 1806, and Amos Hall, grandfather of Albert Hall, came 
about the year 1807 and settled where the widow of Albert now lives. 
Amos's sons, Leonard and Silas, followed their father hither two years 
later. The first named son was father of Albert. 

Isaac Jennings came in from Saratoga county in 18 J 5, settled where 
William Smiley lived in recent years. Others who located in the town 
in later years, and prior to 1840, were Dr. Aaron Tibbetts, who was a 
leading physician more than forty years; Simon Loomis, Jackson 
Graves, Elihu Keeler (father of Charles Keeler), and many others who 
will be mentioned a little further on. 

The first birth in this town was that of Isaac Dumond, son of John, 
which occurred August 13, 1796. Isaac lived in the town to a great 



age. The first death was that of Mrs. Rogers, wife of Joseph Rogers, 
who was a tenant of Pumond's ; her death took place about the j'ear 

The pioneers made early arrangements for the simple education of 
their children, as far as possible, and a school house was erected at the 
Beers Settlement about the beginning of the century, and within a year 
or two afterwards another was built in the Dumond and Yaple neigh- 
borhood. Joseph Judson was the first teacher. Some of the Danb)' 
children had attended school prior to this in a log school house in the 
town of Ithaca. 

The organization of the town of Danby did not take place until Feb- 
ruary 22, 1811, when it was taken from the town of wSpencer, Tioga 
county, and it was annexed to Tompkins county, March 22, J 822. On 
the 29tli of April, 18^9, a small part of the town of Caroline was an- 
nexed to Danby. 

The first town meeting was held on the 12th day of March, 1811, and 
the following officers elected: Stephen Beers, jr., supervisor; Uri Hill, 
town clerk ; Nathan Adams. Aaron Bennett and Benjamin Jennings, 
assessors; John Yaple, Seymour li. Adams and Hudson Jennings, 
commissioners of highways; Jacob Yaple and Stephen Beers, overseers 
of the poor; Birdsey Clark, constable and collector; Hudson Jennings, 
constable; Lewis Beardsley, Hezekiah Clark, John Dumond and John 
Yaple, fence viewers and damage appraisers; Hezekiah Clark, pound- 

It was voted at this meeting to " locate the town pound in the ensu- 
ing year on the corner of the section where it crosses the turnpike, one 
half of which to be on Esquire Beers's land. Dr. Lewis Beers agrees 
to build said poimd at his own expense." 

Following is a list of the supervisors of the town from the beginning 
to the present time; the list contains the names of many earl)' settlers 
already mentioned, as well as later prominent residents of the town : 

Stephen Beers, jr., five years. Miles C. Mix. 

Benjamin Jennings, eleven years. Sherman Miller. 

Elbert Curtis. Elbert Curtis. 

Jonathan B. Gosman. Andrew Taylor, two years. 

Harley Lord. Frederick Beers. 

Benjamin Jennings. Elbert Curtis. 

Chester W. Lord, two years. Eli Beers. 

Alexander Gastin. Andrew Taylor. 

Elbert Curtis. Chester W. Lord, two years. 


Eleazur Taylor. Lyttleton F. Clark, two years. 

Franci.s Nourse. William A. Mandeville, two years. 

Gideon Tuthill, two years. Levi Curtis, three years. 

Eli Beers. Elbert L. B. Curtis, two years. 

Francis Nourse, two years. Josiah Hawes, eight years. 

Elbert L. B. Curtis. John E. Beers, twelve years. 

Francis Nourse. Frank A. Todd. 

Frederick Beers. John E. Beers, two years. 

Lemuel Jennings. F. A. Todd, 1892-3. 

Elbert Curtis. Henry Hutchings, 1894. 
Dioclesian A. Marsh. 

This town, as the reader has learned, was among the foremost to re- 
spond to the call of the country in the struggle for the perpetuation of 
a free government. It is also most commendable that the people upon 
the successful close of that great contest at once took steps to properly 
honor the memory of those who sacrificed or imperiled their lives for 
the good of their country. To this end the " Soldiers' Monument As- 
sociation of the town of Danby " was organized on the 4th of July, 
1866. The directors were Charles B. Keeler, president; E. L. B. Cur- 
tis, Levi C. Beers, John L. Hance, and Rev. Warren Mayo. About 
$1,000 were raised by entertainments of various kinds, which was in- 
creased to $3,000 by vote of the people, and E. L. B. Curtis, John L. 
Hance and Josiah Hawes were given authority to negotiate for the 
erection of a suitable monument. The result of this noble action 
stands in a beautiful marble shaft twenty-nine feet high, which was 
raised with appropriate ceremonies. On it are the names and date of 
death of forty-five men who gave up their lives in the war. 

The town has always been chiefly a grain and stock growing district, 
and now ranks among the foremost in this respect. The farmers are, 
as a rule, well-to-do, and pursue their business on advanced methods. 
Some farmers are giving attention to milk production and a fine milk 
depot and ice house was built at West Danby in 1893. 

Following are the principal officers of the town for 1894: Henry 
Hutchings, supervisor. West Danby; William H. Baker, town clerk, 
Danby; Frank D. Smiley, collector, Danby; Jacob Wise, justice of the 
peace, Danby; Charles E. Bruce, constable, Danby; Jerry Dorn, con- 
stable. South Danby; Clarence H. Slocum, constable, Caroline Depot; 
Simeon D. Sincebaugh, constable, West Danby; Nelson C. Williams, 
commissioner of highways, Danby. 

Statistics. — Number of acres of land in the town, as shown by the 
supervisors' report of 1893, 33,286; assessed valuation of real estate, 


including village property and real estate of corporations, $625,254; 
total assessed valuation of personal property, $43,000; amount of town 
taxes, $1,331.79; amount of county taxes, $1,502.09; aggregate tax- 
ation, $4,339.09; rate of lax on $1 valuation, .0065. Corporations — D., 
L. & W. Railroad Co., assessed value of real estate, $8,000; amount of 
tax, $52; G., I. & S. Railroad Co., assessed value of real estate, $32,- 
000; amount of tax (including tax on the company's telegraph line), 
$211.26; N. Y. & P. Telephone Co., assessed value of real estate, $500; 
amount of tax, $3.25; W. U. Telegraph Co., assessed value of real 
estate, $150; amount of tax, $0.98; Ithaca Water Works Co., assessed 
value of real estate, $1,200; amount of tax, $7.80. 

Danhy Village. — This village covers the site of the Beers Settle- 
ment on the oTd Ithaca and Owego turnpike, six miles from Ithaca. 
Here the first dwelling was erected by Elias Deyo as earl}^ as 179S. 
The more prominent early settlers in this vicinity were Abner Beers, 
David Clark, Hezekiah Clark, John Pumpelly, Hudson and Benjamin 
Jennings, Letis Beardsley, Erastus Bierce, Uri Clark, and Stephen 
Beers, several of whom have been mentioned. About the year 180{! 
Abner Beers opened the first store here in a log building, since which 
early date various merchants have traded here. 

The first mills in this town were erected by the Dumonds and Yaples, 
a saw mill in 1797 and a grist mill in 1799. They were on Buttermilk 
Creek on land that was undivided between the two families. The Elm 
Tree flouring and saw mills at Danby were erected by a stock com- 
pany composed of Messrs. Ellis, Johnson, Beers and De Forrest in 
1853. About three years later the company sold the property to 
Thomas J. Phillips. He added steam power, and conducted the busi- 
ness until December 15, 18U8, when the mill was burned. The site 
remained vacant until 1878, when Frazier & Krum built the new mills; 
these were sold to W. R. Gunderman in 1880. He successfully oper- 
ated them until 1889, when they were again burned, and Mr. Gunder- 
man removed to Ithaca, where he operates a grist mill and general 
storehouse business. 

The first post-office was established at Danby in 1801-2, at the resi- 
dence of Dr. Lewis Beers, who was appointed postmaster. In 1811-12 
it was removed to the residence of Jabez Beers, and about the year 
1827 was removed to the village and Hudson Jennings was made post- 
master. The present official is Henry Beardsley. 


The first public house in the village was kept by Deacon Hezekiah 
Clark in 1811 in what was in late years the residence of Levi C. Beers. 
Prior to that date Dr. Beers entertained travelers at his house. 

Henry S. Beardsley and Charles Ostrander now carry on stores in 
the village, and the saw mill on the site of the old Judson mill is in 
the Jennings estate. T. H. Howell and Josiah Hawes formerly had 
stores here. 

The Danby Rural Cemetery Association was incorporated July 1, 
1871. Land for the cemetery was donated by E. L. B. Curtis. A 
board of trustees has charge of the affairs of the association. 

West Danby. — This hamlet is situated on the Cayuga Inlet, and is 
a station on the Geneva and Sayre Branch of the Lehigti Valley Rail- 
road. The first settlement here was made by Moses Barker in 1814. 
The first dwelling was built by Jared Patchen, who owned the land 
but was not an actual settler. James Grimes occupied the house as a 
tenant. John Patchen came to this locality in 1833, purchased a farm, 
^nd reared a family. He was father of Ira Patchen. William Hugg 
was a settler here about the year 1810. Ira Patchen built and opened 
a store about 1850, and carried on business more than thirty years. 
There has never been any manufacturing of account. A saw mill is 
located here which is now owned by John Banfield. The Novelty 
Works, for the manufacture of yard sticks, sign boards, etc., are con- 
ducted by D. A. Beach. Fairbrother & Co. have a store, and F. A. 
Fairbrother is postmaster. A. J. Tupper is the other merchant of the 

South Danby. — This is a small hamlet in the southern part of the 
town, the settlements in which have already been described. A post- 
office was established here many years ago, and Sarah Jennings is the 
present incumbent of the office. There is one store and a blacksmith 
shop here. 

Churches. — Religious organization followed very closely the early 
settlements in this town. The Congregational church at Danby village 
was first organized as a Presbyterian society in 1807, and continued as 
such until 1867, when it became Congregational in form and doctrine. 
The church edifice was built in 1820, but has been at various times im- 
proved and enlarged. The present pastor is Rev. J. R. Jones. 

There was formerly a Baptist church in Danby village, but the build- 
ing has recently been transformed into a town hall. 


The Methodist church at Danby was organized as a class, with five 
members, in 1811, and incorporated as a society in 1832, during which 
year the house of worship was erected ; it has been much improved at 
various times. The first pastor was Rev. Elijah Bachelor, and the 
present one is Rev. J. R. Allen. The church was rebuilt aboiit ten 
years ago at a cost of about $3,000. 

The Methodist church at West Danby was organized in 18C9, but a 
class had existed there many years earlier. The first pastor was Rev. 
E. G. W. Hall. The church was built in 1870. The present pastor is 
Rev. A. G. Bloomfield. 

The South Danby Methodist Church was organized as early as 1830, 
and was formerly a part of the North Danby charge. The church was 
built in 1836. The charge was separated from the parent church in 
1843. In 1871 the church was extensively repaired. The first pastor 
was Rev. Peter Compton. The present pastor is S. D. Galpin. 

The Church of New Jerusalem. — ^This denomination was organized 
into a society May 30, 1816, in the old school house, under the name 
of "New Jerusalem Society of the County of Tioga." There were 
then sixty-four subscribers. On the 23d of March, 1825, eighteen per- 
sons formed a society in this faith at Danby, under the pastoral care of 
Dr. Lewis Beers. In the following April a church was begun on a lot 
donated by Dr. Beers ; it was finished in November. The building has 
not been regularly used since 1866, and is now a barn. There were 
no regular services after 1866. 

Christ's Protestant Episcopal Church was organized August 12, 1826, 
in the school house of District No. 2. The first rector was Rev. Lucius 
Carter: the first wardens, Daniel Williams and Walter Bennett. The 
church building was erected in 183-1 and consecrated in 1836. The 
church is not now active. 

The West Danby Baptist Church was first organized with twenty- 
seven members dismissed from the Spencer church for that purpose in 
1821. This church was afterwards removed to Ithaca. In 1823 the 
old Spencer church was divided into the First and Second Baptist 
Churches of Spencer, and the latter subsequently removed to West 
Danby. There the church building was erected in 1840. The present 
pastor is Rev. S. S. Vose. 



This town was formerly a part of Tioga cotinty, and was taken from 
the town of Spencer in that county on the 22d of February, 1811, and 
called " Cayuta." The name was changed to Newfield March 29, 1832, 
it having become a part of Tompkins county when the county was or- 
ganized in 1817. The town was reduced in area on the 4th of June, 
1853, when "all that part of the town lying on the west side of said 
town, and beginning at the north line of said town, at the northeast 
corner of lot 4, thence along the east line of lots 4, 8, 12, 19 to 84, 51 
and 52, and 9 and 10, shall after January 1, 1856, be annexed to and 
form a part of Catharines in Chemung (now Schuyler) county." 

The records of this town giving the early proceedings of the author- 
ities were all destroyed in 1875. 

Newfield is in the southwest corner of Tompkins county, and 
contains 34,892 acres, of which about 25,000 are under cultivation. 
The surface is hilly, much broken in the central part, with ridges rising 
from 400 to 600 feet above the valleys. The soil is a good gravelly 
loam. The town is generally well watered by living springs and 
their outlet streams. Cayuta Creek drains the southern part, and 
the inlet to Cayuga Lake the northern part. These are the principal 

The territory of this town not being within the military tract, and 
its lands therefore not drawn by soldiers, speculators and settlers did 
not buy up the lots, nor were the farms occupied until several years 
after pioneers had 'made their homes in Ithaca, Dryden, Groton and 
Lansing. But the time came when the rugged and uninviting aspect 
of the town could not longer deter the adventurous and hardy pioneer 
from entering its thick forests to begin the work of civilization. Set- 
tlement began in the town with the advent of James Thomas, who, 
about the year 1800, settled on the old Newtown road. None of his 
descendants lives in the town, and almost nothing is known of where 
lie came from or whither he went. Within a year or two later Joseph 


Chambers settled on the farm occupied in late years by Augustus 
Brown. In 1804 John White arrived, and about the same time David 
Linderman came in from Orange county and settled on the farm 
recently occupied by Curtis Protts. He brought his wife and infant 
son, the latter being Harvey Linderman, long a well known resident of 
Newfield village. 

Richard Seabring, a Revolutionary soldier, died in Newfield in 1821. 
His son Cornelius was a very early settler in the the town of Lansing, 
and in April, 1804, removed to Newfield and located at what became 
known as " Seabring Settlement." He was an early postmaster, when 
the mail was carried once a week on horseback between Ithaca and 
Elmira. He continued until 1834 on the farm first occupied by him, 
and then sold it to his son Samuel. The latter died in 1871, and the 
farm passed to Cornelius H., son of Samuel. 

In 1805 Barnabas Gibbs settled on what has been called the John P. 
Hazen farm. He had then lived one year in Dryden. His son, John C. 
Gibbs, was about three years old when they came to Newfield, and passed 
his long life in the town. One of his daughters became the wife of J. 
B. Albright of this town. 

Philip Lebar, from Pennsylvania, settled early in Lansing, but came 
to Newfield in 1806. Jonathan Compton was also a settler in the town 
in 1800. 

From and including the year 1809 settlements were numerous in this 
town, among them being James Todd, father of John P. and Solomon 
S. Todd, well known residents of the town, and was conspicuous in the 
community, and one of the early deacons in the Presbyterian chuixh. 

Abraham Brown, father of Alvah, Stephen S., Hiram and Holden T. 
Brown, arrived in town in 1800 and settled on the farm afterwards 
owned by his sons. 

In 1810 Isaac L. Smith, who had settled early in Lansing, came to 
Newfield and located on the farm, where his son, Samuel H., after- 
wards lived. The several pioneers who came into this town from 
Lansing were led to adopt that course on accoimt of the comparatively 
high prices of land in that town. 

Deacon Charles Gillett came in at about the same time with Mr. 
Smith and settled where Joseph Kellogg lived in recent years. Deacon 
Gillett had also settled some years earlier in Lansing and married a 
sister of Mr. Smith. 

Solomon Kellogg came in about 1811 and, with others already men- 
tioned, has descendants in the town. 


Between 1812 and 1815 there was considerable influx of population 
in the town. Deacon Ebenezer Patchen was one of the early settlers 
in the so-called "Windfall Settlement." James Murray, father of 
David Murray, settled where Morgan R. Van Kirk afterwards lived, 
and Jeremiah and Stephen Green settled in the vSeal)ring neighbor- 

Jacob A. and James Trumbull came from New York city and settled 
at Trumbull's Corners in 1813. Other settlers of this period in that 
immediate locality are mentioned further on. 

William Dudley, from New Jersey, came to Ithaca not far from 1810, 
and in 1816 removed to Newfield. His son, George Dudley, worked in 
the store of Luther Gere at Ithaca, where he learned the mercantile 
business, and afterwards became the first merchant at Newfield village. 
His brother, Abram, was associated with him in the business. William 
Dudley was grandfather of P. S. Dudley. 

Noah Beardslee was an early settler in the town of Lansing, remov- 
ing there from Connecticut in 1806. He was a blacksmith. In 1818 
he removed to Newfield, and later in life was engaged in lumbering. 
He died in 1808. John Beardslee, long a resident of Newfield, was a 
son of Noah. 

The other prominent settlers of the town will be properly mentioned 
in the succeeding village accounts. 

The town of Newfield, although not settled so early as other parts of 
the county, has kept well to the front in more recent years in its agri- 
cultural interests. More than two-thirds of the town is under a good 
state of cultivation, while such mercantile operations and mills are car- 
ried on as are needed in the community. Churches and schools were 
early established and have since been liberally supported. In the war 
of the Rebellion the town sent about 327 of her sons to aid the distressed 
government, and their patriotic deeds are remembered by their grate- 
fiil townsmen. 

Owing to the destruction of the town records only a portion of the 
town officers can be presented. The supervisor in 1878-89 was Ezra 
Marion; 1880-87, Randolph Horton; 1888-90, S. A. Seabring; 1891-93, 
Randolph Horton; 1894, William H. Van Ostrand. 

The town officers' for 1894 are as follows: Supervisor, William H. 
Van Ostrand; town clerk, Howard McDaniels; justice of the peace, 
William Weatherell; assessor, Alonzo Bower; commissioner of high- 



ways, Irving Holman; collector, S. W. Bellis; overseer of the poor, C. 
M. Beardslee. 

Statistical. — The report of the Board of Supervisors for the year 
1893 gives the following statistics : Number of acres of land, 30,997; as- 
sessed value of real estate, including village property and real estate of 
corporations, $488,070; total assessed value of personal property, $32,- 
230; amotint of town taxes, $0,212.45; amount of county taxes, $1,534.- 
97; aggregate taxation, $9,285.50; rate of tax on $1 valuation, .0184. 
Corporations — P. & R. Railroad Co., assessed value of real estate, 
$20,000; amount of tax, $308; P. & R. Railroad Telegraph, $500; 
amount of tax, $9.20; N. Y. & P. Telegraph and Telephone Co., 
$5,000; amount of tax, $92. 

The methods of the farmers of this town have undergone considerable 
change in the past few years, as they have in other towns of the 
county. While sufficient grain is generally produced for home needs, 
and in some instances more than this, much attention is now being paid 
to the production of hay for market. Many acres are thus turned over 
to grass, and shipments from the town are large. 

NicvvKUiLi) Village. — This little village is situated near the Cayuga 
Inlet in the northeast part of the town. Its site is embraced in the 
Livingston pvirchase, a part of which passed to Stephen B. Munn, and 
for which James Pumpelly acted as agent. Through him Eliakim 
Dean, father of Jefferson Dean, and grandfather of David M. Dean, a 
prominent attorney of Ithaca, purchased the village site in 1802. Mr. 
Dean's residence was in Ithaca, but he proceeded to improve his pur- 
chase. In 1809 he built the first saw mill, where the upper mill 

In 1811 he erected the first grist mill in the town on the site of the 
lower mill. This mill was sold a few years later to Gen. J. John Green. 
Jefferson Dean is now residing in Ithaca at a ripe old age. 

In 1815 Samuel R. Rogers established a carding mill and cloth mak- 
ing factory at the village, which was long ago abandoned. The Perry 
saw mill stands on the site. 

In 1810 William Cox cleared a lot and built the fifth frame house in 
the village, opposite the hotel on the north side of the creek. There 
was a post-office at the Seabring neighborhood and about this time was 
transferred to Newfield village, and Mr. Cox was the first postmaster 
there; his receipts for the first qviarter were $1.50. Air. Cox was born 
in Orange county, this State, of strict Presbyterian pai'ents. When 


young he went to Ohio and was converted under the ministrations of 
Rev. J. B. Finley, and became a Methodist. He afterwards was prom- 
inent in establishing' the first Methodist class in Newfield village. 

In 1846 John T. James began manufacturing oil cloth in the south 
part of the town, and in the following year removed the business to the 
village. It was long ago given up. 

George Dudley kept the first store in the village, beginning about 
the year 1816. Under the management of himself, his brother Abram, 
and son, P. S. Dudley, the business continued and prospered. John 
L. Puff & Sons, Geo. W. Peck, E. Patterson, S. Dudley Cook and Wm. 
Tanner are now leading merchants. 

Jeremiah Hall kept the first tavern in the village in 1810. There 
are now two hotels, one kept by Robert S. McCorn and the other by 
Nelson Swan. The McCorn House was formerly the residence of Dr. 

The first log school house was built about 1816, and was succeeded 
by what was long known as "the Old Yellow School House." This 
old house is now a store house on the Benjamin Drake farm, and the 
former school yard forms an extension of the cemetery. The first 
meeting house was built by the Presbyterians in 1832; before that time 
religious meetings, as well as those of various other kinds, were held in 
the old school house. 

The little village grew steadily, but its prosperity was seriously 
checked on the 16th of June, 1875, by a disastrous fire which destroyed 
a large share of the business part of the place. But this fire was in one 
respect a blessing, for on the several sites of the ruins more substantial 
and handsome brick and wood structures ai;ose, giving the village a 
more modern appearance. The Newfield Flouring Mills were built by 
Nicholas Luce and Dudley about 1830. Mr. Nicholas soon became sole 
proprietor and continued to 1842. After several changes the property 
passed to P. S. Dudley in 1861. The mill is now conducted by Wm. 
H. Van Ostrand, who changed it to the roller process in 1894. 

The Lower Mills were erected in 1860 by John Dean. In 185(i P. S. 
Dudley pm-chased an interest in connection with O. C. Puff. Dudley 
& Puff continued to operate the mills to 1859, when Mr. Dudley became 
sole proprietor. The mill has since passed to Wm. H. Wetherell, who 
added a saw mill a few years ago. Below this mill was formerly a cloth 
factory, and still farther down is the old tannery. 


There have been various saw mills scattered throughout the town, 
but they are gradxially disappearing- as the timber becomes more 

Trumbull's Corners. — This is a hamlet in the northwest part of the 
town, and was first settled in 1813 by Jacob A. and James Trumbull, 
from New York city. They took up land on three of the four corners, 
which gave the place its name. Herman Parker, James Douglas.s, J. 
V. Clark, Joseph Stubbs, Lewis Hughes, Daniel Strang and others 
settled early in that locality. Shops and stores were established in 
later years, and about the year ISii a post-office was opened, with 
Daniel Strang, jr., postmaster. The present postmaster is Theodore 
Kresga, who also has a store, and another is conducted by James U. 
Douglass. There is no manufacturing here other than the saw mill. 

East Newfield. — This is a station on the G., I. & S. Branch of the 
Lehigh Valley Railroad, and a post-office, in which John C. Gibbs was 
the first official. The present postmaster is H. B. Howell. The name 
of the post-office has been changed to " Nina." 

There were formerly post-offices at "Pony Hollow" and at Strat- 
ton's, the latter in the eastern part of the town ; the former has been 

Rural cemetery associations have been formed under the State laws 
at both Newfield and Trumbull's Corners, the former on the 2d of 
April, 1868, and the latter on the 1st of May, 1877. The first officers 
of the Newfield Association were: David Nichols, president; R. H. 
Estabrook, secretary; B. B. Anderson, treasurer. The grounds have 
been handsomely improved and contain five acres. The present officers 
are: President, James F. Linderman; secretary, Geo.W. Peck; treasurer, 
R. Horton; trustees, Geo. W. Peck, James F. Linderman, John L. 
Puff, A. J. Van Kirk, Morgan P. Van Kirk, Chas. W. McCorn, Jona- 
than Stamp. The first officers of the Trumbull's Corners Association 
were Buit Rumsey, president; E. Keene, secretary; J. W. Clark, 

King Hiram Lodge F. & A. M. was instituted June 1, 1880. The 
present officers are: Master, Wm. Payne; sr. warden, Charles Stringer; 
jr. warden, Wm. E. Bush; sr. deacon, S. D. Cook; jr. deacon, Berkely 
Simpson; tyler, De Witt Payne; secretary, Chas. Van Marter; treas- 
urer, John L. Puff. 

Religious Institutions. — As early as can be known the Methodist 
denomination is entitled to the honor of first establishing a class in 


Newfield, in 1818, in the Seabring neighborhood, and another in the 
■village of Newfield a year later. Of course there had been religious 
meetings at various points, sometimes conducted by itinerant mission- 
aries and preachers, several years earlier than this date. Jeremiah 
Green was the first leader at Seabring's, and soon afterward moved to 
Newfield and occupied the same position there. William Cox was a 
conspicuous worker in the cause at the village, and first procured the 
services of Rev. James Kelsey, then holding an appointment at Ithaca. 
At his residence the class meetings were held during six years after its 

The first Methodist society was organized at Newfield in 1834, and 
Benjamin H. Clark, Israel Mead, H. M. Ferguson, David Murray, N. 
W. Reynolds, Charles M. Turner, Abram Dudley, Samuel Seabring, 
and Daniel B. Swartwood were the fii-st trustees. The erection of the 
meeting house was begun the same year and finished in the next year, 
under the pastorate of Rev. Moses Adams, the first pastor. The old 
■church, with various improvements, served the purposes of the society 
until the present edifice was erected. The present pastor is Henry C. 

The First Baptist Church of Newfield was organized in 1820 by 
Elder Oviatt. The first deacons were Elijah B. Georgia and Nathan 
Stewart, Meetings were held in the school houses until 1843, when 
the church was erected. The church had a fair degree of prosperity 
many years, but for some time there has been no resident minister, and 
no services are held. 

The First Presbyterian Church of Newfield was organized with twelve 
members, under Rev. William Levensworth, about the year 1820, in 
the Yellow School House. Miller Wood, Charles McCorn, Simeon T. 
Bush, Hobert Estabrook and Daniel Crowell were chosen trustees. The 
lot on which the church was built was conveyed to the trustees Febru- 
ary 10, 1832, and in that year the meeting house was built. In 1878 
the church underwent extensive repairs. The present pastor is Rev. 
Christian W. Winne. 

The First Christian Church of Newfield was organized May 20, 1854, 
in School District No. 12. The first pastor was Rev. Ezra Chase. In 
1858 the society built a neat church, which is still standing. 



The present town of Groton was formed as Division, April 7, 1817, 
and was taken from the older town of Locke. On March 13, 1818, the 
name was changed to Groton, so called from the town of Groton, Conn., 
from which State came many of the early settlers of this locality. Trac- 
ing briefly the formation of the several towns, of which Groton was 
once a part, we learn that the original town or provisional district of 
Milton was organized January 27, 1789, as one of the civil divisions of 
Montgomery county. In 1701 Herkimer county was set off from 
Montgomery on the west, while in 1794 Onondaga county was taken 
from the western part of Herkimer, and still later, 1799, Cayuga was 
taken from Onondaga. Each successive formation included what is 
now Groton, although the region was so little settled and improved 
previous to 1800 as to require no special exercise of authority over its 
territory other than the record of conveyances. The town or district 
of Milton became known as Genoa in 1808, but prior to that time, and 
on February 20, 1803, Locke was formed from Milton and included all 
that is now Groton. In 1817 Groton, under the original name of Di- 
vision, was made a separate town of Cayuga county, and ten days later, 
April 17, 1817, Tompkins county was created, and this town was made 
one of its original civil divisions. 

Groton is located in the northeast part of the county. The land sur- 
face is rolling and in places moderately hilly. From the valleys the 
land rises by gradtial slopes to heights of from one hundred to three 
hundred and fifty feet. The principal or central valleys are located in 
the central and east parts of the town, and each extends in a generally 
north and south direction, following, respectively, the courses of Owasco 
Inlet and Fall Creek. These streams are the chief water courses of the 
town, each furnishing excellent water power privileges, and likewise 
ample natural drainage system. Owasco Inlet courses across the town 
from south to north and discharges its waters into Owasco Lake; Fall 
Creek crosses the town from north to south, thence passes westerly and 
empties into Cayuga Lake at Ithaca. 


Settlement. — The pioneer settlement of Groton was made while the 
territory of the town formed a part of the still older jurisdictions of 
Locke and Milton. Such publications as have been made relating to 
early settlement generally accord this honor to Samuel Hogg, at West 
Groton; Ichabod Bowen (Brown), John Guthrie and John Perrin, at 
Groton; and J. Williams, J. Houghtailing and W. S. Clark, at East 
Groton. There may be added to the list of pioneers in East Groton the 
names of Capt. Jesse Clark and Luther Bliss, each of whom is equally 
deseirving of mention in this connection. Also among the first settlers 
in the central portion a claim of priority is made in favor of Ephraim 
Spaulding and Michael Grummon, who are said to have come to the 
place in June, 1796, and cleared land where the Union School now 
stands. They also built log houses in the town during the same year. 
It is also said that Major Benjamin Hicks, a former Revolutionary 
officer, was the first settler, and that his improvement was made on lot 
75 during the summer of 1797; that John Perrin was in the employ of 
Major Hicks and made the clearing referred to. These facts, and 
others of importance, we glean from the address of Professor Baldwin, 
who made thorough research into the early history of the town, and 
whose conclusions are undoubtedly reliable. By his consent we make 
free use of his material for the benefit of the readers of this work. 
From the same authority it is learned that in October, 1797, three fam- 
ilies set out from Massachusetts to make future homes in this town. 
They were John Perrin and wife, Ebenezer Williams, in the first load, 
and Ezra Carpenter in the second, all bringing furniture and other 
necessaries. In due time all reached their destination and made settle- 
ments in the town. Still, the question of priority of settlement has 
ever been disputed, but whether it was Spaulding and Grummon, the 
Vermonters, or John Perrin, the Yankee from Massachusetts, is quite 
immaterial; hence no effort will here be made to settle it. 

In the spring of 1798 Lemuel Perrin, father of John, settled in the 
town, and about the same time came S. Jenks Carpenter. Ezra Loomis 
settled in 1804, followed in the same year by Samuel Ingalls and Silas 
Stuart. In 1802 Jonas Williams purchased 106 acres for $320.25, and 
built on it the first grist mill in Groton. Other settlers of about the 
same time were Admatha Blodgett, Dr. Nathan Branch (the first phy- 
sician of the town), Jonathan Bennett!, Peleg Hathaway, Abiatha Hath- 
away and others, whose names are now forgotten. The first justice of 
the peace was Jonathan Bennett, appointed in 1805 or 'G, and he held 


office many years. In 1806, according to Professor Baldwin, David 
William, and James Hicks settled in the town, and within two years. 
Benjamin and William Williams also became settlers. The surname 
Williams afterward became prominent in Groton affairs, and some of its 
representatives were identified with the best interests of the town. 

However, bearing still further on the subject of pioneership in Gro- 
ton, Nelson Trumble states that his ancestor, Luther Trumble, settled 
about one mile north of Groton village between 1790 and 1800. Luther 
Trumble, son of the pioneer just mentioned, was afterward prominently 
connected with the building up of Groton village and its locality, and 
other members of the family became well known in the early history of 
the town. By personal application to representatives of old families we 
learn that many of the pioneers were here as early as 1805 or '6, and a 
few as early as 1800. In another department of this work will be found 
extended reference to these old pioneers and their families; hence in 
the present connection little else than an allusion to their settlement is 

In 1800 Isaac Hopkins came from Washington county and settled in 
the east part of the town. His descendants were not numerous, though 
several of them still live in Groton. David Morton also came about 
1800 and purchased a tract northeast of the village. He had been a 
sea captain, but had lost much of his property. This family name is 
still well represented in Groton. The Van Marter family settled in 
Groton s6on after 1800. Isaac and Margaret were the pioneers. Their 
descendants are yet numerous in the county. In the same year Rich- 
ard Francis settled where A. Morace Francis now lives. He kept pub- 
lic house, was an ensign in the war of 1812, and altogether a leading 
man. Samuel Crittenden, from (luilford, Conn., settled on the site of 
Cortland village in 1797, and in 1802 moved to a farm near McLean 
village, or its present site. Judge Crittenden was one of the foremost 
men of the town of his time, and he left a large train of prominent 
descendants. He died in 1862. 

David Stoddard was the pioneer head of a large and respected family 
of descendants in the town. He came from Connecticut, settled first in 
Chenango county, and later on came to West Groton, where he was an 
extensive farmer and landowner. Thomas Jones came from Massachu- 
setts about 1805 ; was a cloth dresser, and had a fulling mill, but later 
in life turned farmer. Isaac Allen, a Vermonter, located at West 
Groton Corners about 1804, and was the founder of the settlement at 


that place. He built the first store, established a tavern, and was an 
extensive landowner in the vicinity. Samuel Sellen lived north of Al- 
len and was also a pioneer. He left a large family. The Henshaws, 
lived near Samuel Sellen's tavern stand, and in the same neighborhood 
Henry Carter and Mr. Travers were early settlers. West of them 
Deacon John Seaton settled in 1817, and about the same time Nathan 
Fish carried on cloth dressing in the same vicinity. 

Jonathan Conger was an early settler in the west part of the town ; 
was a weaver and farmer, and later on a speculator. He married 
Thankful Guthrie, daughter of Capt. John Guthrie, and raised a large 
family of children. The surname Conger to-day stands for integrity 
and enterprise in Groton. Capt. Guthrie was a pioneer on the site of 
John G. Cobb's farm. He was a prominent man, also a hunter of some 
note, and the hero of some splendid bear stories. Elisha Cobb came 
from Taunton, Mass., and was an early settler in the west part of the 
town. He was twice married and had five children by each wife. The 
Bucks were pioneers in Lansing, and some members of the family 
drifted over into Groton at an early day. Where Nelson Stevens now 
lives his father, John Stevens, settled about 1813. In 1817 William R. 
Fitch, a lawyer of note and a judge of ability, settled in the northwest 
part of the town. Job Ailing was also a pioneer in this locality, and 
also one of the first justices of the peace in the town. Hugh Bulkley 
settled where Lorenzo Bulkley lived in 1825. Re.v. Joseph W. Stearns, 
well known as pastor of the old Christian Church, and honored be- 
cause of his anti-slavery efforts and sentiments, came to West Groton 
in 1835. Samuel Wilson Bothwell located in the north part of Groton 
in 1829, and Ezra Perkins in the same vicinity three years later. 
Where John Smith now lives, David H. Coggshall settled in 1820. He 
was a tailor and farmer, and a man of considerable note. John Smith, 
pioneer, came about the same time, and was also a prominent and suc- 
cessful farmer. Amza Armstrong settled where Andrew Metzgar 
lives. Jonas and Mary Metzgar were the pioneer head of a family of 
fifteen children, feleven of whom grew to maturity. Son>e of them 
were among Groton's best farmers. 

Oliver Hatch was in the Revolutionary service seven years, and his 
descendants assert that he came to the town in 1795. Capt. Ebenezer 
Pierce settled near Bear Swamp in 1815. About the same time Robert 
Moe settled where Augustus now lives. James Ashton settled in the 
town in 1830. Lewis Gifford settled in Groton in 1805, and Joseph 



Berry in 1811. George Fish settled at the corners now called La Fay- 
ette in 1818, and in the same year Paschal Fitts settled where his son 
George now lives. He was a brickmaker and farmer. Royal T. Morse 
settled on the Salt Road in 1825, and Dr. Clark Chapman on the same 
thoroughfare in 1835. Deacon Amos Hart settled in 1810 where 
Jerome Fitts lives, and at a still earlier day Thomas Benedict located 
at McLean. 

Asa Baldwin settled in the south part of the town about 1813, and in 
the same neighborhood Reuben Darling and Joseph Smiley were also 
settlers. Henry Teeter was an early land and mill owner on Fall 
Creek and at Peruville. The McLachlan and McKellar families were 
early in the south part of the town. Both were from Scotland, and in 
Groton became thrifty farmers. William D. Mount was at Peruville, a 
tanner and currier, as early as 1835. Stephen Barrows was a wagon- 
maker at Groton in 1824. Seth Tallmadge located in West Groton in 
1830. Deacon Daniel Bradley was a pioneer in the east part of the 
town, -as also were the Coopers and Berrys. William S. Clark started 
a fulling and cloth-dressing mill at Groton city in 1800. Luther Bliss 
located here in the same year, and Capt. Jesse Clark was here some six 
years earlier. 

In this manner we have endeavored to recall the names of many of 
the pioneers and early settlers of Groton. From what has been stated 
it will be seen that settlement was most rapid between 1810 and 1830. 
In fact as early as 1815 the town, then a part of Locke, had a sufficient 
number of inhabitants to warrant its separate organization, although 
this consummation was not reached tmtil three years afterward. How- 
ever, before narrating the events connected with the organization and 
civil history of Groton, we may devote a brief space to a record of the 
■"first events'' in the town. According to the general belief John 
Pcrrin built the first log house in 1797, and was also the first inn-keeper 
merchant, brickmaker, and distiller in the town. Jonas Williams built 
the first framed house in 1807, also the first saw and grist mill. The 
first school house was built about 1805 and stood about on the site of 
the present carriage works. Abiatha Hathaway was the first teacher. 
Young Jonas Williams and Miss Hathaway were married in 1805. 
Jonas Williams, sr. , was the first shoemaker; Andrew and David Allen 
the first blacksmiths ; Dr. Nathan Branch the first physician, 1803 ; 
Ebenezer Williams was the first wagonmaker, 1797; John Winslow the 
first potter; Samuel Love the first tanner; Benjamin Whipple the first 
-Treacher; and Lemuel Pcrrin the first miller. 


Town Organization. — On April 7, 1817, the town of Locke was 
divided and the south part erected into a separate town and called 
Division. It comprised fifty lots, each containing a square mile of 
land, being five deep, from north to south, and ten wide, from east to 
west. The first town meeting was held at the house of Samuel Love, 
on April 15, at which time officers. were elected as follows: Supervisor, 
Samuel Crittenden; town clerk, Admatha Blodgett; assessors, Benj. 
Williams, Nathan Benson, William Cobb; collector, Ezra Loomis; 
overseers of the poor, Ezra Carpenter, David Morton; commissioners 
of highways, Jonathan Bennett, Isaac Allen, John Benedict; constables 
and poundmasters, Spencer Crary, Jencks Carpenter, Ezra Andrews; 
commissioners of schools, Ezra Carpenter, Nathan Benson, James 
Luther; inspectors of schools, Joshua Dean, Admatha Blodgett, vSeth 
Blood, Sumner Brown. 

The following have been supervisors of the town: 

1817-18. Samuel Crittenden. 1852. William Woodbury. 

1819-30. Isaac Allan. 1853. J. P. Pennoyer. 

1821-33. Jonathan Bennett. 1854^56. Clark Chapman. 

1834-25. Nathan Benson. 1857-58. E. Jason Watrous. 

1830-27. Job Ailing. 1859-03. William D. Mount. 

1838-30. William Woodbuiy. 1863-05. Mortimer D. Fitch. 

1831-32. Xury Blodgett. 1866. Daniel B. Marsh. 

1833-34. John Boynton. 1867-68. Walter W. White. 

1835-36. Sylvanus Larned. 1869. William D. Mount. 

1837-38. William Woodbury. 1870-73. Nelson Stevens. 

1839. J. P. Pennoyer. 1873-75. V. B. Gross. 

1840-41. Sylvester Nash. 1876-77. Nelson Stevens. 

1843-44. John Young. 1878-81. William H. Fitch. 

1845-46. Cicero Phelps. 1883-86. A. G. Chapman. 

1847-48. Nathan Mix. 1887-89. John W. Jones. 

1849-50. William Woodbury. 1890-91. Corydon W. Conger. 

1851. J. P. Pennoyer. 1892-93. Dana Rhodes. 

Following are the principal officers of the town for 18'J4: John J. 
Youngs, supervisor, Groton; M. A. Downing, town clerk, Groton; 
George D. Wait, collector, McLean; James M. Montfort, justice of the 
peace, Peruville; PYank L. Tarbell, constable, West Groton; Charles 
H. Tarbell, constable, Peruville; Marshall Woodbury, constable, 
Groton; R. J. Pierce, constable, Groton, J. Mason, constable, McLean. 

From what has been noted relating to the early settlement and or- 
ganization of Groton, it will be seen that pioneership was practically at 
an end when the town was set off from Locke in 1817. At that time 


the population of the district sepai'ated was about 3,000; in 1840 it had 
increased to 3,618, the greatest number attained at any time during its 
history. In 1850 it had decreased to 3,342, but the census of 1860 gave 
the town a population of 3,534. In 1870 the inhabitants numbered 
3,512; in 1880, 3,450; in 1890, 3,427, while the count of 1892, under 
State authority, showed Groton to contain 3,607 inhabitants. The in- 
crease of later years has been virtually in the growth of Groton and the 
development of its resources, brought about by the enterprise of its 
people. Half a century ago, however, this then hamlet was of no 
greater importance in the history of the town than Groton City or Mc- 
Lean, and possessed no natural resources that gave it greater prom- 
inence ; and it was only the fact of its central location in the town that 
gave to the village its early advantage over the other hamlets of the 
town. The presentation of this subject naturally leads to reference to 
the villages of the town, and they may be properly treated in the order 
of present prominence. 

Statistics. — The report of the supervisors for 1893 gives the follow- 
ing statistics: Number of acres of land, 30,725; assessed value of real 
estate, including village property and real estate of corporations, 
$1,110,220; total assessed value of personal property, $142,850; amount 
of town taxes, $3,989.63; amount of county taxes, $2,879.23; aggregate 
taxation, $9,754.11; rate of tax on $1 valuation, .0078. Corporations 
— Groton Bridge Company, assessed value of real estate, $28,600; 
amount of tax, $223.08; Groton Carriage Co., $15,000; amount of tax, 
|117; Crandall Machine Co., $5,100; amount of tax, $40.17; S. C. 
Railroad Co., $34,200; amount of tax, $266.76; E., C. & N. Railroad 
Co., $9,000; amount of tax, $70.20; N. Y. & P. Telegraph and Tele- 
phone Co., $70; amount of tax, $0.55; W. U. Telegraph Co., $230; 
amount of tax, $1.80; American Telegraph and Telephone Co., $400; 
amount of tax, $3.12. 


In the geographical center of the town, on both east and west sides 
of Owasco Inlet, and on lots 65, 66, 75 and 70, is located the pleasant 
village of Groton. The village tract was originally principally owned 
by pioneer Deacon William Williams, while other owners and occupants 
were John Perrin and Jonas Williams. As is elsewhere stated, Perrin 
built a house here in 1797, a log structure, and Jonas Williams built the 


first frame dwelling in 1806. John Halliday knew the place in 1815, 
and at that time the settlement had but three dwellings. The next few 
years witnessed many improvements, as in 1817 there were seven 
framed buildings in the settlement, occupied by Deacon Williams, S. 
Jenks Carpenter, Pliny Sykes, oi^ Sikes, and Dr. Daniel Mead as dwell- 
ings; Robert Crandall Reynolds, store and dwelling; James Austin, 
tavern; and a school house standing about on the site of the present 
carriage factory. Soon after this time Ebenezer Williams built a wagon 
shop, also a large frame structure which became the Mansion House, a 
public tavern of much note at an early day. The rear of the present 
Groton House is a remnant of this old inn, the front or main portion 
haviiig been added at a later day by Robert C. Reynolds. Luther 
Trumble, jr., erected a fulling mill on the Inlet; also built several 
dwellings and stores at the Corners about the same time, so that the 
year 1825 found a prosperous village established. The post-office was 
■established in 1812, and weekly mails were received from Homer. 
Jonas Williams had both grist and saw mills in operation before 1815. 
Zimri Marsh became a resident of Groton in 1824, established himself 
in trade and became at once one of the leading men of the town. Others 
followed, both as tradesmen and in manufacture, and in the course of 
the next twenty-five years Groton increased from a small cross-roads 
settlement to a village of considerable importance. A.t a very early day 
Ebenezer Williams built a wagon shop and manufactured carriages, but 
as demand for the latter was limited, few were made. However, in the 
course of a score of years the fame of Groton-made wagons and car- 
riages spread throughout Central New York, and the demand for them 
led to their manufacture on a somewhat extended scale, although it was 
not until about twenty-five years ago that machinery was used in mak- 
ing this product in this locality. 

In 1860 the people of the village determined to have an act of incor- 
poration, for the principal streets — Main, Cortland, Church, William, 
Elm, Mill, and Cayuga — ^were by this time substantially built up, and 
the interests of the inhabitants demanded that there should be at least 
a limited separation of the municipality from the township at large. 
Accordingly, in pursuance of the provisions of the Act of 1847, on the 
11th of June, 1860, the Court of Sessions of Tompkins county granted 
an order of incorporation for the village, the same containing i'd^^^ 
acres of land, and having a population of 596. The first election was 
ield on August 4, 1860, when Robert C. Reynolds, F. H. Robertson, 


William Williams, William Woodbury and Daniel S. Delano were 
elected trustees. 

In 1890 the village resolved to reincorporate and charter in accord- 
ance with the provisions of the laws of 1870. This was done, and the 
first election held in March of that year. This action enlarged some- 
what the powers of the village authorities, and under it the office of 
president, with others, became elective by the people instead of by the 
trustees. The first president was William L. Pike, who was re-elected 
in 1891. His successor was EUery Colby, elected in 1892, followed by 
Giles M. Stoddard in 1893. The trustees of the village are as follows: 
William E. Mount, Elisha Field and Fred. Mosher. 

The Fire Department. — The gradual building up of the village, 
both in dwellings, blocks and manufacturing establishments, rendered 
necessary some provision to guard against destruction by fire. During 
the fall of 1864 the Williams & Finney Block was burned, and in De- 
cember following the village voted to purchase a fire engine. For its 
operation Excelsior Fire Company was formed, and on June 1, 18G5, 
Pioneer Hose Company was organized. The latter is still in existence. 
The engine house near the Baptist church was erected in 1868. 

The present village fire department consists of two hose companies 
and one hook and ladder company, known respectively as Pioneer Hose 
Company, the C. W. Conger Hose Company, and the Citizens' H. & L. 
Co. Two of the hose carts are stationed at the " head of Main street," 
as commonly mentioned, and one near the bridge shops; the "truck" 
is kept in the village building on Cortland street. 

Water Suppi-v. — The establishment of a generous water svipply for 
all purposes in the village became a positive necessity, and the need of 
better fire protection created an almost imperative demand for that 
supply; thert^ore, in 1888, the village trustees formed themselves into 
a Board of Water Commissioners and gave fidelity bonds. With the 
approval of the village the commissioners purchased the old Willoughby 
farm of forty acres, located two and one-half miles northeast of the 
village, the location being the source of supply for the stream called 
Spring Brook, and containing eight or ten springs of pure water. 
Reservoirs were constructed, and from them the water was brought 
into and throughout the village. The entire work was done during 
1888, at a total cost of $23,000, which sum covered all expenses of con- 
struction and land and right of way purchase. The commissioners who 
performed so well on behalf of the village were trustees Benn Conger, 



president; William D. Baldwin, secretary; Daniel L. Bradley, treas- 
urer ; Manley P. Gale and George Pickens. The fall from the springs 
to the distributing reservoir is 170 feet, and the latter is elevated above 
Main street 318 feet. The water is distributed throughout the village 
by six, eight and ten-inch pipes, a total of five miles of mains, while 
placed at convenient points are fire hydrants to the number of forty- 
eight. The revenues from the system are sufficient to maintain the 
works, pay the interest on the water bonds, and, in addition, create a 
fund for the payment of principal when due. The present commission- 
ers are D. H. Marsh, president; H. G. Dimon, M. D. Goodyear, Nelson 
Harris and W. W. Hare. 

Educational Institutions. — The first school house in Groton village 
was built and put in use in 1805, and was located near or on the site of 
the present carriage factory. This building was burned in 1813 or '14, 
and was succeeded by a more suitable framed school house, known for 
many years as the " Little Red School," which also stood on the lower 
end of Main street. The school building on the site now owned by the 
■" Typewriter Company " was erected in 1858, and still stands, though 
used by the company for office purposes. 

The Groton Academy was founded and established in 1837 by a stock 
company whose members were residents of the village and interested 
in the welfare of the youth of the vicinity. The building was of frame 
construction, and was used for academic purposes until its final destruc- 
tion by fire in 1883. The academy continued as a private or company 
enterprise until the latter part of 1873, when the property was pur- 
chased by the village and changed into a union free school of District 
No. 8. The succession of principals of the academy, during the period 
of its existence as such, was as follows: Stephen W. Clark, 1837; 
Samuel D. Carr, 1841; Carleton Parker, 1843; Samuel D. Carr, 1844; 
James E. Dexter, 1848; Mrs. D. E. Sackett, 1849; Rev. R. H. Close, 
1851; Samuel G. Williams, 1853"; R. O. Graves, 1856; Samuel G. 
Williams, 1857; Joseph E. Scott, 1859; M. M. Baldwin, 1861-73. 

Professor Baldwin was the owner of the academy property, having 
purchased • the interest of the stockholders during his principalship. 
On November 13, 1872, School District No. 8 held a meeting to vote 
on the question and determine whether a union free school should be 
established. At that meeting it was resolved "that School District 
No. 8 of the town of Groton resolve itself into a union graded school 
district;" also that the Board of Education be instructed to secure the 


advantages of an academic department to the school. The first board 
comprised H. K. Clark, Charles Perrigo, D. H. Brown, Jerome Hath- 
away, L. M. Morton, Rev. G. H. Brigham and S. N. Jones. 

This Board of Education purchased from Professor Baldwin the old 
Groton Academy, which thenceforth became the Union Free School of 
District No. 8. In 1882 the old building was destroyed by fire, and re- 
placed with a larger and more substantial brick structure, erected at a 
total cost of about f 15,000. In 1892 material additions and improve- 
ments were made, at an expense of nearly $10,000 more. The mem- 
bers of the Board of Education for the current year, 1893, are: W. E. 
Mount, president; G. M. Stoddard, vice-president; H. G. Dimon, sec- 
retary; H. B. Stevens, Benn Conger, F. A. Begent, L. J. Townley, 
H. S. Hopkins, treasurer. 

The principals of the Union School have been as follows: B. L. 
Robinson, temporary ; Flora Green, part of one term ; A. Norton Fitch, 
1873; Alva M. Baldwin, 1874; Vernon L. Davey, 1875; Roland S. 
Keyser, 1878; Arch. • McLachlan, 1881 ; Prof. Waters, 1883; C. A. 
Bliesmer, 1885; A. H. Sage, 1887; W. S. Lockner, 1890; O.W.Wood, 

Church History. — The first society for public worship in the town, 
or that portion of the town which now forms Groton, was that origin- 
ally known as the East Congregational Church, organized June 19, 
1805. The first meeting house was built of logs, and stood two miles 
east of the village on the farm now a part of the estate of the late Job 
Stickles. The log edifice was replaced in 1818 with a more substantial 
frame structure, which stood on the old site until 1864, and was then 
removed to the village, where it now forms a part of Odd Fellows Hall,, 
the property of Edwin R. Nye. This society was a large and flourish- 
ing one until its membership was much reduced by the organization of 
the Congregational Church at the village. 

The Congregational Church of Groton, the offshoot of the mother 
society above mentioned, was organized March 2, 1849, and in 1851 the 
old frame edifice was completed, at a cost of $3,000. It was dedicated 
January 29, 1851. The present elegant church home of this society 
was built in 1881, under the direction of D. L. Bradley, John I. Booth, 
H. H. Marsh, Marcus Sears, A. G. Chapman and Wm. H. Smith as 
building committee, and at a total cost of $40,000. The pastors of this 
society have been H. A. Sackett, R. H. Close, Augustus Pomeroy, S. 
G. Lum, J. C. Taylor, Samuel Johnson, G. A. Pelton and William A. 


Smith, the latter being the present pastor, whose connection with the 
society has covered a period of more than sixteen years. The church 
has a membership of 200. 

The First Baptist Society of Groton was the outgrowth of the First 
Baptist Church of Locke, the latter having been organized August 27, 
1800, and the change of name made after the creation of the town of 
Groton from Locke. The first church edifice stood south of the district 
school, and was built about 1819 by Ebenezer AVilliams. The next 
edifice of the society was completed and dedicated January 1, 1814, but 
the building was burned March 16, 1870. Immediately afterward the 
present attractive edifice on Cortland street was erected, at a cost of 
$20, 000. The church has ] 4(5 members, with 120 pupils in the Sunday 
school. The officers are as follows: Deacons, E. J. Watrons, H. G. 
Moe, Lyman Metzgar; clerk. Nelson Trumble. Succession of pastors: 
B. Andrews, Peleg Card, Henry Bogel, J. S. Backus, R. K. Bellamy, 
A. P. Mason, Lewis Ransted, A. R. Belden, W. B. Downer, D. B. 
Purington, Walter G. Dye, L. C. Bates, Thos. Allen, L. W. Olney, 
J. P. Bates, G. H. Brigham, L. W. Olney, Jno. W. Payne, T. E. Ed- 
wards, I. W. Emory, C. A. Bleismer, J. G. Noble, J. H. Sage, D. R. 
Watson, S. F. Matthews. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church of Groton village was organized 
July 18, 18;30; L. K. Redington, minister, and Justus P. Pennoyer, 
official member. The first church edifice was built in 1812 and was 
dedicated December 20 of that year, at which time also a reorganization 
of the society was effected. The present pastor of the M. E. Church is 
Emery R. Baldwin. The membership numbers 181, and 170 members 
of the Sunday school. The trustees of the society are Alonzo Anthony, 
E. M. Avery, Henry Maston, James Richford, Frederick Avery, Asa 
Smith and E. P. Wartrous. 

The Roman Catholic Church at Groton village was organized in 1870 
by feather Gilbert, of Ithaca. In 1873 the brick church edifice on Sotrth 
Main street was erected at a cost of about $2,500. This parish is with- 
out a resident priest. 

Manufacturing Industries. — In a preceding portion of the present 
chapter frequent mention has been made to the first industries estab- 
lished in and about the village. One of the most important of these 
industries was the manufacture of wagons and carriages, but the 
founders of the business at that time had little thought that they were 
laying the foundation of what was destined to become one of the great- 



est of the county's industries. For a period of fifty years following 
1 820 the manufacture of carriages and wagons was an important part 
of local industry, but it was not until about 1860 that wagons were 
made here on an extended scale. 

The Groton Carriage Company was incorporated January 7, 1870, 
and was the outgrowth of a business established about 1855 by William 
Allen and George Carpenter. Also interested in this same concern in 
later years were Lyman Allen, Harrison Bowker and Ira Woodford. 
Under the latter proprietor the business declined, but Samson S. Will- 
iams re-established it. In 1876, from the Williams plant, the carriage 
company was directly created, with an original capital of $30,000, in- 
creased in 1891 to $100,000. The first officers were E. P. Atwood, 
president; H. K. Clark, secretary; D. H. Marsh, treasurer; and A. J. 
Williams, general manager. Various changes have been made among 
the officers of the company, and among those who have acted as presi- 
dents have been H. K. Clark, Corydon W. Conger and D. H. Marsh. 
Mr. Marsh was elected president and treasurer in 1881 and has held 
that office continuously to the present time. Dana Rhodes was elected 
secretai-y in 1877 and held that position at intervals for several ye irs. 
In February, 1886, William L. Pike came into the company in the 
capacity of superintendent, and in January, 1887, was elected secretary 
and general manager. The Groton Carriage Company is one of the 
stable industries of the village, and was never more successful than 
imder its present management. The present officers are D. H. Marsh, 
president and treasurer; W. L. Pike, secretary and general manager; 
and Dana Rhodes, attorne5^ Running at full capacity, the company 
employs about 175 men. 

The (j-roton Bridge and Manufacturing Company is the direct out- 
growth of a business established by Charles and Lyman Perrigo as earty 
as the year 1849. The Perrigos were proprietors of a foundry and ma- 
chine shop, and as time passed they enlarged their works and added to 
their products until they had built up a large and extensive trade. One 
of the many graduates of their works was Oliver Avery, jr., who 
eventually became one of the firm, as also did lillery Colby. In 1877 
the then existing firm of Charles Perrigo & Co. began the manufacture 
of iron bridges. Soon afterward the Groton Iron Bridge Company was 
formed and incorpoi'ated, of which Mr. Perrigo was president; Mr. 
Colby, vice-president; William Williams, secretary; and Mr. Avery, 
treasurer and general business manager. This concern did business 


until 1 887, and was then merged into the Groton Bridge and Manufac- 
turing Company. 

About tlie year 1847 Daniel Spencer began the manufacture of grain 
separators at a location on Spring Brook, but soon moved his works to 
the village. Here Wm. Perrigo became interested with Mr. Spencer 
and the son of the latter in making the separators, while the firm of 
Chas. Perrigo & Co. built the "powers." Finally the whole concern 
merged into the business of Perrigo & Avery, and from them passed to 
the present company. 

The Groton Bridge and Manufacturing Company was incorporated 
in 1887, with an original capital of $100,000 (afterward increased to 
$120,000), for the manufacture of iron bridges, steam engines, separ- 
ators, spoke machines and agricultural implements. The first president 
was Ellery Colby; vice-president, Frank Conger; secretary and treas- 
urer, Chester Barney, who died before the company fairly began oper- 
ations, whereupon Barnum R. Williams was made secretary, and Oliver 
Avery treasurer. In 1888 William H. Fitch became treasurer, and in 
1890 was elected president. Corydon W. Conger was then elected 
treasurer. This is by far the most important and valuable industry 
ever established in Groton, and under its present management the 
greatest success has been attained. The annual business amounts to 
nearly $500,000, and the works employ about 150 men. 

The Crandall Typewriter Company was incorporated and did busi- 
ness at Cortland and Syracuse before locating at Groton. On January 
1, 1887, the removal was made, and in that year the large and well 
equipped building on Main street was occupied. The capital stock of 
the company is $.'55,000. The officers are: D. H. Marsh, president; 
Everett Smiley, vice-president; Frank Conger, secretary; Frank J. 
Tanner, treasurer; F. L. Twiss, superintendent. ■ 

The other manufacturing industries of the village are the planing 
and lumber mills of Begent & Crittenden, and the Groton Flouring 
Mill, the latter the property of J. G. Beach. 

The First National Bank of Groton was organized in 1805, througli 
the efforts of Charles Perrigo and Dexter H. Marsh, having a capital 
stock of $100,000. This institution has always done a legitimate and 
safe business, and is to-day regarded as one of the soundest banking 
houses in the county. Mr. Perrigo was the original president, while 
Mr. Marsh was the cashier. These positions were respectively held 
until January 14, 1890, when Mr. Marsh was elected president, and 


Hiram G. Moe was elected cashier. During the period of its existence 
this bank has paid an annual dividend of eight per cent. , and has paid 
cash dividends aggregating $237,000. The present surplus and undi- 
vided profit account stands at $54,000. The directors are: D. H. 
Marsh, president; C. P. Atwood, vice-president; H! G. Moe, cashier; 
and W. M. Marsh, Nelson Harris, Jay Conger and Arad S. Marsh. 

The Groton Press. —On Januar)' :n, 18:50, H. P. Eels & Co. began 
the publication of a weekly paper called the Groton Balance. Thirty- 
nine numbers were issued when the paper passed to the hands of E. S. 
Keeney, who changed its name to Groton Democrat, and issued thirt}'- 
five numbers. Publication was then discontinued. 

The Groton Journal was founded November !), 186(J, by Hiram Clark 
Marsh, and during the five years of. his ownership the paper was an 
active and aggressive Republican . publication. He sold the paper to 
J. P. Pennoyer and A. M. Lyon, who were in turn succeeded by L. M. 
Chapin. The next proprietors were Wm. H. Allen and Henry L. 
Wright, who, in 187!), established a Lansing department, under the 
direction of Lewis J. Townley. On October 10 of tliat year the name 
of the paper was changed to Groton and Lansing Journal. On the 17th 
of Noveihber, 1883, Mr. Townlej'^ bought the paper and sold a half 
interest to Mr. Wright, but on the 3d of December, 1885, Mr. Townley 
became and has since continued its sole proprietor. 

Conger's Journal, the first number of which appeared March 33, 

1882, was the result of the enterprise of that progressive firm, C. W. 
Conger & Co., by whom it was designed as an advertising medium of 
their own and other Groton business interests. The Journal was dis- 
tributed gratuitousl)', and its press work was done in the office of the 
Groton and Lansing Journal. Mrs. Corydon W. Conger was its editor 
and conducted an interesting and instructive miscellaneous news de- 

The Bridge Builder, a monthly publication, was first issued in May, 

1883, under the editorial management of Mrs. C. W. Conger, and was 
devoted to the interests of the local bridge company. 

The Groton Rural Cemetery was incorporated June 28, 1858, and the 
association at once laid out a beautiful tract of land for burial purposes. 
It is situated on a commanding eminence about three-fourths of a mile 
northeast of the village. The grounds are tastefully laid out, and- 
beautifully adorned with shrubbery and foliage trees. The arrange- 
ment of all departments is attractive, and much of this appearance 
of things is due to the efforts of CJeorge W. Dave)'. 


The Southern Central Railroad. — For the construction of this railroad 
the town of Groton people contributed the sum of $50,000, but in con- 
nection with the work the names of Charles and Lyman Perrigo, Hiland 
K. Clark, Peirson & Avery, Perrigo, Avery & Field, Robert C. Reyn- 
olds, Dr. E. W. Grain, Franklin Willoughby and Sylvester Larned 
must stand in especial prominence. The road was completed through 
this valley in 18G9. 

McLean. — Second in importance and size among the villages of the 
town is the hamlet called McLean. Amasa Cobb built the first log 
dwelling, also the first tavern, on the village site. John Benedict built 
the first saw and grist mills, while Roswell Randall opened the first 
store. Daniel J. Shaw was a pioneer grist miller; Dr. Richard Laning 
the first physician; Wm. S. Clark and Samuel H. Starr the first cloth- 
dressers. Among the pioners of this locality were Nicholas Rowe, 
Anson Hanchett, Amasa Cobb, Ezra Bangs, Elisha Bangs, Elijah West, 
William Harris, and the Cummings, Davis, Pettis and other families. 
As early as 1828 two distilleries, with the other business enterprises, 
even at that early day made McLean a hamlet of some note. The 
original name of the village was Moscow, but in 1834 a post-office was 
established and named in honor of Judge McLean. 

However, during its three-quarters of a century of history McLean 
has never advanced beyond the condition' of a hamlet, and at no time 
has it contained more than 400 inhabitants. Its industries comprise a 
foundry and machine shop, a firkin and butter tub factory, creamery, 
large grist mill, a number of small shops, two general stores, and one 
well appointed drug store. The cheese factory is one of the established 
industries of McLean, which was put in operation in 1864 and has been 
continued to the present time. The butter package factory has long 
been the property of V. B. Gross, and was the outgrowth of a still 
older business of the same kind. In 1837 John Neal built the large 
grist mill afterward known as the D. B. Marsh mill. It is now the 
property of John W. West. Solomon R. Reniff is the proprietor of the 
saw and cider mill. The machine shops and foundry are owned by 
Houghtaling Bros. 

McLean has five churches, a number not equaled by any other vil- 
lage in the township. The Baptist Church of McLean was organized 
January 24, 1824, with thirty members, and with Amos Hart and 
Ithamar Whipple as deacons. However, Baptist preaching was heard 
in this locality as early as 1805. The church was built in 1828, under 


the direction of John Benedict, Samuel Noyes and Deacon Hart, and 
cost $1,500. It has now thirty-six members and fifty-five pupils in the- 
Sunday school. The present pastor is Joseph E. Dodsley, successor to 
J. W. Barr. The deacons are T. M. Weeks and E. P. Hart; trustees, 
Allen Howard, John Ronk and T. N. Weeks; superintendent of Siin- 
day school, E. P. Hart. 

The McLean Methodist Episcopal church was organized in 1830, and 
the church edifice built in 1832 at a cost of $1,500. It was extensively 
repaired in 1830. The church has nearly 100 members, and about fifty 
pupils in the Sunday school. The officers of the church are J. W. 
Terry, pastor; D. C. Johnson, Almon Trapp, Wesley Andrews, William 
Waters, M. M. Robbins and E. G. Galloup, trustees; superintendent 
Sunday school, E. G. Galloup. 

The First Universalist Society of Groton was organized at McLean, 
April 21, 1832, with about thirty members. The church edifice was- 
erected in about 1843, and cost, including furnishings, about $3,000. 
The first minister was Walter Bullard; the present minister, Herbert 
H. Graves. The present membership of the church is twenty-seven. 

Zion Church, P. E., a mission from Homer, was founded at McLean, 
September 23, 1833. The chu.rch edifice was erected in 1840, and cost 
$1,200. For a number of years Zion parish has been without a rector, 
and the church has but twenty communicants. The present wardens 
are William De Coudres and William Hubbard. 

The Roman Catholic at McLean is the youngest of the religious- 
societies of the locality. The church has no regular pastor and only 
occasional services are held. 

Peruville. — In the south part of the town of Groton, and lying partly 
within the town of Dryden, is the present hamlet of Peruville. Half a 
century and more ago this was a place of considerable industry, but 
later years have witnessed the removal or discontinuance of those of 
greatest importance, and the village now contains but three stores, a 
flour and feed mill, cider mill, creamery, and one or two shops. The 
village is situated on lot 95, and here the first settlers were Asa Church, 
who built the first grist mill ; Henry I. Brinkerhoff, Thomas Johnson, 
and Dr. Wright. In 1820 the village plat was regularly surveyed by 
Levi Bodley. Prominent among the early business men at Peruville 
were Reuben Darling, Joseph Smiley, William D. Mount, and Henry 
Teeter, the latter at one time owning much of the village site and its 
industries as well. 


The present merchants of the village are J. H. Mount, J. M. Mont- 
fort, and I. Miller & Son. The mill is the property of Filander H. 

The Methodist Episcopal church at Peruville was originally organ- 
ized as a society of both Dryden and Groton, and has been a station of 
each town. The society was organized about 1830, and the edifice was 
built in 1834 at a cost of $3,000. The church has about forty members, 
with about the same number in the Sunday school. The present pastor 
is Rev. Emory R. Baldwin, and the trustees are C. J. Wheeler, W. C. 
Lnmbard and J. M. Montfort. 

The Wesleyan Methodist church of Groton is located about a mile 
north of Peruville. The society was organized about 1845, and in 1850 
the meeting house was built. The present membership is about thirty, 
and the society is under the pastoral charge of Rev. C. E. Curtis. 

West Groton. — In the northwest part of the town, and in one of the 
most fertile districts thereof, is the pleasant little hanilet of West Gro- 
ton. In an earlier portion of the present chapter the reader will find 
the names of the earlier settlers of this locality, therefore they need not 
be repeated here. Through the kindness of Perry W. Allen we are 
able to furnish the names of the various men at this point. The mer- 
chants have been James I. Brinkerhoof, Hopkins & Ludlow, B. F. 
Ludlow, Ferris & Gaylord, Goodyear & Seymour, John Dart, Skinner 
& Cady, Locke & Wright, T. F. Sherman, Atwater & Baldwin, P. W. 
Allen (postmaster and deputy twenty-seven years), John Boulker, B. 
F. Thompson, A. Stuart Stearns, C. Van Buskirk, A. B. Rogers, and 
Stevens & Townley. 

West Groton was made a post station in 1833, and the postmasters 
have been Cicero Phelps, Perry W. Allen, A. B. Rogers, A. S. Stearns, 
and Ben Townley. The present business interests of the hamlet are 
the general store of Stevens & Townley, the extensive egg and honey 
business of E. F. Tallmadge, a blacksmith and shoe shop. 

The West Groton and East Lansing Congregational church was 
organized in December, 181G, with five original members. The society 
-was organized in 1832. The parsonage was built in 18G1, the church 
repaired in 1872, the steeple erected in 1884, and the parlors and new 
barn provided in 1886. The church has 100 members and the Sunday 
school 120. The pastors of this church in succession have been as fol- 
lows: Marcus Harrison, 1831-33; Samuel Scott, 183G-37; John Ivison, 
1837-39; Peleg R. Kinnie, 1845-55; Rev. Pomeroy, 1858-61; Calvin 


McKinney, 1802-04; Ezra Jones, 1805-08; W. O. Baldwin, 1869-72; 
A. D. Stowell, and John Cunningham 1877-03. The present officers- 
of the church are John Cunningham, pastor, and Benoni Brown (emeri- 
tus), Nelson Stevens, and Richard T. Ludlow,' deacons. 

The First Christian church of West Groton was organized in 1831, 
and in 1833 a frame edifice was erected a short distance south of West 
Groton. At one time the society had about seventy-five members, but 
owing to dissensions the members left and the society gradually passed 
out of existence. 

Groton City. — In the northeast corner of the town of Groton, and 
located principally on lot 59, is the hamlet called Groton City. During 
the pioneer days of the region, when saw mills were numerous on Fall 
Creek, this locality was known as " Slab City." At that time this was 
an important point, and half a century ago " Slab City " did more busi- 
ness than Groton village. However, like many other similar hamlets, 
Groton City has lost nearly all of its former prestige and much of its old 
time usefulness. The early settlers in this locality were Capt. Jesse 
Clark, Major Lemi Bradley, Jesse Bartholomew, Aaron and John Bene- 
dict, who built saw and grist mills, William S. Clark, who built the first 
dam on Fall Brook and set up a fulling mill. In 1813 Zacheus Maltby 
built a tavei-n on lot 08; Crosby and Tanner opened store in 1809. 
These were the first business ventures in Groton City and locality. At 
present there is no regular store in the village, and the only industry is 
the custom feed mill of L. W. Steadman & Son. 

A few rods west of the corners stands the Groton City Free church, 
which was built by subscriptions contributed by the people of the neigh- 
borhood without regard to denomination. However, this has always 
been u Methodist church, and until quite recently belonged to the con- 
ference. It is now an independent church, and its pulpit is supplied by 
young ministers from Cortland. 

La Favettk. — This is the name which has always been applied to the 
four- corner settlement in the east part of the town, where once stood a 
saw and grist mill. When built the latter was christened by pioneer 
George Fish, and as the christening took place on the same day that 
General La Fayette was at Auburn, Mr. Fish appropriately designated 
this as the La Fayette Mill. 

Grotto. — This is the name of a post-office established in the west 
part of the town July 1, 1893, through the efforts of Edwin W. Van 
Marter, who is its postmaster and also a merchant at that point. 


Umbria.— This is the name of a post-office established in the fall of 
1893, having its location on Fall Creek, about half a mile south of La- 


The town of Lansing lies in the north part of Tompkins coimty, west 
of Groton and on the east side of Cayuga Lake. The surface rises in a 
rolling upland to about 500 feet above the lake, with abrupt ledges in 
some places. The soil is chiefly a gravelly loam, well adapted to grain 
growing. Salmon Creek is the principal stream, rising in Cayuga county 
and flowing southerly through this town near its center. Its valley is 
narrow, and from its east side the land rises in a gradual slope and ex- 
tends eastward with a comparatively level surface, which is divided into 
beautiful and fertile farms. To the westward from the creek valle)' 
the surface rises into what is known as the "Ridge." Salmon Creek 
has small tributaries in Gulf, Townley, Hedden, and .Upper Hedden 
Creeks. On Townley Creek are the three Indian Falls, forty to sixty 
feet in height, and noted for their natural beauty. On Hedden Creek 
are the Buttermilk Falls, also noted for their natural picturesque attrac- 
tions. There are other cascades on the small streams of this town which 
contribute to the many romantic beauties of the locality. 

One of the oM military townships of Cayuga county was named "Mil- 
ton," and was erected January 27, 1789. On the 30th of February, 
1802, the town of Locke was set off from Milton. On the Gth of April, 
1808, the name was changed to Genoa, from the south part of which the 
town of Lansing was set off on the 7th of April, 1817, under the act 
that created Tompkins county. It retains its original limits and con- 
tains 38,808 acres, of which about 32,000 are improved. Settlements 
were made in what is now Lansing, of course, long before it became a 
civil organization. In March, 1791, Silas Ludlow, his brother Henry, 
and Thomas, son of the latter, with their families came into the town 
from Ithaca, drawing their little store of goods on a handsled on the ice 
of the lake. Reaching the mouth of Salmon Creek they followed up its 
ravine to the falls on the site of Ludlowville and there located. The 



water power there was attractive to them and they bought military lot 
No. 76 for sixty dollars. Henry built his first log house where Charles 
G. Benjamin now lives. These men became prominent in founding the 
little community, and their descendants were active in public affairs. 
Several of the latter removed from the town. Jehiel Ludlow was mem- 
ber of assembly, sheriff, and justice of the peace. 

Samuel Baker and his brother-in-law, Solomon Hyatt, passed through 
this town on their way to Canada in 1788 or '89, inspected lot No. 54, 
and Baker afterwards bought it, probably in 1791. In the spring of 
1793 he hired a man to aid in chopping, and the)' came in and built a 
log house on the site of Lansingville. October 13, 1793, Baker ex- 
changed his lot for the one adjoining, and started in the spring of 1793 
from Peekskill, on the Hudson, on a sloop with his family on his journey 
towards his wilderness home. Arriving at Lunenburg, on the Hud- 
son, he learned that his title was worthless. He was a good blacksmith 
and went undauntedly at work at his trade, saved up a hundred pounds 
sterling, with which he purchased 100 acres of the first lot he had bought 
of the owner in Albany, and came on by the usual route up the Mohawk 
in a bateau, through- Oneida Lake, Seneca River, and Cayuga Lake to 
Ilimrod's Point, where Mr. Himi-od had made a settlement in 1793. 
Ebenezer Haskin had located in the same year a mile east of the lake 
on the site of Lake Ridge, and with his oxen helped Baker to move his 
goods to his lot. There Baker built a blacksmith shop, and between 
that time and 1801 purchased the remainder of the military lot. He at 
one time owned about 1,200 acres. He was the first supervisor of the 
town of Milton, and his children and grandchildren have been conspic- 
uous in the town. He was a magistrate many years, a preacher of 
ijome note, and built the first canal boat that ran from Cayuga Lake. 

Capt. Benaja Strong and his son Salmon came in 1791 and purchased 
-2,000 acres on both sides of Salmon Creek, and began a clearing a mile 
and a quiirtcr east of Lansingville on lot No. U3, where Albert Slocum 
now lives. He gave his sons each a farm and they settled in the town. 
Two of his daughters married Zoel and Daniel Bacon, and settled near 
the site of North Tviinsing, in the northeast part of the town, in 1793. 
Captain Strong was a noted pioneer and lived to ninety-six years, and 
had been in the Revolutionar}'- War; his son, of the same name, was 
in the War of 1813 as a soldier. 

John Bowker came in 1791 from Ulster county, by way of Owego 
and Ithaca, and settled near North Lansing, where his son James after- 


wards lived. He was a justice of the peace, constable, and supervisor 
in the town of Milton. His brothers, Joseph and Noah, came in 1792, 
John Bowker had twelve children, all of whom reared families, and at 
the time of-his death, in 1855, was father, grandfather and great-grand- 
father to 130 children. 

Andrew Myers with his wife and two children came down the lake in 
179'2, and settled at what has been known as " Myers Point." His son 
Andrew built a large grist mill there about 1832. 

Moses and Nicholas Depeu settled at the mouth of vSalmon Creek in 

Ephraim Bloom was of German descent, and came from Pennsylvania 
in 1791 and took up lot 91, building his cabin wliere Lewis Bloom lived 
in recent years. Two Indians spent the succeeding winter with him, 
and in the spring of 1792 he brought in his family, two sons and five 
daughters. He died in 1828, a few days more than 104 years old. His 
wife lived to a few days more than 100 years. 

Richard and Charles Townley, brothers, originally from New Jersey, 
reached this town in December, 1792, coming by way of Ithaca, and 
built a log cabin which they occupied first on Christmas day. Once 
settled in their cabin, Charles left his brother and family and returned 
to the Susquehanna, not far from Wilkesbarre, where they had lived 
four years after leaving New Jersey. Richard Townley was a man of 
superior native talents, and though not well educated, was an intelli- 
gent reader, closely observant, and became remarkably well informed. 
He learned surveying and practiced it throughout the county, was super- 
visor of Milton in 1802; justice of the peace in 1804; associate judge of 
Cayuga county; member of assembly ten years from 1804. As school 
commissioner he divided the town into districts and sold the public 
school lots. He was a presidential elector in 1810, and delegate to the 
State Constitutional Convention in 1821. He left a family of ten chil- 
dren at his death, which occurred in 1840. His descendants have been 
prominent in the town. 

Abram Minier, son of George, of Northampton county. Pa., came 
with his brother Daniel into the lake country in 1787 or 1788. Daniel 
went on to the Genesee country, but a deed shows that Abram pur- 
chased 600 acres of Captain Van Rensselaer, of Albany, in 1792. He 
brought his famil)' and took possession in 1793. His land was on the 
site of South Lansing or " Libertyville. " He reared a family of four 
sons and five daughters, one of the latter became the wife of Robert 


Tennant Shaw, who was named after the celebrated Presbyterian min- 
ister of New Jersey. 

William Boice settled at South Lansing in 1793, and built and kept 
a log tavern. In the same year Barney Collins came to that locality from 

George Rhodes, from Cherryville, came in 1793, with Frederick 
Storms, of the same place, purchased 340 acres of land, which they di- 
vided, and the two farms are now occupied by John Conklin, and Fred- 
erick Storms, a grandson of the pioneers. The first Rhodes built and 
operated a distilery. 

Zenas Tichenor settled on military lands in Lansing in 1789-90, and 
was the first school teacher of the town. He was one of twelve broth- 
ers, all of whom were soldiers of the Revolution ; one of his sons was 
in the War of 1812, and three of his grandsons were soldiers in the war 
of the Rebellion: Col. Isaac S. Tichenor, of the 105th N. Y. V.; Maj. 
James H. Tichenor, of the 33d N. Y. V. ; and Capt. A. W. Knettles, of 
the lJ:3d Regiment. 

Tilman Bower was a settler in 1794 from Pennsylvania, and three 
years later, his five sons, Honteter, John (who located near their father), 
Samuel, Adam and George (who settled at or near North Lansing), 
came into the town. 

John Holden came from Great Bend, in 1793, and settled on Lot 47, 
a mile west from Beardsley's Corners, where his son William now lives. 
In the same year John Beardsley, of Stratford, Conn., came with his 
wife and five children, and settled on one-half of Lots 48 and 49, near 
the Baptist church site. He was justice of the peace and judge of the 

In 1794 Robert Alexander settled with his family on what has been 
known as the Allen farm. His title was proved worthless, several years 
later, and he rsmoved to Newfield Weston Allen purchased the farm 
of Mr. Chapman, the successful litigant, moved upon it, and it is now 
occupied by his grandson, Nicholas. 

In 1794, Micajah Starr settled a little south of Lake Ridge; Deacon 
Gillctt and Solomon Kellogg a little east of there, and Jonah Tooker a 
mile west of Ludlowville, where he kept the first store in Lansing. 
Henry Teeter, from Stroudsburg, Pa., settled in 1794 where Peter and 
John Hedden lived in recent years; he kept a public house a number of 
years; it was burned and his wife perished in the fire. John Mead came 
this year from Chenango county and bought the north half of Lot 93 for 


^150 of William Hardeaburg. Mead was a Revolutionary soldier. His 
land was occupied by his sons in 1814. John M. Mead was his grand- 

Daniel Bacon, the father of Daniel L. Bacon, of Lansing, came with 
with brother Joel from Connecticut and purchased 315 acres in lot 47 
where they settled in 1793; half of this tract is now owned by Daniel 
L. Bacon. 

William Goodwin settled near the site of the Asbury church in 1793. 
He presented the land for the burial ground. His daughter married 
Col. Henry Bloom. The latter was the son of the pioneer, Ephraim 
Bloom, obtained his title in the War of 1812, and was wounded at 
yueenstown. He held the office of supervisor, sheriff and member of 
.assembly. His brother Abram was a captain in the War of 1813. 

Daniel and Albert White, brothers of Rev. Alvord White, who was a 
circuit preacher in 1794, settled near Lansingville or " Teetertown, " 
about 1796. 

In 1797 Jacob Shoemaker came to this town from New Jersey. His 
sons, Jacob and Henry, afterwards lived on the homestead, where his 
grandson Jacob now lives. John Ozmun came in about the same time 
and left many descendants in the locality. Abram Van Wagner bought 
a soldier's claim of 109 acres on lot 94, where his son-in-law, Dr. J. F. 
Burdick lived. The latter practiced in the town for many years and 
died here. 

Samuel R. and Christopher Brown settled in Lansing about 1797; 
■Christopher settled where James La Bar lived, and his grandson, Ben- 
jamin Brown, lived on a part of the old farm. 

George La Bar became a settler about 1798 and was father of 
Ephraim La Bar, who held the office of sheriff at one period. Daniel 
Norton, Joseph Gibbs, Samuel Davis and Sidney Drake (father of Og- 
den, Samuel and Benjamin), all came to the town in 1795-99. Davis was 
an early carpenter. Other settlers before or in 1800 were Cornelius 
Haring (grandfather of John), John Kimple, Daniel Clark (at Ludlow- 
ville, where he built a carding and fulling mill and dye works), Na- 
thaniel Hamilton (three-quarters of a inile west of Lansingville at 
"White's Settlement " ), David Moore, Jonathan Colburn, John S. Hol- 
den (father of Hiram, of Genoa), Matthias Mount (three miles north of 
Ludlowville), and perhaps others. 

These pioneers of the years preceding the beginning of the century 
-were sturdy, industrious, and generally moral and God-fearing people, 


and under their patient and self-sacrificing toil the wilderness soon be- 
came not only habitable in a comfortable sense, but productive of most 
of the necessaries of happy living. Their lives were not filled with the 
ease and luxury that characterize those of many of their descendants, 
but that they were contented and hopeful is susceptible of ample proof. 
Many stirring incidents occurred to vary the monotomy of their daily 
labor, but our limited pages will admit but meager record of them. 
Mrs. Townley related to her friends that "one stormy day, when Mr. 
Townley was away and not. expected home, she was in her log cabin 
alone with her four children. About ten o'clock in the morning she 
heard a noise at the door ; soon it began to open slowly, and she saw a 
bayonet coming in followed by an Indian, who went to the fire-place 
and sat down on the floor, the fire being below on the ground. Not a 
word was said, and soon there came in three more, all Indians except 
one, who was a white man in Indian costume ; but little was said by 
them for some time, and that in Indian language. Each was armed 
with a gun, bayonet, and tomahawk slung on his back. One of the 
little boys (James, who died in 1820), attracted by the wampum on their 
garments, jumped down from where he was sitting and went to them. 
Soon one of them asked who lived there and she told them Townley, 
and they commenced talking about one Townley at Wyoming, and told 
their stories of the fearful massacre. They finally asked her for some- 
thing to eat, and she brought out what she had, and they carried away 
all they did not eat. Two years afterwards an Indian was through that 
countr)' selling moccasins. Mr. Townley purchased and paid him, but 
he put back a shillmg, saying: ' Me owe your squaw loaf bread so big.' 
He was one of the uninvited guests on that stormy day, and probably 
never had met an Indian agent." 

The following Indian stories have also been preserved, which relate 
to this immediate region. The first incident was contributed to the 
Christian Union by Mrs. Mary L. Townley, granddaughter of the pio- 
neers, as follows: 

In the year 1770 a soldier belonging to Lieutenant Dearborn's detach- 
ment was taken prisoner by the Indians. Having some way effected 
his escape, he followed on the track of his comrades, hoping to overtake 
them ; the Indians, however, were in pursuit, and when near the head 
of the lake, finding that he was likely to be surrounded and captured, 
he took to the water and swam across to the mouth of the small gulley 
opening to the lake, just north of Mr. McKinney's, on the east shore. 


He here hoped to conceal himself, but the Indians soon hunted him 
out, and having tied him to a tree, tortured and burned him to death. 

In estimating the barbarity of this action, we should remember that 
the savage blood was probably provoked to retaliation by the wholesale, 
sweeping desolation of their trees, fields and orchards by vSuUivan's 
army, then marching through their country. 

The following incident is from the " History of Cortland County," by 
Hermon C. Goodwin, and relates to this territory: " A little west of the 
residence of Dr. J. F. Burdick, and where he had a flourishing peach- 
orchard, were some eighteen or twenty cabins. Here lived a tall, 
swarthy Indian chief, generally known among the warriors of the Six 
Nations as ' Long Jim, ' with whom he was a great favorite. He was of 
Mohawk and Oneida extraction, and possessed many of the more promi- 
nent characteristics for which the two tribes have been justly celebrated. 
He was usually kind, benevolent, and just, but if insulted without 
pi^oper cause, would assume the ferocity of a tiger, and act the part of 
a demoniac monster. He was an orator and a warrior, and possessed 
the art of swaying the multitude at will. He believed in witches, hob- 
goblins, and wizards, and often pretended to be influenced by a tutelary 
goddess, or guardian spirit. Shrewd and artful, dignified and gener- 
ous, yet at times deceptive and malevolent, he studied to acquire influ- 
ence and power, and in most of his marauding depredations was suc- 
cessful in keeping the arcanum of his heart as in a 'sealed fountain.' 
His unwritten history represents him as acting a conspicuous part in 
numerous tragical events, which were perpetrated by detached parties 
from Burgoyne's army. 

' ' A venerable chief, who resides on the New York Indian Reserva- 
tion, informed us that, according to the tradition of his tribe, Long Jim 
was the main cause, instigator, and perpetrator of the bloody massacre 
of Miss Jane McCrea, too well known in history to be recorded in these 
pages. He was the leader and controlling spirit of the band who met 
the Winnebagoes, in whose care she was, and, unwilling to see the prize 
gained by the other party, he fiercely tore her from her horse and toma- 
hawked her on the spot, afterwards bearing her scalp triumphantly to 
her expectant lover. " 

Between 1800 and 1810 settlers came rapidly to Lansing, its beauti- 
ful situation beside the lake and its fertile soil proving very attractive. 
John Royal came soon after 1800 and settled near North Lansing, and 
Daniel De Camp, John Lane, and Jacob Conrad located near by about 


the same time. Reuben Colton settled at East Lansinjj in 1802 on lot 
100. Thomas Darrity settled in 1803 on lot 75, and had for a time the 
earliest tannery. Samuel Brown located in that year in the south part 
of the town. 

Joseph Wyckoff, a harnessmaker, came about 1803 and settled on lot 
95, where Samuel Robinson afterwards lived. He had three sons: 
Jesse, Levi, and Joseph, the former living and dying on the home.-tead. 
He (Jesse) had four children, and was the grandfather of William O. 
Wyckoff, the well known stenographer and manufacturer of the Rem- 
ington typewriter. 

In 1801 or 1802 John Brown settled on Salmon Creek north of Lud- 
lowville, and was elected to the Legislature in 1814-15, and was judge 
of the Common Pleas in 181 H, and supervisor thirteen years. Aaron 
Hedden settled in 1802 and left descendants in the town. Joseph Knet- 
tles, from Pennsylvania, father of Capt. A. W. Knettles, settled about 
this time, and sold goods a few years. 

Joseph Miller came in 1803 and bought 100 acres on the southwest 
corner of lot 74 for an old Continental musket. He was the father of 
Marvin B. and George W. Miller. Joseph E. North, who was a cap- 
tain in the army of 1812, was an early settler where Benton Halladay 
now lives. 

Jacob Markell, of New Jersey, drew military lot 51, and his son set- 
tled on it in 1808. Benjamin Buck came from Great Bend in 1805 with 
his wife and twelve children. Six of his sons and four daughters be- 
came settlers and residents of the town. In 1807 or 1808 Conrad Teeter 
settled at what became locally known as "Teetertown," where he built 
the first tavern. When the first post-office was established the name of 
Lansingville was given to the place. 

Calvin Burr began business at Ludlowville in 1812, and his descend- 
ants were long associated with business interests in the town. Oliver 
Phelps moved into the town in 1811 and built the first store at Ludlow- 
ville; his clerk was Arad Joy. Mr. Phelps built the first steamboat on 
the lake, about 1825. Benjamin Joy was an early and long resident, 
and was very prominent as a temperance worker. He was foremost in 
organizing the Lansing Temperance Society in 1828, which is still in 
existence, holding annual meetings on the 30th of December. James 
A. Burr, of Ithaca, is the present president of the society. Silas K. New- 
ton came in 1813 from L^lysses and worked at shoemaking. David Crocker 
came from Lee, Mass., in 1817, and settled where his son David after- 


V/'ii*"'* i^C 



wards lived, on the farm now owned by Edwin Davis. Casper Fenner 
was a settler of 1817, purchasinjj military lot 43. Henry B. Lord, the 
long time bank cashier of Ithaca, came into Ludlowville in 1838, and 
was connected with the Burrs in business. Joseph Ives, Abram Miller, 
Benjamin Grover and John Kelly were the other settlers of this period. 

The modest career of the venerable Roswell Beardsley, of " Beards- 
ley's Corners " (North Lansing) is most remarkable in some respects. 
He came to that place in 1827-8, and was made deputy postmaster in 
June, 1828. He was appointed postmaster by John Quincy Adams, 
and has ever since, through a period of about sixty-five years. It gives 
him the present distinction of being the postmaster longest in contin- 
tial incumbency in the United vStates. 

Benjamin Joy, many years a resident of Tompkins county, was de- 
scended from Thomas Joy, who came to America from Hingan, Norfolk 
county, England, in the year 1630 in company with John Winthrop, 
first governor of tlie Colony of Massachusetts, and eight hundred 
others. The Joy family had its full share of patriots and soldiers both 
in the French and the Revolutionary Wars, among whom was David 
Joy and his brother Abel, who, after the battle of Bunker Hill, joined 
an army of patriots at Cambridge and served throughout the war. In 
the year 1800 David disposed of his somewhat sterile farm near Gilford, 
Vt., and removed with his family to Fabius, Onondaga county, N. Y. 
On the 23d day of June, 1800, Benjamin was born. His father died 
when he was'but thirteen years of age, and the following year he re- 
moved with his brotlier to Ludlowville, his home for fifty years there- 
after. At an early age he entered his brotlier's store as clerk and re- 
mained in this capacity until manhood. 

In the year 1822 he commenced business for himself, and in the fol- 
lowing year was married to her who became his greatest comfort and 
blessing throughout life. 

In the year 1827 Mr. Joy entered upon his life work, his attention 
having been aroused by a series of sermons from the pen of Lyman 
Beecher. It soon became his practice to address large meetings in his 
own and adjoining counties, and at their close to present the pledge of 
total abstinence. Mr. Joy's labors extended through more than a 
quarter of a century. 

While he was one of the best known and honored men of his day, 
loved and revered alike by friends and foes, yet he battled to uproot 



and destroy, and often called down upon himself bitter denunciation 
and malignant opposition. 

' In 1854 Mr. Joy was chosen as a Prohibition representative of the 
Legislature of his county, where he speedily became a leader. In the 
year 1864 he removed to Penn Yan, where he died February 18, 18(59. 
In his new home, as in his old, his labors were incessant in the church 
and in the great causes of reform. 

It is impracticable to further follow the records of these men and their 
later descendants who have labored to bring the town of Lansing to its 
present prosperous condition; but notice of others in the present com- 
munity will be found in Part III of this work. In its educational and 
religious institutions the town has kept well to the front, the fii'st school 
having been established before the beginning of the century in , a log 
house across the street from where Jonah Tooker opened the first store 
at Ludlowville, in 1795; and a church society was instituted and a log 
church erected a mile west of Ludlowville before 1800. There are now 
twenty-three districts in the town, with neat school houses in most of. 

Some first occurrences in the town may here be properly placed on 
record. The first primitive grist mill of Henry and Thomas Ludlow, 
built in 1795, has already been mentioned; previous to that time grain 
for grinding was carried across the lake to Goodwin's Point and thence 
to Abner Treman's mill at Trumansburgh. 

John Guthrie sold the first goods from a boat load brought by him 
from vSchenectady to the mouth of Salmon Creek. Jonah Tooker opened 
the first regular store in 1795, and the first tannery was built of logs by 
Thomas Ludlow a little west of Ludlowville; a few years later he built 
another on the site, where a public house has been kept since. Thomas 
Darrity built the first tannery. Henry Bloom and Catherine Goodwin 
Avere united in the first marriage in the town. 

The town of Lansing is chiefly an agricultural district, and while 
there are several small villages and hamlets, there is none of impor- 
tance, and the trade interests are only sulificient for the needs of the 
several sections. There has never been extensive manufacturing in the 
town. Grain growing, fruit production, and stock raising have been 
the principal occupations of the farmers, with a tendency in recent 
)-ears ttiwards dairying and the raising of hay and fruit growing. The 
peace and prosperity of the town has been undisturbed except b}^ the 
war of 18G1-G5, during which the people of the town evinced the same 


ardent patriotism shown by other towns in the county. The town 
furnished 143 men to the Union armies, several of whom became 
officers of high rank, and many sleep in soldiers' graves. 

For the past twenty years the town of Lansing has been a temperance 
town, the majority of the votes cast being in favor of temperance and 
no license. 

The officers of this town for 1894 are as follows: John H. Conklin, 
supervisor: Charles E. Wood, town clerk; Barnard M. Hagin, justice 
of peace; James G. Buck, assessor; Milo Howell, commissioner of 
highway; Delos C. Haring, overseer of the poor; Charles R. Bower, 
collector; William H. Myers, Almon M. Tarbell, Bradford Austin, 
Albert Van Auken, constables; Samuel Hudson, John W. Pratt, Har- 
rison W. Bower, inspectors of election District No. 1 ; Dana Singer, 
excise commissioner; Frank Haring, Charles H. Bacon, Henry Karn, 
inspectors of election District No. 2; Fred A. Townley, George Lanter- 
man, Michael Egen, inspectors of election District No. 3. 

■Following is a list of the supervisors of this town as far as we have 
been able to obtain them : 

1829. Jo.siah Hedden. 1867. William Mead. 

1830-31. Calvin Burr. 18B8. J. B. Bogardus. 

1832-38. Josiah Hedden. 1869-76. James M. Woodbury. 

1834. Luther Hedden. 1877-86. David Crocker. 

1835-36. John Griswold. 1887-89. Horatio Brown. 

1837-40. Daniel D. Minier. 1890-95. John H. Conklin. 
1862-66. H. B. Lord. 

Churches. — In 1795-G Rev. A. Owen and Alward White were ap- 
pointed to Seneca Circuit and formed the First Methodist Episcopal 
Society at Jonah Tooker's house, a mile west of Ludlowville. and at 
Robert Alexander's, south of Lake Ridge. A log house was built in 
1801 half a mile west of Lansingville, which was burned in 1803. A 
frame structure took its place, which was the first frame church build- 
ing in Genesee Conference. From an old record we learn that " there 
were no roads at that time. Indian paths and flayed trees were the 
only guides. In the fall of 179G, as the Alexander family were sitting 
around the fire in the evening, they were startled by a strange cry 
which seemed to come from a distance, and rushed to the door to dis- 
cover the cause. It was evident that it proceeded from the adjacent 
forest, between them and Cayuga Lake, but whether from a panther or 
human being they could not tell. Mr. Alexander decided that it was a 


call for help, and hallooed in reply. Soon after the sound appeared to 
be nearer, and by repeated calls . the lost traveler was guided to their 
cabin, when, to their astonishment, they beheld A. Owen, with whom 
they had been acquainted in Pennsylvania. This was his first round 
on his circuit, and losing the Indian path on the lake shore in the dark- 
ness, he had taken that course to find a friend." A quarterly meeting 
was held in a barn near the site of the Asbury meeting house in 1707, 
and a class was formed with Reuben Brown leader; the other classes 
were formed as above noted. Three of these classes united, and a log 
church was built in 1707, which was burned in 1801 or 1803. A frame 
structure took its place, which was 34 by 30 feet in size and was used 
until 1833, when a brick edifice was built at Lansingville. This was 
burned February 2Ci, 1803, and in the following year the present frame 
church was erected. The present pastor is Benjamin Franklin, who 
resides at North Lansing. 

Since the above was written, a valued contributor has sent in the 
following account of Methodism in and near this town, which merits a 
place herein, even at the risk of minor repetitions: 

There are traces of Methodist preachers in Lansing in the year 1793; 
in this year William Colbert, jr., preacher on Northumberland Circuit, 
Penn., was sent on a tour of exploration through the then "Western 
Wilds of New York." He started from Wilkesbarre, Penn., went as 
far as Niagara, Canada ; on his return he came through Lansing and 
stumbled on to a Methodist, a new settler, by the name of Conklin. 
Colbert, who was a full fledged Methodist preacher, was dressed in 
knee buckskin trousers, kept bright by occasional applications of yellow 
ochre (what changes a century has wrought in preachers' costumes!) 
While Colbert was " staying for a rest " at the cabin of Conklin (who, 
b)^ the way, lived six miles north of the present site of Ithaca, which 
must be within the precincts of this Asbury church), they heard of a 
preacher that had newly moved into the settlement of Ithaca, then a 
town of three families. The preacher was a Baptist minister, known 
as " Elder Starr," who in a few days announced that he would preach 
to the settlers on the following Sabbath. Conklin and Colbert lieard 
of the appointment and resolved to attend the meeting. The Sabbath 
. was a fine one in June, 1793, and the few inhabitants gathered for the 
first time to hear the gospel in their new home. Settlers from the ad- 
jacent countr}^ heard of the appointment and a few came in to hear the 
new preacher. In the congregation were two who knelt during prayer; 


a smothered whisper went around the cabin "they are Methodists." 
After the conclusion of Elder Starr's sermon Conklin arose and intro- 
duced his companion as a Methodist, and asked the privilege for him 
to preach. Elder Starr arose and said: "The Methodists are a new 
sect, holding strange doctrines, and the people do not care to hear them. " 
During the year 1797 a Methodist class was formed at Asbury. The 
names of the members of Asbury class are as follows: Reuben Brown 
and wife, James Egbert and wife, Walter Egbert and wife, Abram 
Minier and wife, William Gibbs and wife. Reuben Brown was ap- 
pointed class reader by the pastor, Anning Owen. Brown lived one 
mile east of West Dryden Corners, and often started on foot, accom- 
panied by his wife, and carrying a babe in their arms, over the then 
corduroy road, to attend church and lead his class at Asbury Chapel, a 
distance of six miles. This same year two log "meeting houses '' were 
built, one at Teetertown and the other at Asbury. The one at Asbury 
stood at the east end of the present Asbury Cemetery and was used for 
district school purposes on week days and divine service on Sunday. 
The church and school house have gone hand in hand from the begin- 
ning of American Methodism. This same year, 1797, Asbury and 
Teetertown were attached as appointed to Seneca circuit. A. Owen 
was the first regularlj' appointed pastor of Lansing Methodism. His 
remains, with those of his wife, now lie in the Kline Cemetery, under a 
monument erected by the Wyoming Conference. The first quarterly 
conference of Lansing Methodism was held in a barn near the spot 
where the present Asbury church now stands. In 1811 the log meet- 
ing houses became too strait to hold the inquirers after Zion and was 
discarded. A brick house was built and the famous red meeting house 
at Asbury. Shortly after the completion of the red meeting house 
Bishop Asbury, first bishop of the Methodist Episcopal church, passed 
through Lansing and preached in the new meeting house, and in honor 
of him it was named Asbury Chapel. The preachers during the decade 
1801 to 1811 were Jonathan Newman, Jacob Grubber, Smith Weeks, 
John Billings, Miller Hill, Thomas Dunn, John Husselkuss, James 
Polemus, Thomas Ellis, John P. Weaver, Parley Parker, Joseph Scull, 
Benoni Harris, Elijah Batchlor, George W. Densmore. This last is 
the minister who organized the Foxtown, or more properly, the West 
Dryden Society, which from its organization to the present time has been 
connected with the Asbury. The ministers from 1813 to 1832 are first 
.the venerable James Kelsey, who has at this writing a daughter living 


in Freeville, N. Y. , and who, when a small girl, sat on Bishop Asbury's 
knee. She is a member of the West Dryden M. E. church. Her name 
is Mrs. Samantha George. Mr. Kelsey had for his colleagixe S. L. 
Hanley. They were followed by such veterans as Dan Barnes, Palmer 
Roberts, William Cameron, Jonathan Heustis, Loring Grant and John. 
Kimberlin, whose dust lies in Asbury Cemetery underneath where the 
pulpit stood in which he so often preached. He was buried there ac- 
cording to his own request. In 1844 a disaster befell the Asbury 
Society. On January 1 the famous red meeting house was no more; it 
was burned to ashes, but after the fire had burned out, a copy of the 
Scriptures was taken from the corner-stone where it had lain for thirty- 
three years. During this year (1844) the present house was built, and 
some who hewed the timbers and helped to raise the frame are with us 
to-day. This sketch covers a period of 101 years — from 1793 to 1894. 
The present pastor's name is Rev. W. Owen Shepherd. The present 
membership is fifty. 

Ludlowville and Lansingville, which had formed one charge for 
many years, were divided in 1891, and Lansingville became the head 
of a new charge, Lansingville and North Lansing; and Asbury, which 
for ninety-seven years had been associated with West Dryden, was at- 
tached to Ludlowville. The present pastor of the M. E. Church at 
Ludlowwille is Rev. W. Owen Shepherd, with approximate membership 
of seventy. 

Baptist Church of East Lansing. — This society was organized 
March 27, 1804, and was first known as the "Second Baptist church of 
Milton. " The early records are not in existence, but the first pastor 
was a Rev. M. Tuttle,_in 1805. Reuben Colton and wife, Noah Bow- 
ker, Phoebe Buck and Mr. vStebbins were among the first members. 
Meetings were held at first in a log school house on the corner west of 
the present church site; afterwards in Philmore Bai-ney's barn a mile 
north of that corner, until Benjamin Buck built a large barn about one- 
fourth of a mile south of where the church stands. The membership 
was much scattered, some living five miles from the place of meeting. 
Rev. P. P. Root, one of the early ministers, was a missionary in Central 
New York. Another was Elder Stillwell, a blind man, who preached 
occasionally in various places. Elder Weekly, another early minister, 
lived at Lake Ridge, and preached once in two weeks. This was about 
1814. Then came Rev. William Powers (1818), followed by Elders 
Harmon and vStarr. Rev. E. W. Martin was the first settled pastor, in 


18$J1, closing in 1835. There was a good deal of controversy as to lo- 
cation of a church edifice, some wanting it in Groton and others in 
Lansing. At a meeting held December 17, 1822, the following resolu- 
tions were passed : 

Resolved, That subscriptions be drawn for the purpose of erecting a meeting house 
on tlie land now in possession of John Ludlow, on lot 79, in the town of Lansing, and 
adjoining the east and west road from Luther Barney's to the Groton line. 

The church was finished in 1823 at a cost of $2,000, and dedicated 
November 20, sermons being preached by Elders Benjamin and An- 
drews and Elder Oliver C. Comstock. 

Rev. T. B. Beebe began his labors about 1825, held protracted meet- 
ings, and closed his labors in 1834. The first business in 1832 was the 
appointment of a committee to revise articles of faith and covenant. 
T. B. Beebe, Noah Bowker, and J. Morrison were appointed. The 
church in 1832 reported 108 members. Rev. B. Andrews preached one 
year, 1834-5. In April, 1835, Rev. Asa Caldwell received a call from 
the church. Rev. D. B. Purrington preached from April, 1838, to 1840. 
Asa Caldwell again served the church from May, 1840, to January, 
1842. The following pastors came next: P. Work, 1842 to 1847; B. 
•Gibbs supplied the pulpit during the last named year; Daniel Garth- 
waite came for a short time; Rev. A. Bailey, 1848; T. J. Cole, Decem- 
ber, 1849, to October, 1852 ; Rev. Edgar Smith, October, 1853, to May, 
18G0; this year the parsonage was rebuilt at a cost of $1,200; July 1, 
1855, O. Fawcett was allowed to preach in the church at 4 o'clock P.M. ; 
Rev. M. Livermore, 1860 .to 1863; Rev. P. Work visited the church 
about this time. Next G. B. Gibbs supplied the pulpit for some time. 
Rev. E. L. Benedict, April, 1866, one year; Rev. M. H. Perry, one 
year from April, 18G8; this year the church was extensively repaired at 
an expense of $2,200, and was re-dedicated August 20, 1868. Rev. S. 
C. Ainsworth, October, 1869, to September, 1876; Rev. R. Corbett, 
one year from April, 1877; Rev. F. Purvis, from June, 1878. Rev. 
John E. McAUen preached from 1881 to 1886; Rev. Edward Royce came 
in 1886 and left in the fall of 1890; Rev. D. P. Rathbone came in the 
spring of 1891 and left in May, 1892. The present pastor. Rev. S. H. 
Haskell, came in June, 1892. A Sabbath school was organized about 
1831, after an extensive revival, and is still continued. The trustees 
are William Metzgar, R. M. Holden, G. L. Cutter; senior deacons, 
John Haring, J. G. Buck, A. Tallmadge. A cemetery is connected 
with the church. 


A Baptist church was organized at North Lansing in 1844. The first 
pastor was iikler B. Ames, who was followed by Rev. William B. De- 
lano, William Wilkins, S. Gardner,' S. S. Day, Burdick, C. A. 

Smith, E. W. Benedict, E. J. Lewis, and others. In 1800 the member- 
ship reached sixty, but for ten years past it has been about twenty. 
Rev. H. S. Haskall is the pastor. The trustees are John H. Conklin, 
Charles A. Bower and Anson Howser. The church building was 
erected in 1852. 

Baptist Church at Lake Ridge — This society, first known as the 
" First Baptist Church of Milton," was organized October 31, 179f5, with 
the following fourteen persons as members: Micajah Starr, Anna Starr, 
Benajah Strong, Abigail Strong, Charles Townley, Lydia Gillett, Lu- 
ther Barney, Sarah Bacon, Joel Bacon, Thankful Bacon, Pierpont Ba- 
con, Jerusha Bacon, William Avery, Abigail Woodruif. Elder Micajah 
Starr was chosen the first pastor and served until his death in March, 
1820. Early meetings were held at the houses of the members and in 
school houses, until November 1, 1840, when the society occupied its 
new church at Lake Ridge. Various pastors served the church until 
1803, since which time there has been no regular service. 

Preshyterian Church. — A Presbyterian society, called the "Second 
Church of Milton," was organized about the year 1805. Its formation 
was due partly to a disagreement in the First Church of the town re- 
specting a site for a house of worship. It was locally known as the 
" Teetertown Church." When the name of the town was changed to 
Genoa, the name of the church was correspondingly changed, and the 
same course was followed when the town of Lansing was organized, it 
being then called the " Church of Lansing." It passed under the care 
of the Cjeneva Presbytery Januai-y 28, 180G, but was transferred to the 
Presbytery of Cayuga when that body was organized. Rev. Jahez 
Chadwick organized the church, and on February 2G, 1800, was in- 
stalled pastor. Rev. John Bascom succeeded him in 1818, and re- 
mained to his death in 1828. Mr. Chadwick returned and remained to 
1831, but his religious viewsjunderwent change, and a division occurred 
in the society. Rev. Alexander M. Cowan was a supply for the church 
in 1834-30, and soon afterward most of the members joined the " Free 
Congregational Church of Genoa," then located at Five Corners, or- 
ganized by Mr. Chadwick. September 25, 1805, an immense frame 
church was built on ground now embraced in the Lansingville ceme- 
tery. The church having no [right to sell this property, in 1853, 


through efforts of David Crocker, who was then in the Assembly, an 
act was passed giving the title to the Lansingville Cemetery Associa- 
tion, and the building was sold at public sale to S. S. Todd, for $175, 
who took it down and used the timbers in other structures. The 
original cost of the church was $3,000. An effort was made by Dr. 
White to turn the structure into an institution of learning before it was 
sold and torn down, but it failed. This church society went to decay 
some fifteen years before the building was sold. 

Presbyterian Church of Lujilowville. — At a meeting held in pur- 
suance of regular notice in the school house at Ludlowville, September 
9, 1817, Thomas Ludlow acted as moderator, and Lewis Tooker secre- 
tary. The following resolution was adopted: 

Resolved, That this society be hereafter called and known as the " Presbyterian 
Society " in Ludlowville, in the town of Lansing, and that nine trustees be elected; 
and Ebenezer Brown, John Bowman, Julius Ackley, Oliver Phelps, Edward Walker, 
Abijah Miller, Thomas Ludlow, Joshua Jennings and Gideon Morehouse were chosen 
as such trustees. 

The church was organized in December, 1817, by Rev. Dr. Wisner 
and Rev. Samuel Parker, of Ithaca, with eighteen members. Rev. 
William Adams was the first pastor, installed April 31, 1819. January 
17, 1833, a committee was appointed to superintend the building of a 
church, which was duly finished, and the first meeting held therein 
January 10, 1835. Prior to that time services had been held in an 
addition to the school house. The society is now without a pastor, the 
last one having been Rev. S. H. Meade. In 1855 the membership was 
about eighty, but it has declined to about sixteen. 

The North Lansing Methodist Church was organized in 1837 by 
Rev. Sylvester Minier. Mr. Minier in that year organized classes 
called the County Line Class and East Lansing Class. The presiding 
elder was then Rev. H. Agard. The church was erected in 1851. In 
October, 1891, Lansingville was joined to this charge. The present 
pastor is Rev. B. Franklin. 

German Lutheran Church. — Several German families at the 
" Bower Settlement," north of Lansingville, organized an Evangelical 
Lutheran church in 1803. John Houtz was the first pastor, and also 
taught school in a log building; Jonathan Markle also preached for a 
time, services being held every four weeks. The Synod embraced 
churches in Waterloo, Geneva and Seneca Falls, with the Lansing 



church. The last sei'vices were held in 1842, with John Izenlord as 
last pastor. 

LuDLOwviLLE — This is the largest village in the town of Lansing, 
and is situated on Salmon Creek, about a mile from the lake shore. It 
dates back to about the beginning of the century, as we learn from the 
Journal of De Witt Clinton, written in 1810. He says: "Nine miles 
from Ithaca we pass Salmon Creek, a considerable stream, on which 
are a mill, built by one Ludlow ; and a mile farther we ascended a very 
elevated hill, from which we had a prospect of. Ithaca, the lake, and a 
great part of Seneca county. Here are some houses and a post-office. " 
The village now contains 300 inhabitants, and has two churches, six 
stores, two blacksmith shops, one drug store, kept by Fred Moore, a 
hardware store and tin shop by Charles E. Wood, two shoe stores by 
Fillman Smith and John Bailey respectively, a meat market by Frank 
Lobdell, a millinery store by Margaret Van Aiiken, an Odd Fellows 
Hall and the public hall owned by Nelson E. Lyon, a flouring mill, 
feed mill and saw mill. The old hotel and premises are now owned 
and occupied by Nelson E. Lyon. The village is the principal place 
in the town, with enterprising merchants, and other business men. 
The largest general store is owned and conducted by Nelson E. Lyon, 
and the second largest by Charles G. Benjamin. Among the earlier 
prominent business men were, Oliver Phelps, who came from Fabius in 
ISll and built the first store ; he also built the first steamboat on Cayuga 
Lake. Arad Joy came from Fabius in 1811 on horseback, with theke)' 
to Mr. Phelps's store in his pocket, and acted as clerk for Mr. Phelps. 
Calvin Burr began business here in 1812. Henry B. Lord, now cashier 
of the First National Bank in Ithaca, acquired an interest in the busi- 
ness of Mr. Burr in 1838. The village at one time had seven dry goods 
stores and other business places, and was a more important point than 
Ithaca. About three and a half miles above Ludlowville on Salmon 
Creek is a grist mill owned and opei-ated by Janies Ford, which was 
built in ISllt by Ambrose Bull. Another mill, half a mile above this 
one, was owned still earlier by a Mr. McClung. The present postmas- 
ter of Ludlowville is Charles C Benjainin, an old resident and mer- 
chant, who received his commission in November, 1893. 

Cayuga Lake Salt Companv. — The business now being prosecuted 
by this company is undoubtedly destined to be one of the greatest im- 
portance to Tompkins county. It has long been known that salt existed 
deep down in the earth in this locality, and acting upon that knowledge, 


in March, 1891, Royal V. Lamberson, Warren W. Clute, and Arthur 
Oliver secured an option on lands on the east shore of Cayuga Lake, at 
the mouth of Salmon Creek, sank a well to the depth of 1,500 feet, and 
struck a stratum of solid rock salt, now known to be thirty feet in 
depth. The drill has not yet passed through the salt deposit. The 
location of this site was the result of careful study of the geology of 
this region, good engineering, an excellent judgment on the part of 
these men. They organized the company with a capital stock of $50,- 
000, erected a plant and warehouses, and began operations. In the 
following }'ear they increased the capital stock to $150,000, drilled 
another well, enlarged their buildings, and began operations on a much 
larger scale. In 1893 new machinery and processes wei'e adopted, in- 
cluding what is known as the vacuum pan, and improved dryers, and 
the manufacture of high-grade salt, which commands a ready market 
and thfe highest prices, is now produced in large quantities. The dail)^ 
capacity of the works is 1,000 barrels, and employment is given to about 
100 persons. Their shipping facilities are, of course, excellent, as their 
location is directly upon the railroad. After the success of the first 
well, the company purchased a tract of twenty-seven acres upon which 
to conduct their future operations. The men whose names have been 
mentioned are active and energetic in the business, and all indications 
now point to the future great success of the industr)'. The officers of 
the company are Royal V. Lamberson, president ; Archibald S. White, 
vice-president, with Warren W. Clute, secretar}' and treasurer. 

Lake Riiwjk. — This hamlet is situated on high ground above the 
lake, in the northwest part of the town. Frederick Fenner was one of 
the first merchants in this place, and an early proprietor of the Lake 
Ridge Hotel, which was built about 1814. A Mr. Lamport had a gen- 
eral store here about 18i0. Isaac Davis built a store building and 
leased it to Joseph vSmith for ten years. He was followed by Freeman 
Perry, who met with reverses, and Henry Teeter took possession of the 
stock. While selling it, the store caught fire and was burned. William 
Davis was a prominent merchant before 1805, and his store also 
burned. L. D. Ives purchased and took possession of the hotel and 
store in 1870. At his death the store passed to his two daughters, and 
later the younger daughter, Mrs. Lucy J. Shank, bought her sister's 
interest. Her husband, B. O. Shank, now conducts the store. The 
postmaster is Joshua B. Davis, who received his commission in April, 


South Lansing. — This place was formerly called " Liberty ville, " 
and the local name of " The Harbor " has also attached to it. It is a 
mere hamlet in the central part of the town, and now contains a large 
brick hotel, owned and kept by William Miller; a grocery by Charles 
Egbert, and a blacksmith shop by C. F. Crance. Charles M. Egbert is 
postmaster and was commissioned in May, 1893. 

Lansing viLi.E.— This is a hamlet formerly known as " Teetertown, " 
and is situated on the ridge west of Salmon Creek, in the north part of 
the town. It contains a general store kept by Main & Townsend; a 
hotel by Mr. De Camp; a blacksmith shop by Wilmer Stont; and a 
church. Mr. Stoiit is postmaster. 

North Lansing. — This little place has also the name of " Beardsley's 
Corners," from the residents of that name. It is in the northern part 
of the town, and has a general store kept by Roswell Beardsley; a 
hotel by Oscar Teeter; a blacksmith shop by Anson Howser; two 
churches and a post-office. Roswell Beardsley is postmaster and en- 
joys the unique distinction of having occupied that office longer than 
any other person in the United States has acted as postmaster. He 
received his commission in 1829. 

East Lansing. — A post-office by this name is located in the eastern 
part of the town, where there is a small collection of dwellings and a 
blacksmith shop and Baptist church. The postmaster is Chauncey 
Haring, who was commissioned in February, 1890. 

Besides the foregoing there are four other post-offices in this town, 
but at points where there are no business interests of account. One of 
these is called Hedden's, which is a station on the Lehigh Valley Rail- 
road, and J. W. Brown is postmaster; he was appointed in June, 1888. 
He is a native of Lansing, son of Reuben Brown. His father died in 
1869, and his mother in 1864. He obtained his education in the com- 
mon schools and a private school in Ithaca, and at twenty-one years of 
age he learned telegraphy in Ludlowville; from there he went to 

Asbury is a post-office under Mrs. Mary Head, who was commis- 
sioned in 1893, succeeding her son, Horace A. Head. 

Midway is the name of a post-office located about midway between 
North and vSouth Lansing. Wm. A. J. Ozmun is postmaster and was 
appointed in 1875. 

At the Ludlowville station is a post-office called Myers, which is in charge 
of Peter D. Drake, who was appointed November, 1891. He is a native 
of Sheldrake, Seneca county, and son of Lewis B. and Martha Drake. 



This town lies upon the western border of Tompkins county, south 
•of Ulysses and north of Newfield. The surface rises to a mean eleva- 
tion of from 500 to 700 feet above the lake and is diversified by rolling 
slopes and level tracts. The soil is principally a gravelly loam adapted 
to grain and grass growing. The town contains 23,086 acres, of which 
nearly or quite 20,000 acres are improved. The principal stream is 
Five Mile Creek, which has its rise in the northwest part of the town 
and flows southeasterly, receiving the waters of several smaller streams, 
and in the southeast part enters a deep gorge over a precipice, form- 
ing one of the many beautiful cascades in this region, called Enfield 
Falls. Above the falls the ravine presents many scenes of gi^eat natu- 
ral beauty, and its wild and picturesque scenery has commanded the 
admiration of the many who have visited it. 

The first settlement of Enfield was about the beginning of the pres- 
sent century, several years after white pioneers had begun the making 
of their rude homes within the limits of the other towns of Tompkins 
■county. Ithaca, Trumansburg, Jacksonville and Goodwin's Point in 
this immediate vicinity had each been settled before a pioneer pene- 
trated into what finally was taken from Ulysses to form the town of 

In 1798 Jabez Hanmer settled on the south line of the town of Ulys- 
jjes, but it was not till 1804 that John Giltner pushed on farther into 
the forest and located on lot 45 on what has been known as the John 
Horton farm. He removed elsewhere a few years later. 

Judah Baker became in 1804 the first permanent settler of the town. 
He came from Coxsackie, Dutchess county, N. Y. , -with his wife and 
seven children, three horses and wagon, and traveled westward by the 
usual route until he reached Fall Creek near Ithaca. Leaving his fam- 
ily there he pushed ahead to find the site of his wilderness home. 
Proceeding some distance up the Inlet he turned westward and 
chopped a wagon- way three miles to his destination. There he made a 


little clearing, built a hut, and then returned for his family. They 
all arrived in June, 1804, their whole fortune as far as money was con- 
cerned consisting of $11. His first dwelling was on the site first occu- 
pied by J. M. Baker, his grandson. Enfield Center is situated chiefly 
on the large tract at one time owned by Mr. Baker. Judah Baker 
lived in the town imtil his death in 1851, at the age of eighty-eight 

While the building of a large log cabin was in progress in 1806, a 
young man named Cooper was killed by a falling log; this was without 
doubt the first death in the town. It was in this old log barn, which 
was standing in recent years, that Elder Ezra Chase preached for many 
years before the existence of meetipg houses. 

In 1806 while Mr. Baker was in quest of a stray cow he heard the 
sound of an ax — a sure indication that there was a white man at one 
end of the helve. Following the sound he came to a clearing where he 
found Ashbel Lovell and his family, who had lived there about a year. 
Mr. Lovell had settled on the farm occupied in recent years by David 
Johnson, now owned by Wm. Wallenbeck. He was a good citizen and 
his descendants still live in the town. 

" Applegate's Corners," so called, was settled in 1805 by John Apple- 
gate, John White, and Peter Banfield. John Applegate opened the 
first tavern at the Corners in 1807; the first school house was built in 
1809. A post-office was established under the name of Applegate, and 
Joseph Tibb is postmaster and conducts a store. 

Jonathan Rolfe came in from South Amboy, N. J., in 1806, with his 
wife and four children and settled on the farm afterwards occupied by 
his youngest son, Jonathan; this place is now owned by Squire B. Rolfe. 
In the same year Gilbert Longstreet settled in the west part of the 
town; his daughter married Lewis H. Van Kirk, father of Leroy H. 
Van Kirk, now county clerk. 

The Van Kirk family has long been a prominent one in the town. 
Joseph Van Kirk was the pioneer and settled here very early. He had 
a son, Lewis H., who was a cattle dealer and drover, and was sheriff 
of the county 1852-1855. His widow is still living in Ithaca with her 
son, Leroy H. (vSee personal sketch in later pages of this volume.) 

In 1805 Daniel Konkle and Joseph Rogers became settlers, the latter 
in the southeast part where Thomas Kelsey lived in recent years. 

John and Isaac Beach came in about the year 1804; they settled on 
lot 62, where David Purdy located in 1827. This, lot like many others 


•of the militar)' lots, was the subject of litigation, and the title was 
finally given to David Ptirdy and his heirs. Isaac Beach moved after a 
few years to the farm where Silas Harvey lived, and John removed to 

Samuel Rolfe came to the town in 1807, locating at Applegate's Cor- 
ners ; he was justice of the peace many years. 

James Bailey and James Rumsey, the former from what is now Rom- 
ulus, came in 1806 to the south part of the town. Mr. Bailey had served 
in the war of 1812 and settled where his son, Daniel, afterwards lived, 
now occupied by his son Edwin. Mr. Rumsey had lived in Scipio a 
year, going there from Orange county, and in the fall of 1805 came to 
Enfield with his sons, John and James, cleared a piece of ground, 
sowed wheat, and returned to Scipio. In the spring of 180G he came 
back with his family and built a log house where his son George now 

The early milling for the people of this town was done at Ithaca and 
for a number of years the need of a grist mill was severely felt. In 1812 
Benjamin Ferris built a saw mill above Oliver Rumsey's house, which 
was the first saw mill in town. In 1817 Isaac Rumsey, a brother of 
James, came in and built a gi-ist mill at the falls on the site of the pres- 
ent mill. 

In the fall of 1809 two brothers, Timothy B. and Squire J. Noble, 
came from Pennsylvania to look at some Enfield land which had been 
purchased by their father. In the following spring they and their 
father (John) and mother came in and settled on a tract of 400 acres on 
the south side of what has been known as "Noble street." The tract 
was divided equally among the four. 

Pionefer work was begun along the southern border of the town in 
1809 by Amos and Gilbert J. Ogden, John Cooper and Reuben D. Lyon. 
Isaac Chase was a settler at Enfield Center as earl}' as 1809, living there 
in a log house; as was also James Newman. Nathaniel, son of the 
latter, kept a tavern there before 1812. David Thatcher settled at 
" Kennedy's Corners" before 1812, and John Townsend located carl}' 
on the site of " Bostwick's Corners. " Andrew Bostwick had lived at 
Port Byron and bought Townsend 's farm at sheriff's sale in 1820. His 
son Orson came to live upon it, Andrew following some years later. 
Andrew began mercantile trade with Oliver Williams. William L. and 
Herman V. Bostwick of Ithaca are sons of Orson. (See history of 
Ithaca and biographical sketches. ) 


F. J. Porter came from New Hartford, Oneida county, in 1814, and 
settled where he still lives, and in the same year John Sheffield settled 
where he remained the rest of his long life. Samuel Harvey came 
from New Jersey and kept a tavern in the town for many years. He 
was father of Joseph and Silas Harvey, to whom he gave 240 acres of 
land. They have descendants in the town. 

Jesse Harriman, who is described in the history of Trumansburgh as- 
a very early settler there (1793), came into Enfield in 1819-20, located 
first near the Center and built a saw mill. He afterwards moved to Five 
Mile Creek where H. T. Havens now lives, and lived there with his 
son Lyman. He died in 1866 at the great age of ninety-five years. 

Walter Payne, the first supervisor of the town, lived in 1819 where 
John Hetherington lived in later years, now occupied by his son Frank, 
and in the same year John Summerton came in and settled where he 
passed most of his long life. Charles Woodward came to the town in 

In 1825 T. S. and J, B. Williams came from Middletown, Conn. , and 
the former opened a store at Applegate's Corners, the latter acting as 
clerk. In 1826, T. S. Williams purchased what was known as the Beek- 
man lot and there built a saw mill which was operated by ox-power. 
In 1827 they removed to Ithaca, and in the history of that town will be 
found proper mention of their later lives and their descendants. 

Jervis Langdon the late wealthy business man of Elmira, was a clerk 
at Enfield Center about 1831-32, first in Ira Carpenter's store and af- 
terwards a merchant in the firm of Langdon & Marsh. He then re- 
moved to Ithaca where he was in trade for a time before his removal 
to Elmira. 

Among the more prominent citizens of the town in later years was 
Col. Henry Brewer, who came in from Ulysses, where he had located 
in 1839. He was an enthusiast in agricviltural matters and instrumen- 
tal in the introduction of more extensive clover-growing in the town. 
He was father of William H. and Edgar Brewer, and is deceased. Ed- 
gar Brewer occupies the homestead. Col. Henry Brewer was a member 
of assembly in 1850. 

Many other persons and families who have contributed to the growth 
and prosperity of the town are properly noticed in Part III of this work. 

We cannot consistently follow the settlements of this town further, 
nor hope to name all who have been conspicuous in transforming the 
primitive wilderness into the present prosperous agricultural district. 



The memory of their labors for their posterity lives after them and to 
their great honor. Personal sketches of many prominent families of 
the town will be found in a later part of this work. The town is essen- 
tially an agricultural community, manufacturing operations never 
having been important and mercantile interests only such as would suf- 
fice for the people. The course of events has continued upon a quiet 
and even way until the war of 1861-f)0 which drew from the inhabitants 
many of the young and old who went forward to the aid of the govern- 
ment. The town sent out 107 volunteers and their self-sacrificing deeds 
were honorable to themselves and productive of good to the cause for 
which they fought. 

Following is a list of the supervisoi-s of the town from its organiza- 
tion to the present time: 

1831. Walter Payne. 
1825. John Applegate. 
1836-37. Gilbert J. Ogden. 
1828-31. Christopher Miller. 
1833-33. Wm. Hunter. 
1834 David Atwater. 
1836-38. Bethuel V. Gould. 
1839-41. C. C. Applegate. 
1845-47. Cyrus Gray. 

1848. Daniel L. Starr. 

1849. C. C. Applegate. 

1850. Amos Curry. 

1851. John Hardenburg. 
1853. Joseph Rolfe. 

1853. Joshua S. Miller. 

1854. Joseph Rolfe. 

1855. Peter VanDorn. 

1856. Chester Rolfe. 
1857-58. Samuel V. Graham. 
1859-60. Henry Brewer. 
1861-62. Wm. L. Bostwick. 
1863. Daniel W. Bailey. 

1864. Daniel Colegrove. 
1865-67. D. W. Bailey. 
1768-70. S. V. Graham. 
1871. J. G. Wortman. 
1872-74. Ebenezer Havens. 
1875. Daniel W. Bailey. 
1876-78. Leroy H. Vankirk. 

1880. Seth B. Harvey. 

1881. Isaac Newman. 

1882. John J. Abel. 

1883. Daniel W. Bailey. 

1884. Lysander T. White. 

1885. Byron Jackson. 

1886. Tertelus Jones. 

1887. Burr Rumsey. 

1888. Daniel W. Bailey. 

1889. Joshua S. Miller. 

1890. Daniel W. Bailey. 

1891. T. Jones. 

1893-8. William F. Smith. 
1894. Levi J. Newman. 

The town of Enfield was erected from the southwestern part of Ulys- 
ses on the Kith of March, 1831, and received its name from the town of 
Enfield, in Connecticut. The records of the town down to the year 
1845 are lost. 

Following are the names of the principal town officers for the year 



Levi J. Newman, supervisor, Enfield Center; William Barber, town 
clerk, Enfield Center; John J. Johnson, collector, Enfield Falls; Hen- 
ry A. Graham, justice of the peace, Enfield Center; Fred V. Ball, con- 
stable, Enfield; Lewis Wallenbeck, constable, Enfield Center; 
George Havens, constable, Enfield Center; Abram Creque, constable, 
Enfield Center. 

Statistics. — The report of the board of supervisors for the year 1893 
gives the followingstatisticsjnumber of acres of land, 32,007. Assessed 
value of real estate, including village property and real estate of cor- 
porations, $531,493; total assessed value of personal property, $42,200. 
Amount of town taxes, $3,350.64 Amount of county taxes, $1,235.87. 
Aggregate taxation, $5,832.93. Rate of tax on $1 valuation, .0102. 
The town has fifteen school districts besides the joint districts. 

Applegate's Corners took its name from John Applegate, who built 
and kept the fii'st tavern therein 1807, and the first school house in the 
town was built a little to the north of the Corners about the year 1809. 
A small mercantile business has been carried on there from the begin- 
ning, and some of the men who later on became leaders in business in 
the county first started here. Among these were Josiah B. and T. S. 
Williams. The first road laid out in the town was from these corners 
southwesterly to the farm where Nicholas Kirby lived in recent years; 
the road is now unused. Joseph Tibb now keeps a store here and is 
postmaster, the name of the office being Applegate. 

Beside the post-office at Applegate there are two others in the town 
— Enfield Center and Enfield Falls. At Enfield Center is a pretty little 
village, where Charles Wright, William H. Rumsey and George Lord 
are merchants. John G. Wortman, now the undertaker of the place, 
was for many years in mercantile business here, and rebuilt Wortman 
Hall from the old Presbyterian church. Saamuel D. Purdy, now a 
farmer, was a former merchant. 

William Barber, a blacksmith, was postmaster ever since the war, 
until the present year, when he was superseded by Charles Wright. 
The hotel has been kept many years by Moses L. Harvey. 

Enfield Palls, in the southeastern part of the town, is a hamlet cen- 
tering around the grist mill, on the site where the first mill was built. 
R. S. Halsey has the mill, and Charles Budd is postmaster; there is at 
present no mercantile business here. 

Chokchks. — The Baptist church of Enfield was formed in 1817, at the 
house of Elder John Lewis, and comprised twenty-six members. Ser- 


vices were held at the house of Jonathan Rolfe and later at the Wood- 
ward school house in the south part of the town. In 1842 a house of 
worship was built at Enfield Center at a cost of about $1,300. The 
present pastor is Rev. T. F. Brodwick. 

In 1821 five persons instituted the Christian church, of which Elder 
Ezra Chase was the first pastor; he was succeeded by Rev. J. M. West- 
cott. The church was built at Enfield Center many years ago. H. L. 
Griffin is the present pastor. 

The Methodist church at Kennedy's Corners was the development 
of a class which was formed at the North school house in 1844, with 
Elias Lanning as leader; it was at first under the charge of the Jack- 
sonville church ; but later under the church at Enfield Center. The 
church edifice was built in 1848. 

The Methodist church of Enfield was recognized as a separate charge 
January 19, 1835. Rev. Joseph Pearsall was the first pastor. Prior to 
that date class meetings had been held in a barn at Bostwick's Corners, 
and in other barns near by. On the 3d of June, 1835, a lot Was bought 
of Andrew Bostwick for $50 and a church erected upon it. On the 13th 
of March, 1876, it was determined to remove the building to Enfield 
Center, which was done and the building was repaired at a cost, includ- 
ing the new site, of $3,200, and on June 20, 187G, the church was ded- 
icated. The present pastor is Rev. J. H. Britton. 

In about the year 1831, Rev. William Page, who was then filling a 
pulpit as stated supply in Ithaca, visited Enfield and became instru- 
mental in organizing a Presbyterian church, which was fully effected 
iinder the care of the Presbytery of Cayuga, February 14, 1832. The 
society has been several times changed to other Presbyteries, as they 
were organized. On the 28th of February, 1838, after several others 
had served the church, Rev. Warren Day was installed and remained 
until 1844, when he was succeeded by Rev. Moses Jewell. A meeting 
house was finished at Enfield Center in 1835-5, which is now used as a 
public hall. The society disbanded many years ago. 




Twenty-Five Years of Its Existence, 



Professor of the German Language and Literature in the University. 


It had been proposed as early as in 1822 to found a college in Ithaca, 
and in March of that year a request was presented to the Regents -by 
the Genesee Conference of the Methodist church for a charter. It was 
stated that six thousand dollars had already been raised for the support 
of such a college, with which it was the intention to proceed to the 
erection of buildings in the following spring. At the same time the 
trustees of the Geneva Academy applied for a charter for a college, on 
the basis of certain funds already subscribed and land and buildings 
already erected, and an annual grant promised by the corporation of 
Trinity Church in New York. As both these colleges were to be erect- 
ed by religious denominations, the Board of Regents considered what its 
policy should be toward applications of this kind from various religious 
organizations. The board had adopted, as early as March 11, 1811, 
the view that no academy ought to be erected into a college until 
the state of literature therein was so far advanced and its funds so far 
enlarged as to render it probable that it would attain the ends and sup- 
port the character of a college in which all the liberal arts and sciences 
would be cherished and taught. " The literary character of the State 
is deeply interested in maintaining the reputation of its seminaries 
of learning, and to multiply colleges without adequate means to en- 
able them to vie with other similar institutions in the United States 
would be to degrade their character, and to be giving only another 
. name to an ordinary academy. The establishment of a college is also 
imposing upon the government the necessity of bestowing tipon it a 
very liberal and expensive patronage, without which it would languish 
and not maintain a due reputation for usefulness and universal learn- 
ing; colleges, therefore, are to be cautiously erected, and only when 
called for by strong public expediency." 

The case was now different, for an additional question was involved. 
The board, however, after mature consideration, held that it had no 


right to inquire into the religious opinions of the applicants for a char- 
ter, and that it might wisely make use of denominational zeal to pro- 
mote the great educational interests confided to its charge. It was 
directed, April 10, 1833, that the charter of a college in Ithaca be 
granted whenever it should be shown within three years that a perma- 
nent fund of fifty thousand dollars had been collected for its support. 
It was, however, found impossible to raise this sum. This impulse, 
though fruitless in itself, may have led to the foundation of the Ithaca 
Academy, which was incorporated the following year, March 24, 1823. 



The duty of the government to support and foster higher education 
existed with the first dream of national independence. In October, 
1775, when Washington was in camp in Cambridge, Samuel Blodget, 
who was later distinguished as the author of the first formal work on 
political economy published in the United States, remarked in the 
presence of Generals Washington and Greene, with reference to the 
injury which the soldiers were doing to the colleges in which they were 
encamped: "Well, to make amends for these injuries, I hope after our 
war we shall erect a noble national university, at which the youths 
of all the world may be proud to receive instruction." Washington 
answered: "Young man, you are a prophet inspired to speak what I 
am confident will one day be realized. " One of the earliest provisions 
of the colonial governments was for popular education, in addition to 
which were charters for private and county schools and colleges, which 
were to be supported by general taxation. In the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1787, on May 29, Charles Pickering proposed that Congress 
should have power to establish and provide for a national university at 
the seat of government of the United States. Mr. Madison proposed 
later that this should be one of the distinctly enumerated powers in 


the Constitution. On September 14 Mr. Madison and Mr. Pickering 
moved to insert "power to establish a university in which no prefer- 
ence or distinction should be allowed on account of religion." The 
action proposed was lost, not from opposition to the principle involved, 
but because such an addition to the Constitution would be a super- 
fluity, since Congress would possess exclusive power at the seat of 
government, which would reach the object in question. The patriot 
and scientist, Dr. Benjamin Rush, issued an address to the people of 
the United States, strongly urging a Federal university as the means 
of securing to the people an education suited to the needs of the 
country, with post-graduate scholarships, and fellowships in connec- 
tion with the consular service, and an educated civil service generally. 
"The j)eople," he said, "must be educated for the new form of 
government by an education adapted to the new and peculiar situation 
of the country." President Washington, in his address to Congress on 
January 8, 1790, said: " There is nothing that can better deserve your 
patronage than the promotion of science and literature. Knowledge is 
in every country the surest basis of happiness. In one in which the 
measures of government receive their impressions so immediately from 
the sense of the community as in ours, it is proportionably essential. 
Whether this desirable object will be best promoted by afford- 
ing aids to seminaries of learning already established, by the institution 
of a national imiversity, or by any other expedients, will be worthy of 
a place in the deliberations of the legislature." The response of both 
the Senate and the House of Representatives to this address was favor- 
able, the latter saying: "We concur with you in the sentiment that 
agriculture, commerce and manufactures are entitled to legislative 
protection, and that the promotion of science and literature will con- 
tribute to the security of a free government. In the progress of our 
deliberations we shall not lose sight of objects so worthy of our regard. " 
Washington contemplated also the possibility of the appropriation of 
certain western lands in aid of education. Jefferson held that the 
revenue from the tariff on foreign importations might be appropriated 
to the great purpose of public education. 

' This early recognition of the duty of the national government to 
promote higher education is of importance in considering the history 
of the passage of the Land Grant Act of 1862, in behalf of technical 
and liberal education, and the various views by which that measure 
was advocated or opposed. 



At the close of the Revolutionary war several of the original States 
claimed that their borders extended to the Mississippi River. To the 
west lay a vast extent of country whose possession had been deter- 
mined by the fortunes of the war. Virginia, New York, Connecticut, 
Massachusetts, and even Georgia, claimed this country either as in- 
cluded in their original charters or as acquired by treaty with the 
Indians or by exploration. The national government, so far as it ex- 
isted at this time, possessed no territory. All the land was included 
within the borders of States. It was proposed by leading statesmen 
that these nebulous and conflicting claims should be surrendered to the 
general government on condition that the lands thus ceded should be 
used to pay the debt of the war, and for the general good. Between 
the years 1781 and 1792, all the States which laid claim to this land 
ceded their rights to the nation. On June 10, 1783, two hundred and 
eighty-eight officers petitioned Congress for a grant of land for their 
services. Of these officers two hundred and thirty-one were from New 
England and the Eastern States. This petition of the officers of the 
Revolution failed. Three years later representatives from the officers 
met in Boston, and on March 4, 1786, the Ohio Company was formed, 
the object of which was to purchase from the national government a 
million and a half acres of land in what was later Eastern Ohio. 

A plan for a State to be established between the Ohio River and 
Lake Erie was organized in New England, to be settled by army vet- 
erans and their families. Petitions of soldiers in favor of the plan 
were forwarded to Congress through General Washington. It was 
proposed that after the payment of soldiers for their services in the 
war, the public lands remaining should be devoted to public purposes, 
among which were .specified "establishing schools and academies." 
A proposition from the State of Virginia came before Congress (1783) 
to devote one-tenth of the income of the territory to national interests, 
as the erecting of fortresses, the equipment of a navy, and the "found- 
ing of seminaries of learning." This act did not pass. 

On May 30, 1785, the Congress of the Confederation passed an act 
for " Locating and Disposing of the Lands in the Western Territory." 
This act contained the provision : "There shall be reserved the central 
section of every township for the maintenance of public schools, and 
the section immediately adjoining for the support of religion, the 
profits arising therefrom in both instances to be applied forever accord- 
ing to the will of the majority of male residents of full age within the 


same." To Colonel Timothy Pickering, of Massachusetts, "if to any 
one man, is to be attributed the suggestion which led to the first edu- 
cational land grant." To the Hon. Rufus King the immediate merit 
of embodying this principle in the statute is due, " This reservation 
marks the beginning of the policy which, uniformly observed since 
then, has set aside one thirty-sixth of the land in each new State for 
the maintenance of public schools. " The use of this national land had, 
however, been separately advocated by leading statesmen of the time. 

Generals Putnam, Tupper and Parsons were active in this scheme 
for settling the new territory, but its efficient agent before Congress 
was the Rev. Manaisseh Cutler, of Hamilton, Mass., a chaplain in the 
late war, a man of legal training, and later a member of Congress from 
Massachusetts, a scholar whose scientific enthusiasm and attainments 
in astronomy and botany made him the friend and correspondent of 
the most eminent scholars of the world. Under the influence of Dr. 
Manasseh Cutler the "Ordinance of 1787 for the government of the 
North-West Territory " was passed. It contained the memorable 
words, ' ' that religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good 
government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of 
education shall forever be encouraged." The committee which re- 
ported this act recommended that one section in each township should 
be reserved for common schools, one for the support of religion, and 
four townships for the support of a university. This was subsequently 
modified so that two townships sljould be appropriated ' ' for a literary 
institution, to be applied to the intended object by the legislature. " 
Dr. Cutler's friends and associates would not embark in this enterprise 
unless these principles were unalterably fixed. They demanded to 
know on what foundations their social organization should rest, and 
hence the organic law had to be first settled. By this action the prin- 
ciple of national aid to education was established. 

The sale of the great tract of five million acres to the Ohio Com- 
pany was closely associated with the passage of the "Ordinance of 
1787 " and determined in part its form. This act, so momentous in its 
sequences, rested upon a compact between each of the original States 
and the people in the proposed territory, and was to remain unalter- 
ble unless by mutual consent. It contained the great principles of civil 
and religious liberty, and of the rights of conscience. By it an orderly 
and representative government was secured to all the people of the 
great Northwest. Slavery was forever prohibited and public education 


was provided. The most eminent jurists have expressed their admi- 
ration for this enactment. Daniel Webster said : ' ' We are accustomed 
to praise the lawgivers of antiquitj'^, . . . but 'I doubt whether 
one single law of any lawgiver, ancient or modern, has produced effects 
of more distinct, marked and lasting character than the Ordinance of 
1787. . . - It set forth and declared it to be a high and binding 
duty of government to support schools and advance the means of edu- 
cation. We see its consequences at this moment and we shall never 
cease to see them perhaps while the Ohio flows."* Judge Stor}', in his 
work on the Constitution, said: This ordinance " has ever since con- 
stituted in most respects the model of all our territorial governments, 
and is equally remarkable for the brevitj' and exactness of its text and 
for its masterly display of the fundamental principles of civil and re- 
ligious liberty. American legislation has never achieved anything 
more admirable, as an internal government, 'than this comprehensive 
scheme. Its provisions concerning the distribution of property, the 
principles of civil and religious liberty, which it laid at the foimdation 
of the communities established under its sway, and the efficient and 
civil organization by which it created the first machinery of civil 
society are worthy of all the praise that has ever attended it. "- 

Chief -Justice Chase said: "Never, probably, in the history of the 
world, did a measure of legislation so accurately fulfill, and yet so 
mightily exceed, the anticipations of the legislators."' 

" It approaches as nearl)' to absolute perfection as anything to be 
found in the legislation of mankind; for after the experience of fifty 
years it would perhaps be impossible to alter without marring it,"* 

The draft of this great charter was made by Nathan Dane, of Massa- 
chusetts, but to Dr. Manasseh Cutler is due the distinct incorporation 
■of the principle of the support of education and the establishment of 
a university, and probably the provision against slavery. It is even 
possible that his was the master mind which suggested the form of the 
whole, based as it largely is upon the constitution and judicial system 
of Massachusetts of 1780. and containing in addition the principle of 
the inviolability of contracts, which six weeks later was incorporated 

' First and second speech in reply to Foote's Resolutions. 

Works III, 363, 433; Hist, of the Const., 1, 307. 

• Introduction to the Statutes of Ohio. 

-* Judge Timothy Walker, address at Marietta. 


in the draft of the Constitution of the United States. Certainly we 
know that the passage of this famous ordinance, as well as the sale of 
five and a half million acres of land by Congress, was due to his able 
advocacy and conquering personality. 

One of the first acts of Congress after the adoption of the Constitu- 
tion was to affirm solemnly the binding force of this ordinance, and to 
adapt its provisions to those of the new Constitution. Following the 
precedent here set, the States which constituted a part of the North- 
west Territory, which were admitted later, made provision for the 
support of popular education and the endowment of colleges by appro- 
priations of land or a certain percentage of the income from the sales 
of public lands. Three to five per cent, of the proceeds of the sales of 
public lands within their borders had also been granted to the States 
by the national government before the national grant of 1803, which 
had in many cases been devoted to education. Since the year 1800, 
every State admitted to the Union, save Maine and West Virginia, 
which were taken from older States, and Texas, which was acquired 
from Mexico, have received two or more townships of land for the 
pupose of founding a university. The proceeds of the sale of saline 
and swamp lands, and grants of public lands to the States for internal 
improvements have in some cases been devoted to education. Three 
million five hundred thousand acres have thus been set apart for higher 
education. Special grants have been made to a few States, as one to 
Tennessee in 1806, and minor appropriations for specific purposes, to 
asylums, academies and missionary societies. The vast agricultural 
interests of the West now began to demand the recognition of agricul- 
tural and industrial education by the national government. The State 
of Michigan asked Congress in 1850 for a grant of ;5,')(),000 acres of land 
for the support of agricultural schools. The question of a national 
grant in aid of scientific and practical agriculture had been forced 
upon Congress by numerous petitions, which had been presented both 
by scientific bodies and even by State Legislatures. In the year 1854 
the Legislature of Illinois presented a memorial to Congress request- 
ing such a grant of the public lands, and at the session of Congress of 
1857 a similar memorial was presented from the State Board of Agri- 
cvilture of the State of New York asking a grant of land in aid of the 
agricultural colleges of the several States. From this time forward 
memorials poured in upon Congress in constant succession asking for 
appropriations for such schools. 


The Hon. Justin S. Morrill, of Vermont, took his seat in 1855 as a 
member of Congress from Vermont. . His attention was soon called to 
the numerous appropriations of public lands for railroads and local 
interests, by which our vast national domain was being gradually sacri- 
ficed without contributing to any permanent work of general benefit. 
He was soon impressed with the fact that this splendid possession 
might, by an intelligent and comprehensive plan, be so appropriated 
as to make it a source of perpetual blessing, placing resources in the 
hands of the government such as no previous nation had enjoyed. 
Mr. Morrill was from New England, where education was regarded as 
an essential of good government and upright citizenship; he was also 
from a State whose chief interest was in its agricultural resources, but 
whose wealth was gradually diminishing with the development of more 
fertile regions. He thus describes the reasons which led to the intro- 
duction of the bill, and his part in its passage: 

First, that large grants of land were made for educational as well as for other pur- 
poses, and that the older States were obtaining little special benefit from the large 
common property of the public domain. 

Second, that the average product of wheat crops per acre in the Northern and 
Eastern States was rapidly diminishing, and that these States would soon be depend- 
ent for bread upon our Northwestern States. While in England their soil, maintain- 
ing its ancient fertility, under more scientific culture, and its wheat crop per acre 
appeared undiminished. Some institutions of a high grade for instruction in agri- 
culture and the mechanic arts, I know, had been established in Europe, and that 
something of the kind here was greatly to be desired. 

Third, that the liberal education offered in 1858, at our colleges, appeared almost 
exclusively for the instruction of the professional classes, that is to say, for ministers, 
lawyers and doctors only ; while obviously the greatest number of our people, or all 
those engaged in productive and industrial employments, were unpr6vided for, 
though hungering for some appropriate higher education. 

Existing colleges then had more faith in discipline than in usefulness, and sur- 
rendered little time to the teaching of the practical sciences. It struck me, however, 
that these would do the greatest good to the greatest number and oi^en a larger field 
to a liberal education. With these views, my first bill was introduced and passed 
both Houses in 1858. Instruction in the sciences, agriculture and the mechanic arts 
was made to lead, but without excluding the classics. It was to be the instruction of 
a college. I do not remember of any assistance in framing my bill prior to its intro- 

One slight amendment only was made, and that by the Senate, where the bill was 
earnestly supported by Senators Wade, Crittenden and Pearce. After its introduc- 
tion Colonel Wilder, of Massachusetts, president of the National Agricultural Society, 
and Mr. Brown, president of the People's College, New York, and others, worked to 
encourage members to vote for the Bill. My own speech was about the only one in 


favor, while there was some outspoken opposition and a report by Cobb, of Alabama, 
against it. The bill was vetoed by Buchanan, though favoring a measure that 
would provide for a professorship of Agriculture for a college in each State. Mr. 
Sickles, a personal friend of Buchanan, then, as now, a member of the House, hav- 
ing heard of a coming veto, left the House in haste to see and persuade the President 
to approve the bill. Upon his return he told me that he was too late, and that 
Senator Slidell of Louisiana had got the ear of the President. Of course I patiently 
waited for a change of administration, and in 1862 again pushed the bill, but for a 
larger endowment of lands. Senators Harlan, Pomeroy and Wade cared for the 
bill in the Senate. Most of the State Legislatures had passed resolutions in its 
favor. There never was a doubt about the approval of Lincoln. I do not think 
he had any relations with Buchanan, who soon left for Pennsylvania. 

The value of the land granted to colleges was largely diminished by the great 
amount of bounty land and railroad land grants competing for a market at the same 
time. Only one college had a Cornell to husband its resources. 

For the proper equipment of the Land Grant Colleges the original endowment was 
soon found to be too small, and for many years various bills were introduced by me 
to obtain a supplementary grant; 

Success finally crowned these efforts in 1890. Professor Afherton, of Rutgers 
College, now President of Pennsylvania Agricultural College, and Major Alvord, of 
Maryland Agricultural College, rendered valuable aid in all of these supplementary 

Recognizing the education of the people as the noblest function of 
government, Mr. Morrill drew up independently a bill '' Donating 
Public Lands to the several States and Territories which might pro- 
vide Colleges for the benefit of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts, " 
which he introduced in the House of Representatives December 14, 
1857, and asked that it be referred ' to the Committee on Agriculture, 
of which he was a member. 

An opposition was immediately developed to the reference pro- 
posed, and it was moved that the bill be referred to the Committee on 
Public Lands, which on the following day was done. 

Mr. Morrill, in beginning his speech in behalf of the bill, stated that 
no measure for years had received so much attention in various parts 
of the country as this, so far as can be proved by petitions which 
have been received here from the various States, north and south, from 
county societies and from individuals. He compared the efforts of the 
government to promote commerce, railroads, literary labor through the 
copyright, and to benefit mechanics by the patent system, and education 
through munificent grants, with the little done for agriculture. We are 
behind European countries in this regard, while far ahead of them in 
every other. He claimed that the prosperity of a nation depended, 


first, upon the division of the land into small parcels; and secondly, 
upon the education of the proprietors of the soil. Our agriculturists 
are, as a whole, seeking to extend their boundaries instead of promot- 
ing a higher cultivation of the soil. He showed by statistics of agri- 
cultural products that crops were decreasing in the East and South, 
and that agriculture as pursued was exhausting the soil. Foreign 
states support a population vastly larger per square mile than our 
own. Here we rob the land, and then the owner sells his land and 
flies to fresh fields to repeat the spoliation. The wave would some 
day be stayed by the Rocky Mountains, but shall we not prove 
unworthy of our patrimony if we run over the whole before we 
learn to manage a part? The nation that tills the soil so as to leave 
it worse than it found it, is doomed to decay and degradation. Agri- 
culture undoubtedly demands our first care. Our public lands are 
no longer pledged to pay the national debt. Who will be wronged 
by this bill? What better thing shall be done with our national 
domain? Since 1850 grants of lands amounting to 35, 403', 993 acres 
have been made to ten States and one Territory to aid more than 
fifty railroads. As prudent proprietors we should do that which 
would not only tend to raise the value of the land, but make agri- 
cultural labor more profitable and more desirable. Up to June 30, 
1867, we had donated ungrudgingly to different States and Territories 
67,736,572 acres of land for schools and universities. If this purpose 
be a noble one, as applied to a territory sparsely settled, it is certainly 
no less noble in States thickly populated. He defended the constitu- 
tionality of the bill and claimed that Congress had a plain and absolute 
right to dispose of the public lands at its discretion. Some statesmen 
have denounced our land system as a prolific source of corruption, but 
what corruption can flow from agricultural colleges? " The persuasive 
arguments of precedents, the example of our worthiest rivals in 
Europe, the rejuvenation of worn out lands which bring forth taxes only, 
the petitions of farmers everywhere yearning for a more excellent way, 
philanthropy supported by our own highest interests, all these consid- 
erations impel us for once to do something for agi'iculture worthy of 
its national importance." 

Mr. Morrill then introduced an amended bill. A parliamentary 
struggle ensued, in which it was sought to lay the bill on the table, 
and in which Mr. Cobb opposed its passage upon the ground of uncon- 
stitutionality. Mr. Cobb sought also to show that the effect of the bill 


would be to give some States an advantage over others, under the ex- 
isting ratio of representation. He also objected to the exclusion of the 
Territories from the benefits of the bill, and held that the grants to 
railroads increased the value of the public lands; but in this case the 
government would receive no equivalent. 

On April 15, 1868, Mr. W. R. W. Cobb, of Georgia, reported back 
the bill, recommending that it do not pass. A minority report, signed 
by two members of the committee, Messrs. D. S. Walbridge, of Mich- 
igan, and Henry Bennett, of New York, was also presented. The 
reasons upon which the majority of the committee relied for the rejec- 
tion of the bill rested mainly upon the limitation of the powers of the 
Federal government by the Constitution. "The States had reserved 
to themselves all authority to act in relation to their domestic affairs, 
and these principles established the only solid foundation for the per- 
petuation of the Federal Union. Such is the symmetry of our gov- 
ernment, that its very existence depends upon its severe adherence 
to the limitation of its duties. If the general government possessed 
the power to make grants for local purposes, without a consideration 
within the States, its action would have no limitation but such as 
policy or necessity might impose. Every local object for which local 
provision is now made would press for support upon the general gov-' 
ernment, and would create demands upon it beyond its power to 
meet, and of necessity it would be driven into the policy which 
would increase its means. As its expenditures are increased the 
revenue must be enlarged, and the general government, by the adop- 
tion of the policy would levy taxes upon the people of the Union 
for the sake of the local interests of the States. . . . Patron- 
age would be fatal to the independence of the States; with pat- 
ronage comes the power to control, as consequence follows upon 
cause. If the principle be admitted, what shall limit its application? 
The committee have failed to perceive how they could be justified in 
recommending a grant from the general government in support of 
agricultural schools and in refusing one for any other purpose equally 
meritorious. The means of the general government are taken from 
the people. If you take it from the public lands, you give it money in 
the stead; if you destroy its revenue from that source, you must in- 
crease it in some other. The appropriation asked for is in lands; but 
your committee can discover in this regard no difference between an 
appropriation in lands or one in money; the effect is precisely the same 


in -both cases. If the revenue from the public lands is destroyed, the 
deficiency must be met by taxes upon the people. The public domain 
belongs to all the people of the United States ; their interest in it is 
common, and the government is but the trustee for the common 
benefit, limited in. its actions over it to those powers conferred by the 
Constitution. It is a part of the public funds, and can be devoted to no 
pvirpose forbidden to the money of the Federal government. 
As a landholder, the government may legitimately bear a share of 
the burdens imposed to create an improvement which shall enhance 
the value of its domain, and may contribute to that end, 3^et its aid 
must be limited within the extent which does not require taxation to 
effect it. It may, as a matter of power or right, contribute portions of 
the public lands to improve the value of the remainder, but even in 
this sound policy its duties toward the general welfare will limit it to a 
healthy and reasonable extent. The donation of section sixteen for 
the support of schools was an inducement to purchasers and en- 
hanced the value of the adjacent lands, the sale of which indemnified 
the government for the donation which it made. So, too, the donation 
of the salines . . . The grants to the new States upon their admis- 
sion into the Union were upon conditions which more than indemnified 
the government. If the prayers of the petitioners were granted, pro- 
digious quantities of land would be thrown upon the market by com- 
peting venders, which would deprive it of marketable value. The very 
gratification of their wishes would destroy the object which they have in 
view. To make the grants wovild be to render them of but little avail. 
Congress, without a promise of pecuniary compensation, has no power 
to grant portions of the public domain, and, if it had, no policy could 
be more unwise than to grant it for the support of local institutions 
within the States." 

The minority report, to which Mr. Morrill contributed, cited the 
fact that schools for instruction in scientific and practical agricul- 
ture had been established by most of the European governments; that 
in many countries of Europe the subject of agricultural education is 
incorporated with the public administration, being often committed to 
the minister of public domains. Agricultural colleges had been estab- 
lished in various States, in part by private benevolence and in part by 
legislative act; also that agricultural professorships had been created 
in many colleges and universities. Of 5,371,876 free male inhabitants 
of the United States in 1860, nearly one-half, or 2,389,013, were re- 


turned as farmers and planters, while in the professions of law, medi- 
cine and divinity, there were but 94,515 men employed. To educate 
these men for the learned professions there were 234 colleges, endowed 
with many millions of dollars, and two million dollars are actually 
expended every year in the education of 27,000 students. The main 
wealth of the country is in its agricultural products, which far exceed 
in value its foreign commerce. If a grant of land to aid in the con- 
struction of a railroad may be made for the benefit of all the States, bj"^ 
which the value and sale of the public lands is promoted, there is equal 
warrant for giving millions of acres to soldiers who have fought our 

The measure imder consideration is in no sense a donation to the 
States ; it will relieve them from no taxation, but will impose new 
duties and further burdens. It merely makes the States trustees for 
certain purposes which they may constitutionally and efficiently dis- 
charge. The United States will not part with its title to any lands 
save upon certain conditions, which are to be of perpetual and binding 
force. As the United States originally acquired their title to much of 
the public domain upon the stipulation that it was to be disposed of 
only for the common benefit of all the States, so it is believed that no 
grant has ever been made which will prove to be a more strict com- 
pliance with the terms than this now proposed, reaching, as it will 
reach, not only all the States, but a major part of the people of all the 
States, reaching them, too, in their persons and mateiual interests and 
reaching them also for the common benefit of all the people. That our 
country needs all the aid likely to flow from a measure of such far- 
reaching consequences, the united testimony of all our agriculturists in 
all sections of our country loudly proclaims, and that it will prove wise 
and practical, the experience in our own and other lands happily already 
demonstrates. As each State would possess the sole control and man- 
agement of its proportionate fund, national power could not be held to 
interfere in local government. The constitutionality of such a law was 
maintained, and it was held that there was no limit to the uses and pur- 
poses to which the public domain may be applied, but the discretion of 
Congress; if the proposed grant is for the benefit of all the States, Con-, 
gress has full power to make it, and the law-making power alone can 
judge of that fact. 

The bill passed the House on the 23d of April, 1858, by a vote of 
one hundred and five to one hundred. Upon analyzing this vote, 


we find that the members from the Southern States, with few excep- 
tions, voted against the measure, while its main support came from 
the North. Certain members from the Western States also opposed 
it on the ground that their own States would suffer in growth and 
in population, and that the purposes of the Homestead Act would be 

On April 22, 1858, the bill was presented in the Senate, and on the 
following day referred to the Committee on Public Lands. On May 
0, 1858, Mr. Stuart, of Michigan, reported that the committee, after 
very carefully considering this question, had, in view of the existing 
circumstances, reported the bill back to the Senate without any recom- 
mendations for or against its passage. On May 19 the Senate pro- 
ceeded to the consideration of the measure, which, however, was stren- 
uously opposed, Mr. Pugh, of Ohio, saying: "We might as well make 
a test vote on that bill. It has never been favorably recommended by 
any committee of either House. Probably it is the largest proposition 
for the donating of public lands that has ever been made here. We 
cannot consider it at this time, and I think instead of wasting the 
precious hours that remain in discussing at great length a question, 
which, if it comes up, will be defeated, we may as well take a test vote 
on the question of taking up the bill, and I call for the yeas and nays." 
The bill was taken from the table by a vote of twenty-eight to twenty- 
four, Senator Yulee having sought to vary the motion so as to lay the 
bill on the table and thus dispose of it more effectively. Various motions 
were presented to proceed to the special order, to postpone the special 
order, and to take up other measures in place of the Land Grant Act 
for colleges. Mr. Stuart said: "I only desire to say that the friends 
of this measure do not intend to discuss it. It is a measure which ex- 
plains itself. The reading of the bill prepares every senator to vote 
upon it. ... I wish to protest against the authority of my noble 
friend from Alabama [Mr. Clay] as well as his historical statement 
[that this was a bill which the Democratic party of this country had 
been committed against for thirty years past]. I deny his authority to 
make party questions, and I deny his historical statement that this is a 
party question or has ever been made so. This is simply a proposition 

to grant less than six million acres, whereas it is but a short time in 

1855, — since we passed the law under which there have been granted 
sixty million acres ; that was done by a Democratic majority and ap- 
proved by a Democratic president." Mr. Mason, of Virginia, said: 


"The Senator would be mistaken if he expected the bill to pass with- 
out debate. It may be the policy of the senator and those who think 
with him to let the bill pass as smoothly as may be, but as far as I 
iinderstand it, it is presentinjif a new policy to the country altogether, 
being a direct appropriation from the treasury for encouragement of 
schools of agriculture. ... I am not aware that it has been known 
so far to the legislatures of the country to make these general appro- 
priations through all the States. I shall deem it my duty, for one, to 
expose its chaf'acter, as I look at it, fully to the people whom I repre- 
sent, and I presume that the disposition of other senators is to do the 
same thing." The Senate refused to consider the bill further. On the 
first day of the second session of the Thirty-fifth Congress, December 
0, 1858, Mr. Stuart, who had charge of the bill in the Senate, gave 
notice that as soon as the Senate was full, he should ask for the consid- 
eration of the bill. On December 15 Mr. Stuart called up the bill. 
An attempt was made to postpone its consideration on account of 
the sickness or absence of members who were opposed to it. Upon 
the question of considering the bill the Senate was equally divided, 
the vice-president, Mr. Breckenridge, voted 7w, and the considera- 
tion was postponed. On December 10 the bill was again called up and 
made a special order for the following week. Upon the day desig- 
nated, the consideration of the measure was again postponed. On 
February 1 Senator Wade, of Ohio, moved to postpone all prior orders 
and to take up this bill, speaking with great energy in its favor. Among 
other things, he said: " This bill passed the House toward the close of 
last session. It came here so late that those who were opposed to it 
found it would be easy to talk it to death, and it will share the same fate 
now unless its friends support the motion to take it up in preference to 
other bills. Many senators here are instructed by their States to use 
their influence to procure the passage of the bill ; I am one among that 
number." He also argued that it was time that something of this 
nature should be done by Congress for the benefit of agriculture. 

The bill, as originally presented, provided that twenty thousand acres 
of land should be granted to each State, for each senator and repre- 
sentative in Congress to which the States were then respectively en- 
titled, making a total grant of 5,925,000 acres. It was sought to amend 
the bill by making the grant to the several States and Territories in the 
compound tatio of the geographical area and the representation of said 
States and Territories in the Senate and House of Representatives, 


after the apportionment under the census of 1860, provided that said 
appropriation be made after first allbtting to each State and Territory 
fifty thousand acres. Mr. Harlan, of Iowa, said: "The census of 1850 
shows that at that time there were over three millions of the people of 
the United States engaged in agricultural pursuits. Where is their 
representation on this floor? Non est. They are not here, only as they 
are represented by professional men." Various amendments were 
offered, some designed to make the quantity of land granted by the 
bill proportionate to the area of tillable lands in the State. An effort 
was also made to introduce a provision in the act as finally passed, 
that in no case shall any State to which land scrip may thus be issued 
be allowed to locate the same within the limits of any other State; but 
their assignees may thus locate said land scrip upon any of the appro- 
priated lands of the United States, subject to public entry. 

Mr. Jefferson Davis reviewed the history of the acquisition of the 
public lands by the general government, and opposed the measure on 
the ground that the power to "dispose" of the lands did not imply 
that they could be given away. Previous grants of the public lands 
had been made to increase the value of the property and to promote 
the revenue of the United States. "So far as grants of land have 
been made to construct railroads, merely on the general theory that 
railroads were a good thing, the Federal government has violated its 
trust and exceeded the powers conferred upon it. . . . Where a 
grant has been made of a certain portion of land to increase the value 
of the residue and bring it into cultivation, ... it rests on a prin- 
ciple such as a prudent proprietor would apply to the conduct of his 
own affairs. Thus far it is defensible; no further. The land grants 
to the new States for education rest on the same general principle. 
The new States, sovereigns like the old, admitted to be equal, before 
taking both the eminent and useful domain, entered into a contract 
with the other States, that they would relieve from taxation the land 
within their borders while owned by the general government. This is 
the consideration for which land grants have been made to the new 
States; and a high price they have paid for all that has been granted 
for educational purposes. " 

Mr. Davis's views are not confirmed by the terms of the Ordinance 
of 1787. They are of interest now as those of a strict constructionist 
of the Constitution of that time, and in virtue of certain views of gov- 
ernmental and State rights which he later advocated. 


After further debate the vote was taken, with the result that twenty- 
five yeas and twenty-two nays were cast, being a majority of three for 
the measure. On the IGth of February a message was received from 
the House that it had concurred in the Senate amendments to the bill. 

In the decision of this question, certain senators conscientiously 
maintained views based upon traditional interpretations of the Constitu- 
tion; others, who opposed the measure, joined with the former through 
party affiliations, and certain senators from the South acted in support 
of the measure contrary to the convictions of their constituents. Sen- 
ator Morrill gives the following additional incident in the history of the 
measure: " It was reported that President Buchanan would veto the 
measure on account of its unconstitutionality. When the bill had been 
in the hands of President Buchanan for some days, General Sickles of 
the House told me that there was some danger of the veto of the bill, 
and requested me to give him a copy of the speech, wherein I had 
shown that Buchanan, when a senator, had voted for an appropriation 
for a school for deaf mutes in Kentucky. He thought that this vote 
would preclude him from urging any constitutional objections against 
the agricultural college bill. He jumped on a horse and rode up to 
the president's, but soon came back, telling me that he was too late, 
that Senator Slidell, of Louisiana, had got the ear of the president and 
the bill would be vetoed." Among those who supported this law most 
actively in the House during its first passage were Representatives 
Morrill, Walbridge, Cochrane and others, and in the Senate, Senators 
Wade, Stuart and CoUamer. 

On February 24, 1859, President Buchanan sent a special message to 
the House of Representatives, vetoing this act. After stating the 
IDrovisions of the bill and the range of its application, he proceeded to 
set forth the objections to the measure, which he deemed to be both 
inexpedient and unconstitutional. His first objection was the great 
difficulty of raising sufficient revenue to sustain the expenses of the 
government. Should this bill become a law, the treasury would be 
deprived of the whole or nearly the whole of the income from the sale 
of public lands, which was estimated at five million dollars for the 
next fiscal year. The minimum price of government lands was one 
dollar and twenty-five cents, but the value of such lands had been re- 
duced to eighty-five cents by the issue of bounty land-warrants to old 
soldiers. Of the lands granted by these warrants, there were out- 
standing and unlocated nearly twelve million acres. This had reduced 


the current sales of the government lands and diminished the revenue 
from this source. If, in addition, thirty-three States should enter the 
market with their land scrip, the price would be reduced far below 
even eighty-five cents per acre, and as much to the prejudice of the old 
soldiers, who had not already parted with their warrants, as to that of 
the government. With this issue of additional land scrip, there would 
be a gkit in the market, so that the government could sell few lands at 
the established value, and the price of bounty land-warrants and scrip 
would be reduced to one-half the sum fixed by law for government 
sales. [This anticipation was afterwards realized in the sale of the 
land scrip issued to the various colleges.] Under these circumstances, 
the government would lose this source of revenue, as the States would 
sell their land scrip at any price that it would bring. The effect upon 
the treasury would be the same as if a tax were imposed to create a 
loan to endow these State colleges. The injurious effect that would be 
prodviced on the relations between the Federal and State governments, 
by a grant of Congress to the separate States, was argued by a reason- 
ing almost similar to that presented by the majority of the committee 
of the House of Representatives in reporting originally against the 
measure. The third argument, that the bill, if it should become a law, 
would operate greatly to the injury of the new States, was based upon 
the fear that wealthy individuals would acquire large tracts of the public 
lands and hold them for speculative purposes. The low price, to which 
the land scrip would probably be reduced, would tempt speculators to 
buy it in large amounts and locate it on the best lands belonging to 
the government. The consequence would be that the men who de- 
sired to cultivate the soil would be compelled to purchase these very 
lands at rates much higher than the price at which they could be ob- 
tained from the government. Fourthly, he doubts whether this bill 
will contribute to the advancement . of agriculture and the mechanic 
arts, objects whose dignity and value can not be too highly appreci- 
ated. The Federal government will have no constitutional power to 
follow up the donation to the States, and compel the application of the 
fund to the intended objects. As donors, we shall possess no control 
over our own gift after it shall have passed from our hands. If the 
State Legislatures fail to execute faithfully the trust in the manner 
prescribed 15y the law, the Federal government will have no power to 
compel the execution of the trust. Fifthly, the bill will injuriously 
interfere with the existing colleges in the different States, in many of 


which agriculture is taught as a science, and the effect of the creation 
of an indefinite number of rival colleges sustained by the endowment 
of the Federal government will not be difficult to determine. He 
believed that it would be impossible to sustain the colleges proposed 
without the provision that scientific and classical studies shall not be 
excluded from them ; for no father would incur the expense of sending 
his son to one of these institutions for the sole purpose of making him 
a scientific farmer or mechanic. [The bill itself negatives this idea, and 
declares that its object is to promote the liberal and practical educa- 
tion of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions of 
life.] By far the larger portion of the veto message is devoted to the 
question of the constitutional power of Congress to make the donation 
of public lands to the different States of the Union, to provide 
colleges for the purpose of educating the people of those States. 
The general proposition is undeniable that Congress does not possess 
the power to appropriate money in' the treasury .raised by taxes on the 
people of the United States for the purpose of educating the people of 
the respective States. It will not be pretended that any such power is 
to be found among the specific powers granted to Congress, nor that 
"it is necessary and proper for carrying into execution " any one of 
these powers. Should Congress exercise such a power, this would be 
to break down the barriers which have been so carefully constructed 
in the Constitution, to separate Federal from State authority. We 
should then not only "lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and ex- 
cises " for Federal purposes, but for every State purpose which Con- 
gress might deem expedient or useful. The language of the second 
clause of the third section of the fourth article of the Constitution, 
which declares that Congress shall have power to dispose of and make 
all needful rules and regulations respecting the territories or other 
property belonging to the United States, does not by a fair interpreta- 
tion of the words "dispose of" in this clause bestow the power to make 
a gift of public lands to the States for purposes of education. Congress 
is a trustee under the Constitution for the people of the United States, 
and, therefore, has no authority to dispose of the funds entrusted to its 
care, as gifts. A decision of the Supreme Court, in which an opinion 
was rendered by Chief-Justice Taney, was quoted, who says in refer- 
ence to this clause of the Constitution: " It begins its enumeration of 
powers by that of ' disposing, ' in other words, making sale of the lands 
or raising money from them, which, as we have already said, was the 


main object of the cession (from the States) and which is the first 
thing provided for in the article." In the case of States and Terri- 
tories, such as Louisiana and Florida, which were paid for out of the 
public treasury from the money raised by taxation. Congress had no 
power to appropriate the money with which these lands were purchased 
to other purposes, and it was equally clear that its power over the 
lands was equally limited. "The mere conversion of money into land 
could not confer upon Congress any power over the disposition of land, 
which they had not possessed over money." If it could, then a trustee, 
by changing the character of the fund entrusted to his care for special 
objects, from money into land, might give the land away, or devote it 
to any purpose he thought proper, however foreign to the trust. Grants 
of lands by the national government to new States for the use of schools 
as well as for a State university, were defended on the ground that the 
United States is a great land proprietor; and from the very nature of 
this relation, it is both the right and-the duty of Congress as their trustee 
to manage these lands as any other prudent proprietor would manage 
them, for his own best advantage. Such a grant became an inducement 
to settlers to purchase the land, with the assurance that their children 
would have the means of education. The gift of lands for educational 
purposes enhanced their value and is, therefore, justifiable. 

This veto of the land act establishing national colleges put an end to 
any further hopes of its passage during Mr. Buchanan's administration. 
If Congress occupied the relation of a legal trustee to these lands, it 
was bound by the legal limitations of such a trustee, instead of having 
the power to interpret inteUigently under the Constitution what was 
the normal exercise of its powers. The law-making power was, by 
this argument, made subject to a power created by it. 

Mr. Morrill, in replying to the President's veto, claimed that there 
was no possibility of a lack of harmony between the State and Federal 
authorities on account of any provision in the bill, which left the ar- 
rangement and control of institutions founded under the act wholly to 
the State. On the question of passing the bill over the veto, there 
were 105 yeas and 90 nays, not the requisite two-thirds to enable the 
act to become a law. 

Mr. Morrill was not, however, discouraged, and two years later, 
upon the accession of a new administration, he gave notice on De- 
cember 8, 18G1, that he would introduce a bill donating public lands 
for the support of colleges in the various States. The bill was formally 


introduced on December 10, read twice, and referred to the Committee 
on Public Lands. Here it was kept until December 30, 1862, when 
the chairman of the committee reported back the bill with a recom- 
mendation that it should not pass. This adverse action in the House 
having' been anticii^atcd, the same measure was introduced in the 
Senate by the Hon. Benjamin Wade, of Ohio, on May 2, 18(32, where it 
was referred to the Committee on Public Lands and ordered to be 
printed. On the Kith of May Senator Harlan reported back the bill as 
amended by the committee with a favorable recommendation. On the 
19th of May the bill was formally considered in Committee of the 
Whole. It was stated to be essentially the same as that passed 
by both Houses of Congress two years before, save that the appropri- 
ation granted 30,000 acres of land to each State for each representative 
or senator in Congress in place of 20,000 acres of land, as provided 
in the original bill. The hostility of certain Western senators, 
who feared that their States would be affected disadvantageously by 
the passage of the bill, was the principal occasion for ppposition at this 
time. It should be borne in mind that senators from the South were 
not in attendance. Some senators, fearing that the passage of the 
bill would exhaust all the valuable lands in their own States, de- 
sired to limit the grant to government lands in the territories. The 
popular favor with which this measure was regarded throughout the 
North had constantly increased within the two years since Mr. Buchan- 
an's veto. Mr. Wade stated that " a great many States, and I believe 
most of our free States, have passed resolutions in their Legislatures 
instructing their senators to go for the bill." Senator Harlan from 
Iowa stated that he represented a State that would be adversely affected 
by the bill, but that he should vote for it for two reasons: first, because 
the Legislature of his State had instructed him to do so ; and secondly, 
because " I do not believe the State will be seriously damaged should 
the bill become a law, and justice to the old States seems to require it. " 
The Committee on Public Lands concluded, in view of all the facts 
which exhibited a policy of large liberality towards the new States, that 
it would not be unreasonable for the old States to insist on such a dispo- 
sition of a small part of the public land as would result in benefit to 
them, especially as the)^ had by an almost unanimous vote agreed to 
the passage of the Homestead Bill. . . . This bill proposes to 
grant to the States less than ten million, acres. We now have of sur- 
veyed and unsold lands over one hundred and thirty-four million acres. 


At the same time there is a total of unsold and unappropriated lands 
of 1,040,280,093 acres. It is, therefore, a trivial gift of this vast 
■ national estate to bestow upon education. " Mr. Wright of Indiana re- 
marked : " If this fund is to be raised in this way I would much rather 
devote it to the females of the land. Do not be startled, gentlemen, it 
is so. Look at your half million of men in the army with neglected 
daughters and sisters to be raised and educated." Another argument 
by Senator Harlan, the chairman of the Committee on Public Lands, 
is worthy of notice. "This body is a body of lawyers. Heretofore 
appropriations of lands have been made for such universities. The 
proceeds of the sales of these lands have usually gone to educate the 
children of professional men. Here, for the first time I believe in the 
history of the Senate, a proposition is made to make an appropriation 
of lands for the education of the children of the agriculturists of the 
nation, and it meets very strenuous opposition from a body of lawyers. 
If this Senate were composed of agriculturists chiefly, they would have 
provided first f or_ an agricultural college and probably afterwards for a 
college in which the sons of lawyers, physicians and other professional 
men could be educated. I do not believe that if the proposition were 
submitted to a vote of the people of the country you could array one- 
fifteenth of the voters against it." Various amendments were sub- 
mitted, which did not change the essential features of the bill, limiting 
in one case the amount of land that might be appropriated in any 
single State to one. million dollars. A provision that the act should 
not take effect until July 1, 1864, was lost. It was provided that when- 
ever there are public lands in a State, the quantity to which said State 
shall be entitled, shall be selected from such lands. An amendment 
granting a sum of money from the proceeds hereafter derived from the 
sale of the public lands, equal to $30,000 for each senator and repre- 
sentative in Congress, to which the States are respectively entitled, 
was lost. 

The passage of this amendment would have left the value of the 
the. public lands undisturbed, but would have limited the large re- 
turns from the careful administration of the fund and the sale of 
the scrip, and made impossible the large sum which Cornell Uni- 
versity and the University of California have realized. The bill 
finally passed on June 11, with a vote of thirty-two in its favor to 
seven against, and was then sent to the House for concurrence. On 
July 17, after various dilatory motions to again refer the bill to the 


Committee on Public Lands had been voted down, the bill passed by 
a vote of ninety to twenty-five, was signed by the speaker on July 1, 
and received the signature of the president on the same day. During" 
most of the time in which this bill was under debate. Dr. Amos Brown 
was in Washington and active in influencing members of Congress in 
its favor. Some of the amendments to its provisions in the Senate 
were introduced at his personal suggestion. 

The Rev. Amos Brown, LL. D. , was born in Kensington, New Hamp- 
shire, on March 4, 1804. His early boyhood was spent on a farm, and 
his earliest educational privileges were limited to the advantages 
afforded by the district schools of New England. He prepared for 
college in the Academy at Hampton, New Hampshire, where his orig- 
inal purpose to study medicine was changed, and he entered Dartmouth 
College in 1829, with the purpose of becoming a student of theology. 
During his academic and collegiate course he supported himself by 
teaching. After graduating from college, he entered Andover Theo- 
logical Seminary. His course in the Theological Seminary was inter- 
rupted by an absence of one year, in which he acted as the principal of 
the academy in Fryeburg, Maine. After leaving Andover, he became 
principal of the Gorham Academy and Teachers' Seminary, where he 
remained for twelve years. Mr. Brown was an educator of great ability 
and power. He gathered the ablest teachers about him, and was one 
of the earliest advocates of coeducation. His ability as an organizer 
was of a high order, and both as a disciplinarian and a teacher he ex- 
erted a powerful influence upon those whom he trained. His personal 
instruction was mainly in mental science, and with it he discussed 
theories of instruction and the principles of intellectual growth. The 
reputation of his school was so great that it attracted pupils from other 
States, and the Hon. Horace Mann, who visited the Gorham Academy 
in order to study the theories and methods which were employed there, 
often spoke of Dr. Brown as one of the ablest teachers of New Eng- 
land, saying that he would make the best college president of all 
whom he knew. Later he resigned his position in order to enter the 
ministry, for which he had prepared, and became pastor of a Congre- 
gational church in Machias, Maine; but so strong was his passion for 
his favorite pursuit of teaching, that after three years' service in Machias 
he assumed charge of the academy in Ovid, New York. Here his 
former success was repeated. The Seneca Collegiate Institute became 
one of the most prominent schools of this State, and some of the most 


eminent scholars of the country felt the influence of Dr. Brown's in- 
spiring personality, among them President W. W. Folwell, of the 
University of Minnesota; Professor J. L. Morris, of Cornell Univ^ersity; 
Professor T. L. Lounsbury, of Yale, one of our ablest scholars in Eng- 
lish literatnre, and known especially for his brilliant studies in 
Chaucer; also Professor B; Joy, of Columbia College. Mr. Brown 
instituted public lectures in order to awaken an interest in scientific 
farming in the agricultural community around, and in this manner his 
attention was first called to the need of a State agricultural college. 

The Rev. Amos Brown was influential in securing the charter for the 
State Agricultural College and in locating the same in Ovid. He also 
originated the plan of asking from the State the loan of $40,000, with- 
out interest, from the United States deposit fund. His remarkable 
ability in influencing men is shown by his success in inducing the leg- 
islators to grant this gift to the Agricultural College. Dr. Brown was 
one of its trustees, but he was not, as was anticipated, made its presi- 
dent. About this time the trustees of the People's College in Havana 
sought to perfect its organization, and on August 13, 1857, Mr. Brown 
was elected president of that institution. It is noticeable that, while he 
shared the plans and purposes of the new college, he desired to give a 
broader scope to its curriculum ; and in his inaugural he stated that its 
object would be to promote literature, science, arts and agriculture. 
Agriculture, and various branches of manufactures and the mechanic 
arts, were to be systematically studied within the college as a part of 
its regular course. He was more and more impressed with the impor- 
tance of practical and scientific education, and with the conviction that 
such education must be supported by the national government, an 
appropriation of public lands naturally suggested itself to his mind 
as a practical and constitutional method of bestowing such aid. 

Soon after the introduction of the Morrill Bill, Dr. Brown was 
requested by the trustees of the People's College to go to Washington 
and labor to promote its pa.ssage. The debt which the country owes to 
Dr. Brown for promoting the noblest grant for popular education 
which the world has known, may be estimated by the deliberate judg- 
ment of the value of his services expressed by those who were most 
intimately indentified with the passage of this measure in Congress. 
Senator William Pitt Fessenden, of Maine, wrote: " Mr. Brown, as I be- 
lieve, was not only father of the bill, but to his persistent, efficient and 
untiring efforts its success was mainly due. I have no hesitation in say- 


ing that but for him it would have failed, in my judgment, altogether." 
Senator Morgan, of New York, stated: "The first man who suggested 
to me the passage of the bill was yourself; and from my own knowledge 
the first bill passed, which was vetoed by Mr. Buchanan, would not have 
had the remotest chance in either house of Congress without your inter- 
est, labor and most efficient efforts. " Senator Harris, of New York, also 
said: "The agricultural interests of the country are indebted to him 
more than to any one. indeed every one else, for the passage of the law 
devoting public lands to agricultural colleges." Senator Clark, of New 
Hampshire, wrote: " It might have passed- without you, and I cannot 
say that it would not; but sure I am no one was so active or efficient as 
you in removing obstacles to it or securing it friends." 

Senator Wade, of Ohio, who took charge of the passage of this law in 
the United States Senate, in speaking of the influence of the People's 
College in the passage of that law, wrote: " Having taken a deep inter- 
est in that measure, I ought to be qualified to speak with confidence on 
the subject, and I do not hesitate to say that, had it not been for the 
exertions of that institution, I do not believe the measure could have 
received the sanction of Congress. Great credit is due to the exertions 
of the Honorable Mr. Morrill of the House for his unwearied labors in 
its behalf; yet I always believed, and still believe, that had it not been 
for the able, energetic and unwearied exertions of the Rev. Amos 
Brown, president of the People's College, it would never have become 
a law. It encountered great opposition in some quarters on account of 
its supposed antagonism to the Homestead Bill, and much also from 
the mere indifference of members who did .not take interest enough in 
the measure to give it a thorough investigation — more still from sev- 
eral members from the land States, who feared its passage would con- 
flict with the rapid settlement of their States. All these difficulties, 
however, were overcome by the intelligent and persevering labors of 
Mr. Brown, whom I consider really the father of the measure and whose 
advice I believe entitled to more weight in carrying the law into execu- 
tion than that of almost any other man." 






Two colleges prececled the foundation of Cornell University, which 
exercised an immediate influence upon its history and determined in. 
part the form which it assumed. The one most nearly i-elated to it 
was the Piioi'Lii's Coi-LiiGn, situated in Havana, N. Y. The foundation 
of this College is due, pre-eminently, to the enthusiasm and labors of 
one man, Mr. Henry Howard, afterward a resident of Ithaca; and espe- 
cially to his labors in connection with an organization called the Me- 
chanics' Mutual Protection, which had numerous affiliated societies 
throughout the State of New York. , This society arose in that unsettled 
period which followed the panic of 1837. This was the era of the rise 
of corporations with a maximum of wealth and a minimum of respon- 
sibility. A spirit of wild speculation pervaded the country. The pub- 
lic lands, one source of the national revenue, were sold and paid for in 
depreciated local currency. Banks were even organized whose sole 
object was to issue money to acquire possession of such lands. The 
removal of the United States deposit fund from the various State banks 
in which it had been placed, and its distribution among the States, de- 
prived these banks of funds which had furnished their capital, and upon 
which their prosperity rested. Financial distress followed immediately. 
Banks throughout the country failed ; manufactories were closed and 
laborers deprived of means of support, or were paid in depreciated cur- 
rency. The nation seemed on the verge of financial ];uin. A wild panic 
spread throughout the country. Bread riots broke out in the metropolis, 
and agitators fanned the excitement of the oppressed and suffering 
people. A special session of Congress was called to take measures to 
avert national bankruptcy and to relieve popular distress. The relations 
of labor to capital became subjects of earnest and often excited discus- 
sion. At this time a convention of mechanics was called to meet in the 
city of Buffalo, and an organization was formed called the Mechanics' 
Mutual Protection (July 13, 1813). Its object was a noble one. It 
sought to diffuse a more general knowledge of the scientific principles 
governing mechanics and the arts, and to elevate workmen, by making 


them independent, and increasing their proficiency in their several call- 
ings, by rendering to each other counsel and mutual assistance, which 
would elevate the life of the mechanic, and protect them from the en- 
croachments of wealth and power, which might combine against them, 
and to enable them to secure remunerative wages, and above all to 
awaken a common interest in their profession. 

In the winter of 1848 three men met at the house of Mr. Howard, in 
Lockport, to discuss plans for a technical school, which, if approved, 
were to be presented to the society of their order in Lockport. These 
men were Henry Howard, D. H. Burtis, J. P. Murphy and R. P. But- 
rick. The Hon. Washington Hunt, at that time comptroller of the State 
and afterward governor, approved of the plan. The address which Mr. 
Howard prepared embodied a history of efforts to establish agricultural 
and technical schools in Europe and in the various States of this 
country, and also the results of manual labor schools in Switzerland 
and other countries of Europe. During the years 1848 and 1849, 
Mr. Howard, although called a visionary, delivered this address before 
various associations of the Mutual Protection. The purpose to found 
such an institution met the views of the most thoughtful members of 
the local society, and the address was published and distributed among 
the lodges, "Protections, "throughout the State, about seventy in num- 

Mr. Horace Greeley, with his large interest in whatever concerned 
the welfare of humanity, published an editorial in the Tribune in June, 
1850, warmly advocating the project of founding a State college of 
practical science ; and proposed, first, that the college should embrace 
instruction in agriculture as well as in mechanics, and that the farmers 
should be invited to co-operate in founding it ; that it should be erected 
on a square mile of land, which should contain a model farm and nur- 
sery; that all students should attend the lectures on mechanical and 
agricultural subjects, and labor in the field in the brightest and best 
farming weather, and in the mechanical department in sour and in- 
clement weather. Mr. Greeley believed that an education should 
not be a gift of charity, but that the futiire mechanics and artisans 
of our State would prefer to win it by labor. He proposed that 
the institution should be founded by a stock company, with a cap- 
ital of $200,000, and that each contributor should be paid five per 
cent, interest upon his stock. Subscribers should have the right 
to designate a pupil for the university, but the pupil should pay his 


own expenses. Mr. Greeley thought that the pupil conld earn his ex- 
penses within fifty dollars the first year; that he could earn his entire 
expenses the second year; fifty dollars more than his expenses the 
third, and seventy-five dollars more than his expenses the fourth year; 
and that he would thus be gradually equipped for work with ample 
knowledge, by his own efforts. 

Mr. Greeley believed that the cost of establishing a complete univer- 
sity would amount to $100,000, and stated that he knew where $1,000 of 
that sum could be obtained. Even supposing that the university should 
ultimately cost $200,000, he believed that it could provide board and 
instruction for 1,000 boys, who would earn an interest of five per cent, 
on the capital ; or, in other words, that the labor of each student, apart 
from the cost of his education, would amount to ten dollars a year. 
The citizen who subscribed $1,000 should be entitled to designate one 
pupil for the university; subscribers of less amounts might associate, 
and their joint contributions amounting to $1,000 would authorize them 
to nominate a pupil. 

The labor question was at this time paramount, and the influence of 
a society like this mechanics' organization was able to exercise a power- 
ful influence in any election. 

On August 15, 1851, a company of seventeen men met in Lockport 
in the hall of the Mechanics' Mutual Protection, No, 1, and formed an 
organization to promote a mechanical college. They elected many of 
the most prominent men of the State as members. Among the names 
which appear in their records at this time are those of William H. 
Seward, Martin Van Buren, Sanford E. Church, afterwards chief judge 
of the State of New York, Erastus Corning, Thurlow Weed and Gen- 
eral James F. Wadsworth. A week later Horace Greeley was elected 
a member, and from this time his active participation in foimding the 
People's College, and his later connection with Cornell University, 

The first officers of the association were Samuel Wright, president; 
Joel Cranson, vice-president; Harrison Howard, secretary; James P.. 
Murphy, treasurer. This organization proposed to make its power felt 
in the choice of candidates for the Legislature and State officers. 
With this purpose, letters were sent to candidates of both parties, 
inquiring as to their attitude toward the proposed college. Before 
the election of Washington Hunt as governor, Mr. Ho^yard wrote 
to him asking him if he would recommend Ihe college to the State 


in his inaugural message. Mr. Hunt stated that he .had already, 
in a letter to the president of the American Institute, expressed him- 
self in favor of a mechanical school, such as was proposed, and 
added, "Whether in or out of office, I shall go with you and your 
friends in establishing such an institution and securing for it, not only 
a charter, but its full share in any bounty of the Slate. There is no 
doubt but that the State will endow an agricultural college. Why 
should not the mechanical interests be placed on the same footing? My 
impressions are in favor of one institution divided into two departments, 
one agricultural, the other mechanical. I made out a statement recently 
for some friends in New York, showing what the State had expended 
for colleges, while nothing had been done for the men who toil in farm- 
ing or mechanical pursuits. I wish to see these pursuits made intel- 
lectual as they should be." 

As Governor Hunt was elected by a majority of only 262, it is 
reasonable to suppose that the mechanical organizations throughout the 
State (seventy in number), which united to support his candidacy, con- 
tributed to determine his election. Similarly, when the Hon. Horatio 
Seymour was a candidate for governor in 1852, an inquiry was addressed 
to him as to whether he would favor the new college. While prudently 
refraining from entering into any engagement which would limit his 
action thereafter, his attitude was known to be favorable to an enter- 
prise in which so much public interest had been aroused, and he com- 
mended the subject of such a college to the favorable consideration of 
tlie legislature, in his first message. 

An important meeting of the People's College Association, as it was 
now called, was held in Rochester, Thursday, August 20, 1851, when 
resolutions were passed setting forth the need of an institution of this 
kind, and emphasizing the fact that education, to be universal, must be 
practical ; that the security and power of the State rest upon the in- 
telligence and virtue of the people ; and that no free community can 
suffer any portion of its youth to grow up in ignorance without damage 
to its vital interests and peril to its liberties. Among other resolutions 
it was 

Resolved, That education, to be universal, must be eminently and thoroughly 
practical, must be adapted to the wants morally, intellectually andphysically, of indi- 
viduals, in every sphere of life; and that the only rational hope of interest in the 
great majority for higher education, capable of inducing them to make sacrifices for 
its acquirements, must be based on its adaptation to the needs of industry and the 
uses of every day life. 


Resolved, That while many departments of professional life would seem to be 
crowded with aspirants for employment and success therein, there is a manifest and 
deplorable deficiency of scientific and thorougly qualified farmers, architects, miners, 
etc., who should bring the great truths of geology, chemistry, mechanics, etc., to 
bear intimately and beneficially on all the operations of productive labor, thereby 
increasing its efficiency and its fruitfulness, and we look to an improved system of 
c )llegiate education for the necessary and proper corrective. 

Jidsolved, That the current system of education is unjust to woman in its higher 
departments, excluding her from advantages and opportunities which are provided 
at the common cost for men alone, and we regard the arbitrary separation of the 
sexes in the pursuit of knowledge as conducive neither to propriety of manners nor 
purity of heart ; and while we recognize the truth that Nature has indicated for the 
two sexes diverse aptitudes and duties, we insist that woman, like man, shall be left 
free to acquire such an education and pursue such occupations as her own sense of 
fitness and propriety shall dictate. 

It was further resolved that, as all are commanded to work, and no 
one can be sure of passing througfh life exempt from the physical neces- 
sity of laboring with the